Salvia hispanica / Chia
Chia of Salvia hispanica is afkomstig uit Midden-Amerika, voornamelijk uit Mexico. Reeds 3500 jaar voor Christus, blijkt uit archeologisch onderzoek, werd chia door de mens als voedsel gebruikt. Tot aan de komst van de Spanjaarden was chia mogelijk het belangrijkste voedsel van de Azteken. Van het geroosterd en gemalen zaad vermengd met water werden koeken gebakken. De teelt was toendertijd mogelijk belangrijker dan mais. Het zaad zou zelfs een betaalmiddel geweest zijn.
Salvia columbariae is an annual plant of the Lamiaceae family. It is commonly called chia or golden chia because its seeds are used in the same manner as Salvia hispanica (chia). It grows in California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico and Baja California and was formerly an important food for Native Americans
Chiazaad is een zeer rijke bron van omega 3 vetzuren en vezels. Elke portie (12 gram of ongeveer 1 volle eetlepel) van deze zaadjes bevat meer dan 2400 mg Omega 3 vetzuren, meer dan 4.500 mg voedingsvezels. Chiazaden bevatten zes keer meer calcium dan volle melk, drie keer meer ijzer dan spinazie, en vijftien keer meer magnesium dan broccoli. Ze bevatten geen transvetten, zijn glutenvrij, hebben bijna geen koolhydraten. Kijk hier voor 'n overzicht van de voedingswaarden.
Je hoort het al, we hebben weer een nieuw, oud wondermiddel ontdekt. Dat het gezond is wil ik wel aannemen, maar zijn we weer niet aan het overdrijven. Toch hier een opsomming van de mogelijke gezondheidswerkingen van Chiazaad.
BETERE STOELGANGDe Chiazaadjes nemen ongeveer 10 keer hun gewicht op aan water. Samen met het enorm hooggehalte aan vezels zorgt de inname van een of twee volle eetlepel Chiazaadjes per dag voor een regelmatige stoelgang. Ideaal voor mensen die last hebben van een wisselende en /of moeizame ontlasting. Het is dus een echte slijmstofplant te vergelijken met lijnzaad.MINDER BOTONTKALKINGChiazaadjes bevatten zes keer meer calcium dan melk. Ook bevatten ze veel magnesium. De gunstige verhouding kalk - magnesium zorgt voor een goed opname van calcium uit de darm. wat gunstig is voor de botten.Chiazaadjes zijn een rijke bron van de mineralen fosfor, borium, magnesium en ijzer als vitamine A, C en D wat bijdraagt aan de opname en benutting van calcium door het lichaam. BETERE WERKING HERSENEN
Onderzoek laat zien dat Omega 3's zeer belangrijk zijn voor de functie van de hersencellen. Zowel bij volwassen , kinderen als bij ongeboren babies laat onderzoek zien dat een adequate inname van omega 3 vetzuren een verbetering geeft van de werking van hersencellen. Mensen met depressie , ADHD of concentratie stoornissen ervaren minderklachten na een hoge inname van omega 3 vetzuren.
GOED VOOR ZWANGEREN EN BABIES
Bij de aanleg van hersenen zijn heel veel omega 3’s nodig . Als de inname van omega-3’s in de voeding van moeder minimaal is, zal het lichaam de omega 3 vetzuren uit moeder gebruiken om te zorgen dat de aanmaak van hersenweefsel in de baby kan doorgaan. Dit levert een extra tekort op van omega 3’s in de moeder wat een verhoogde kans geeft op een depressie.
Daarnaast bevatten Chia zaadjes alle essentiële aminozuren, fytonutriënten, vitaminen, mineralen en foliumzuur.
Chiazaadjes zitten zo vol met nodige bouwstoffen zoals eiwitten, aminozuren, omega 3 vetten, mineralen en vezels en nemen zoveel water op dat het gebruik van Chiazaadjes in je voeding sneller zorgt voor een voldaan gevoel. Een shake met wat Chiazaadjes erin geeft voor uren een vol gevoel en veel energie en kan bijdragen aan een prettige manier van gezond afslanken.
When soaked in water, the seeds form a gelatinous mass which is flavoured with fruit juices and consumed as a cooling drink[183, 200]. The gelled seeds can also be prepared as a gruel or pudding. The sprouted seeds are eaten in salads, sandwiches, soups, stews etc. Due to their mucilaginous property they are often sprouted on clay or other porous materials. The seed can be ground into a meal and made into bread, biscuits, cakes etc, usually in a mix with cereal flours. The seed is a good source of protein and easily digested fats.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/5955t3g65143l442/ Salvia hispanica L, was an important staple Mesoamerican food and medicinal plant in pre-Columbian times. Unlike other Mesoamerican pseudocereal crops such asAmaranthus andChenopodium, it has received comparatively little research attention. An ethnobotanical review of this Mesoamerican crop plantSalvia hispanica has been undertaken to examine changes in use accompanying Spanish colonization. A comparative analysis of accounts of use from the 16th century codices of Mexico and subsequent publications has revealed subtle changes in medicinal, culinary, artistic, and religious uses. Several hypotheses surrounding changes in use through time and the original use(s) that led to domestication are developed and tested through collection of ethnobotanical data in the highlands of western Mexico and Guatemala. A general decline in ethnobotanical knowledge associated with wild populations coupled with a loss of habitat in some locations has degraded important germplasm and knowledge resources for a species with great economic potential.
Chia is promoted for its high omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 content. Animal studies suggest that chia may lower blood cholesterol, LDL (low density lipoproteins or "bad" cholesterol), and triglycerides while increasing HDL (high density lipoproteins or "good" cholesterol). Chia may also have anti-cancer activity. Studies in humans are limited.
Wat wetenschappelijk onderzoek
Ayerza R, Coates W, Lauria M. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) as an omega-3 fatty acid source for broilers: influence on fatty acid composition, cholesterol and fat content of white and dark meats, growth performance, and sensory characteristics. Poult Sci 2002;81(6):826-837. View Abstract
Ayerza R Jr, Coates W. Effect of dietary alpha-linolenic fatty acid derived from chia when fed as ground seed, whole seed and oil on lipid content and fatty acid composition of rat plasma. Ann Nutr Metab 2007;51(1):27-34. View Abstract
Espada CE, Berra MA, Martinez MJ, et al. Effect of Chia oil (Salvia Hispanica) rich in omega-3 fatty acids on the eicosanoid release, apoptosis and T-lymphocyte tumor infiltration in a murine mammary gland adenocarcinoma. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2007;77(1):21-28.View Abstract
Ulbricht C et al (2009). Chia (Salvia hispanica): a systematic review by the natural standard research collaboration. Rev Recent Clin Trials 4 (3): 168–74.
Anderson William, Chia Seed - The ancient food of the future, www.living-foods.com/articles/chia.html
Apples Annie (2004), The chia revival, The Natural Product News, Vol3, no1
Ayerza R. et al. (2002), Chia seed as an w-3 fatty acid source for broilers, Poultry Science Vol 81, 826-837.
Ayerza R., Chia as an omega-3 fatty acid source for human and animal consumption, The University of Arizona.
Brown J.H. The rediscovery of chia, A nutricious grain of Mesoamerica, www.theomegatree.com/page2.htm
Chail J.P. (2003), Ethnobotany of chia, Salvia hispanic L., Econ. Bot. Vol 5, 604-618
ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR NOVEL FOODS AND PROCESSES OPINION ON AN APPLICATION UNDER THE NOVEL FOODS REGULATION FOR
CHIA (Salvia hispanica L) http://www.food.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/ChiaIO.pdf
Applicant Robert Craig and Sons
Responsible Person David Armstrong
EC Classification 2.2
1. An application was submitted by R Craig & Sons [M] Ltd. to the UK Competent Authority for authorisation of whole Chia (Salvia hispanica L) seed and groundwhole Chia as a novel food ingredient in soft grain bread.
2. Chia (Salvia hispanica L) is a summer annual herbaceous plant belonging to the mint family (Labiatae). The seed of the Chia plant has a long history of
consumption in South America and was a major part of the diet in pre-Columbian civilisations, mainly in the Aztec population. If approved in Europe, Chia seeds would provide consumers with an alternative source of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid. A number of studies carried out by one South American company suggest that incorporating Chia seeds into hens’ diets results in eggs with an increased content of n-3 fatty acids, thereby providing another potential source of these fatty acids in the diet.
3. The applicant will import whole Chia seeds that are mechanically harvested from conventionally-grown crops in two locations: Peru and Argentina. The whole ground Chia to be marketed in the EU will be produced in the UK by milling the
imported whole seeds.
I. Specification of the novel food
4. Chia (Salvia hispanica L) is a summer annual herbaceous plant belonging to the
5. Detailed compositional analyses of Chia seed are given in the application dossier
for these analyses the applicant has tested four samples from four consignments
of Chia from Peru, for proximate analysis, fatty acid composition and heavy metal
content. Whilst details of the methods employed in the proximate analysis and
heavy metal analysis are not given, fatty acid profiling was carried out to
accredited procedures. Mineral, vitamin and carbohydrate analyses were also
carried out on seed in Argentina. Although details of the methods of analysis ar
not given, the applicant states that the analytical laboratory in Buenos Aires which
carried out the analyses is a member of the Union of International Independent
Laboratories and is approved by the UK Grain and Feed Trade Association to
issue certificates of analysis for feed ingredients.
Discussion The Committee was satisfied with the specification of the Novel Food.
II. Effect of the production process applied to the novel food
6. Whole Chia seeds are not processed in any way prior to their use as a food
ingredient. The seeds are grown in Argentina and Peru under contract for the
applicant who states that agronomic practices will be carried out to fully comply
with EC legislation. Details of the cultivation conditions are given in the
7. Post-harvest, the seed is cleaned mechanically and not subjected to any chemical
treatments. The seed is stored in sacks within a fully enclosed warehouse facility
in preparation for shipment. Although the information on the storage and transport
conditions is limited, following a request from the Committee concerning proposed
conditions of handling, storage and shipment, the applicant submitted a proposed
HACCP procedure the use of which would minimise batch to batch variation. The
seeds are monitored during transport and storage whilst the proposed HACCP
plan describes measures to be put in place to control temperature and humidity
during storage and transport. The applicant has also provided data in respect of
potential microbial contamination of Chia seed.
Discussion The Committee was satisfied that the proposed method of production
is controlled, and that the in-transport and in-process monitoring steps are
appropriate to ensure a safe and consistent product. The Committee accepted the
proposed HACCP procedures offered sufficient reassurance that the applicant
would be able to ensure the quality of the product.
III. History of the organism used as a source of the novel food
8. Chia (Salvia hispanica L) seeds have a history of use as a food and a medicine,
mainly by the Aztecs up until colonisation by the Europeans. Historically, Chia
seeds were roasted and ground to form a meal called ‘pinole’, then mixed with
water to form a porridge or made into cakes. Although grown only on a very small
scale, and with rudimentary technological methods, Mexican Indian descendants
are still producing this grain. Chia seeds are also used in a Mexican beverage
‘chia fresca’ in which the seeds are soaked in water and then flavoured with fruit
juice and consumed as a drink.
9. An extensive research and development programme on Chia has been
undertaken in South America to determine the feasibility of growing this crop on a
commercial scale. This has resulted in the development of new production areas3
and methods. Chia crops have been bred conventionally in South America and
have not undergone genetic modification.
Discussion The Committee noted that there was limited evidence of recent food
use for this product.
IX. Anticipated intake/extent of use of the novel food
10.If approved, the applicant’s proposed use of Chia is for inclusion of the whole and
ground seed as ingredients in soft grain bread. Based on data from the UK
National Diet and Nutrition Survey of Adults Aged 19-64 years (2002), the
applicant has estimated the amount of the novel ingredient that will be consumed
11.Pilot studies conducted by the applicant have determined that the level of Chia
seeds or whole ground Chia included in the soft grain bread mix shall be 5%. On
this basis, daily Chia consumption figures, calculated for British adults would give
a mean intake of 2.1g/person/day. High level consumers could consume up to 12.9g/day (97.5th percentile; adult males).
12.In the UK, soft grain bread includes brands that are directly marketed for
consumption by children. The applicant did not included estimates of Chia intake
for different age groups, but the Food Standards Agency additionally provided
estimates based on food consumption data from Diet and Nutrition Surveys of
different age groups in Britain.
Discussion As the proposed range of foods was narrow the Committee was content that the intended use of the product did not give any cause for concern, based on the scientific information currently available.
X. Nutritional information on the novel food
13.Chia seeds have an oil content of approximately 32%, which is rich in alphalinolenic acid (approximately 60%). Seeds are also high in protein (21%), are a rich source of vitamins B, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc and copper.
14.The UK Committee on Medical Aspects of Food and Nutrition Policy (COMA)
recommended in 1994 that individuals should increase their intake of n-3 fatty4
acids since raised intakes are associated with reduced risks of coronary heart
disease. The main sources of n-3 fatty acids in the Western diet are oily fish,
green vegetables and certain vegetable oils.
15.Alpha-linolenic acid is a significant contributor to the intake of n-3 polyunsaturated
fatty acids (PUFA) and can be elongated and desaturated in vivo to its long-chain
derivatives, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).
However, in man the extent and regulation of this conversion is unclear1
16.Chia seed contains natural antioxidants (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and
flavanol glycosides) which confer a distinct technological advantage over
alternative alpha-linolenic acid sources such as flaxseed, in terms of product
stability and flavour quality.
17.Since Chia is intended to be used as a nutritional ingredient, any claims made on
the food due to the inclusion of the seed or milled whole seed must comply with
the general criteria for making nutrient content claims. Final products will need to
be labelled with the ingredient name and the prescribed nutritional labelling
according to Directive (79/112/EEC as amended).
Discussion The Committee did not raise any concerns regarding the nutritional
properties of the novel food.
XII. Microbiological information on the novel food
18.Samples were taken from four consignments of Chia seeds for microbiological
analysis. No pathogenic organisms were detected. No substances inhibitory to
BHK21 (C-13) cells were detected in a cytotoxicity assay.
19.No mycotoxins were detected in the screen carried out on a composite sample
from the four Chia consignments (the applicant describes this analysis under
The Committee were content with the microbiological information
supplied, but requested further information on the control of storage and transport,
which would minimise the potential for foodborne spoilage microorganisms to
develop. The applicant was able to supply this information and the Committee
agreed that the proposed HACCP schema described sufficient measures that
would control and monitor levels of moisture within the seeds during bulk storage
In 2002, the Food Standards Agency convened a group of expert scientists to review current
research investigating whether n-3 PUFA from plant oils (alpha-linolenic acid) were as beneficial to
cardiovascular health as the n-3 PUFA from marine oils (EPA and DHA). The group concluded that
dietary intake of ALNA has been associated with a beneficial effect on coronary heart disease;
however, the results from studies investigating the effects of ALNA supplementation on CHD risk
factors have proved equivocal.5
XIII. Toxicological information on the novel food
20.A number of human clinical studies were carried out to assess the safety of this
product, including an allergenicity study, a 4-week dietary intervention study and a
12-week randomised, single blind crossover feeding trial.
21.The applicant has also provided details of two 8-week trials in laying hens and
one 28-day study in broiler chickens which investigated the effects of Chia on
hens’ egg yolk composition and chicken breast and thigh muscle.
Discussion The Committee was satisfied with the toxicological data supplied by the
22.An investigation into potential allergenicity of Chia was carried out at BIBRA
International Ltd., Surrey, Southampton University and King’s College London.
The study described in the report was carried out to internationally accepted
standards of Good Laboratory Practice but was not subject to any Quality
Assurance inspection programme. The study is summarised below and more
detailed information can be found in the application dossier.
23.No allergy-associated properties of Chia seed have been reported in the literature
to date and no verifiable cases of patients with allergies to common UK food
plants with any botanical relationship to Chia have been found. Chia belongs to
the Labiatae, or Laminiaceae, family. The plants of this family include mint, sage,
thyme, basil, pennyroyal, lavender, lemon balm, bergamot, oregano and savory.
An allergic response to oregano and thyme is cited in the report, however this is
related to the leaf of the plant rather than the seed. Consequently the
investigation was targeted at the peanut and tree nut allergens as the most likely
source of cross-reactivity.
24.An initial IgE binding screen was carried out against a panel of 30 individuals by
Multiple Allergy Screening Test (MAST), selected on the basis of their reactivity to
peanut. Sera from peanut allergic subjects showed low levels of serological
binding to Chia protein in immunoblots, although this binding varied considerably
between different serum samples. Inhibition studies indicated that IgE binding to
Chia was specific. However, it was considered that the binding of IgE to Chia
protein did not necessarily imply that there would be coincidental clinical reaction
25.IgE binding of Chia was further analysed using sera from five double-blind
placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) peanut sensitive individuals. None
of these individuals were reported to have allergy to sesame seeds although one
had sensitivity to mustard. Immunoblotting demonstrated some IgE binding in
these sera, however this was concluded to be non-specific in nature. Furthermore6
the applicant has suggested that Chia proteins may be highly glycosylated which
could affect cross-reactivity.
26.Resistance to proteolytic digestion was investigated in Chia protein extracts using
methodology based upon the recommendations of the 2001 Joint FAO/WHO
expert consultation on foods derived from biotechnology. Immunoblot analysis
demonstrated that all the Chia proteins were sensitive to peptic digestion with the
exception of a 14kD band and protein bands below 6kD. The investigator
suggests the 14kD band is non-specific cross-reactivity since this band was
detected in the negative control serum.
27.Skin prick tests (SPT) were carried out on 12 individuals, selected because of
sensitivity to peanut and tree nuts, to determine the clinical relevance of IgE
binding activity observed in immunoblotting experiments. Two subjects gave
positive SPT responses to Chia which were below the level of the histamine
positive control challenge and therefore were considered of doubtful clinical
significance. Both subjects were at the most broadly allergic end of the spectrum
of sensitivities and both demonstrated sensitisation to sesame. Subsequent
immunoblotting revealed a band that could represent an authentic IgE binding
protein. This protein was shown to be susceptible to proteolytic digestion. The
investigator speculates that this protein is related to sesame and its molecular
weight could indicate it to be a profilin, a group of proteins associated with clinical
Discussion The Committee requested further information regarding the allergenic
potential of the novel food. The applicant recognised the potential for such crossreactivity but was unable to provide the requested data, citing logistic difficulties in assembling the necessary panel of individuals with such allergies. The applicant
proposed instead to control this risk by including a precautionary statement on the
label of chia-containing foods, informing consumers that the product was not
suitable for people suffering from sesame and mustard seed allergies. The
applicant also pointed out that chia will be used in softgrain bread products which
often contain other ingredients which make them unsuitable for this group of
The Committee was disappointed that the applicant was unwilling to conduct
additional allergy studies, but accepted that this approach would control the risk
associated with cross-reactivity, although was concerned that the use of
precautionary labelling might unnecessarily restrict the range of products
available to allergic consumers.
Human clinical trials
28.The effects of dietary intervention with Chia on selected markers of coagulation
and immune function were investigated in humans. The 4-week placebocontrolled dietary intervention study with Chia was carried out in 100 healthy male and female subjects (21-65yr) at the University of Ulster, Northern Ireland. The
full study report can be found in the application dossier. Subjects were then
randomly allocated to one of four intervention groups and Chia supplements were7
included at breakfast. Chia intake was 2.5g (n=25), 5g (n=25) or 10g (n=20) per
day for 4 weeks. The control group (n=25) received 4g of sunflower seeds per
day. Fasting blood samples were taken before and after the intervention period
and were assessed for haematological parameters, plasma lipid profiles and
lymphocyte subset typing. Additionally, full anthropometric data, a lifestyle and
food questionnaire and a questionnaire monitoring any possible adverse effects of
the novel food were administered to each subject.
29.Dose response effects of Chia were statistically analysed. Differences between
groups were compared using one-way ANOVA, and differences within groups
were compared using the paired t-test. According to the investigator, no
significant health-related effects associated with consumption of high levels (10g)
of Chia seed were detected. However, analysis of the adverse effects
questionnaire revealed a significant effect of consumption of 5g per day on
tiredness and fatigue. The study investigators concluded this to be an anomalous
result since it was a single effect that was not dose-related. Consequently, no
significant adverse effects on human health or well-being were seen after
consumption of Chia, even at levels exceeding the anticipated mean daily intake.
30.The applicant also describes a human feeding trial carried out at the University of
Toronto, Canada, on subjects with type-2 diabetes, investigating the effects of
Chia on measures of glycaemic control and traditional and non-traditional risk
factors of cardiovascular disease. A randomised single blind crossover trial using
20 subjects with type-2 diabetes was carried out for 12 weeks with individuals
consuming 25g Chia/1000kcals. Fasting blood samples and blood pressure
measurements were taken at 0 and 12 weeks.
31.The results suggested that when used as a food supplement, the consumption of
Chia significantly lowered systolic blood pressure compared to controls and
favourably altered coagulation factors. No adverse effects were reported including
no change in bleeding times, liver function or kidney parameters and no adverse
effects on glycaemic control.
Laying hen and broiler chicken trials
32.The applicant presents three studies carried out at Queens University, Belfast, in
laying hens and broilers, to assess the nutritional and compositional effects on
foods produced from animals fed a diet enriched with Chia. These tests do not
examine toxicological endpoints.
33.Two laying hen trials investigated the effects of Chia on hens’ egg yolk
composition by manipulating the feed. The main aim of the first study was to alter
the fatty acid composition of the egg yolk by manipulating the hen’s diet. The diets
were carefully formulated to be isoenergetic and were supplemented with either
1.5% soya oil, 1.5% fish oil or 14% whole Chia seed. No adverse effects were
observed, but again no specific toxicity tests were carried out.8
Evaluation of n-3 enriched eggs in humans
34.This trial, carried out at the Northern Ireland Centre for Diet and Health at the
University of Ulster, was intended to evaluate the bioavailability in humans of n-3
fatty acids in eggs produced by hens fed a modified diet supplemented with Chia.
This study is not relevant to the assessment of Chia as an ingredient in food.
Additional information relevant to the application
p28 of the application dossier
35.The applicant has included information on the regulatory status of Chia seed as a
food in the USA and Canada. Chia seed is considered to be exempt from premarket regulatory evaluation in the USA and pre-market notification as a novel food in Canada. This regulatory information does not affect the evaluation of the current application since novel foods undergo a different regulatory process in the European Union.
36.The applicant has provided sufficient information of the proposed specification,
intended use and microbiological safety measures, and indicated that on the
basis of four samples analysed from four separate batches of seed, these criteria
do not give rise to concern. The Committee noted that given the large transport
distances involved and the nature of the product, a key element in preventing any
undesirable substances from contaminating this product is adherence to the
proposed HACCP procedure as described by the applicant.
37.With regard to the concerns about potential allergenicity, the applicant has
indicated that they are unable to proceed with the additional studies that would
offer further information regarding the allergenic potential of the seed. The
Committee agreed with the applicant that mandatory product labelling, and the
limited proposed use of the novel food would not present undue risk to the
consumer. However, the Committee was in agreement that labelling on the basis
that all individuals who have previously demonstrated symptoms of allergy when
consuming other seed based products should not consume this product,
restricted the choice of such individuals and could not be endorsed.
38.In addition, although the proposed labelling regime could be viewed as adequate
to protect the consumer from potential harm when consuming this novel food, the
Committee was cautious about agreeing to this approach particularly when the
studies requested would better inform the public of the extent of the allergenic
potential of the novel food.
The Committee is satisfied that in accordance with the criteria defined in Article 3(1)
of Regulation (EC) 258/97, the evidence provided by the applicant demonstrates that
the consumption of this product is not dangerous, misleading, or nutritionally
disadvantageous to the consumer. With regard to the applicant’s intention to use
mandatory labelling to advise individuals of the potentially allergic nature of the novel9
food, the Committee wish to note that that as the extent of allergenicity to this product
remains unclear, this approach may be unduly restrictive of consumer choice. This
issue is one of consumer choice and falls outside the scope of the safety criteria
described in the regulation.
The Committee also advises that should this product be authorised then Member
States should write and inform allergy clinics and allergy support groups of the
introduction of this food these groups may then provide a useful source of on
information on the prevalence of chia, and the potential cross-reactivity with existing