Malus species / Appel
De appel is verreweg de belangrijkste fruitsoort van het noordelijke halfrond. Ook wat het aantal rassen betreft staat de appel zeer hoog op de wereldranglijst. Hoe hoog is niet precies bekend. Conservatieve tellingen spreken van ongeveer 6000 rassen, waarvan overigens zeker de helft al lang in vergetelheid is geraakt; andere noemen getallen van 10000 of zelfs 20.000, al lijkt dat laatste cijfer wat aan de fantastische kant. Zeker is wel, dat het aantal rassen gestaag stijgt. Vooral de laatste jaren worden nieuwe rassen niet alleen gewonnen maar na beproeving ook regelmatig op grote oppervlakten aangeplant. Ze danken hun succes meestal aan eigenschappen als een hoge opbrengst, bewaarbaarheid en ook wel een zekere modegevoeligheid. Zo is in het recente verleden de populariteit van groene appels als de ‘Granny Smith’ plotseling toegenomen.Als cultuurvrucht is de appel al heel lang bekend, langer waarschijnlijk dan de peer. Dat valt onder andere af te leiden uit vondsten in Italië en Zwitserland, waar bij prehistorische paalwoningen resten zijn gevonden van gekweekte appels die al zo’n 4500 jaar geleden moeten zijn geteeld. Over de wilde voorouders van de moderne appel bestaat enige onzekerheid. Waarschijnlijk heeft de Europese wilde appel (Malus sylvestris) als stamsoort niet zo’n grote rol gespeeld. Dat is wel het geval met de Astrakanappel (M. prunifolia) uit Siberië en Noord-China en met Malus pumila uit de Kaukasus, waarvan in de Sovjet-Unie nog uitgestrekte wouden voorkomen.
Health benefits of apples: epidemiological evidence
Several studies have specifically linked apple consumption with a reduced risk for cancer, especially lung cancer. In the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study, involving over 77,000 women and 47, 000 men, fruit and vegetable intake was associated with a 21% reduced risk in lung cancer risk in women, but this association was not seen in men . Very few of the individual fruits and vegetables examined had a significant effect on lung cancer risk in women, however apples were one of the individual fruits associated with a decreased risk in lung cancer. Women who consumed at least one serving per day of apples and pears had a reduced risk of lung cancer . Of the men involved, there was no association seen between any individual fruit or vegetable and lung cancer risk.
In a case control study in Hawaii, it was found that apple and onion intake was associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer in both males and females . Smoking history and food intake was assessed for 582 patients with lung cancer and 582 control subjects without lung cancer. There was a 40–50% decreased risk in lung cancer in participants with the highest intake of apples, onions, and white grapefruit when compared to those who consumed the lowest amount of these fruits. The decreased risk in lung cancer was seen in both men and women and in almost all ethnic groups. No associations were seen with red wine, black tea or green tea. Both onions and apples are high in flavonoids, especially quercetin and quercetin conjugates . Le Marchand et al.  found an inverse association between lung cancer and quercetin intake although the trend was not statistically significant. Interestingly, the inverse association seen between apple and onion intake and lung cancer were stronger for squamous cell carcinomas than for adenocarcinomas.
In a Finnish study involving 10,000 men and women and a 24-year follow-up, a strong inverse association was seen between flavonoid intake and lung cancer development . In the sampled population, the mean flavonoid intake was 4.0 mg per day, and 95% of the total flavonoid intake was quercetin. Apples and onions together provided 64% of all flavonoid intake. The reduced risk of lung cancer associated with increased flavonoid consumption was especially strong in younger people and in nonsmokers. Apples were the only specific foods that were inversely related to lung cancer risk. Since apples were the main source of flavonoids in the Finnish population, it was concluded that the flavonoids from apples were most likely responsible for the decreased risk in lung cancer.
The relationship of dietary catechins and epithelial cancer was examined in 728 men (aged 65–84) as part of the Zutphen Elderly Study . Tea, a naturally high source of catechins, contributed 87% of the total catechin intake in this study, while apples contributed 8.0% of catechin consumption. It was found that total catechin and tea consumption did not have an effect on lung cancer, but apple consumption was associated with decreased epithelial lung cancer incidence . This supported the findings of the previous studies discussed, where apples were significantly inversely associated with lung cancer, and may suggest that catechins alone do not play have a effect against lung cancers. Other data from the Zutphen Elderly study showed an inverse association between fruit and vegetable flavonoids and total cancer incidence and tumors of the alimentary and respiratory tract . Again, tea flavonoids were not associated with a decrease in cancer risk.
A reduced risk of cardiovascular disease has been associated with apple consumption. The Women's Health Study surveyed nearly 40,000 women with a 6.9-year follow-up, and examined the association between flavonoids and cardiovascular disease . Women ingesting the highest amounts of flavonoids had a 35% reduction in risk of cardiovascular events. Flavonoid intake was not associated with risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular disease death. Quercetin did not have any association with cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction or stroke. However, both apple intake and broccoli intake were associated with reductions in the risk of both cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular events. Women ingesting apples had a 13–22% decrease in cardiovascular disease risk.
In a Finnish study examining flavonoid intake and coronary mortality, it was found that total flavonoid intake was significantly inversely associated with coronary mortality in women, but not in men . Apple and onion intake was also inversely associated with coronary mortality, especially in women. Data collected from this same cohort study also showed the effect of quercetin and apple intake on cerebrovascular disease . Those who had the highest consumption of apples had a lower risk of thrombotic stroke compared to those who consumed the lowest amounts of apples . Onion intake and quercetin intake were not associated with thrombotic stroke or other cerebrovascular diseases.
Apple and wine consumption was also inversely associated with death from coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women in a study of nearly 35,000 women in Iowa . The intakes of catechin and epicatechin, both constituents of apples, were strongly inversely associated with coronary heart disease death. Although total catechin intake was inversely associated with coronary heart disease mortality, Arts et al (2001) found that tea catechins were not associated with coronary heart disease mortality in postmenopausal women. Apple catechins may be more bioavailable than the catechin and epicatechin gallates commonly found in teas.
The relationship between flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease were also examined as part of the Zutphen Elderly Study . Flavonoid intake was strongly correlated with a decreased mortality from heart disease in elderly men and also negatively correlated with myocardial infarction. Tea was the main source of flavonoids in this study and was also negatively correlated with coronary heart disease. Apple intake contributed to approximately 10% of the total ingested flavonoids and was also associated with a reduced risk of death from coronary heart disease in men, however the relationship was not statistically significant .
Asthma and pulmonary function
Apple consumption has been inversely linked with asthma and has also been positively associated with general pulmonary health. In a recent study involving 1600 adults in Australia, apple and pear intake was associated with a decreased risk of asthma and a decrease in bronchial hypersensitivity, but total fruit and vegetable intake was not associated with asthma risk or severity . Specific antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, retinol, and β-carotene, were not associated with asthma or bronchial hypersensitivity. Previously it had been found that apple intake, as well as selenium intake, was associated with less asthma in adults in the United Kingdom . This study surveyed nearly 600 individuals with asthma and 900 individuals without asthma about their diet and lifestyle. Total fruit and vegetable intake was weakly associated with asthma, and apple intake showed a stronger inverse relationship with asthma. This latter effect was most clear in subjects who consumed at least two apples per week. Onion, tea, and red wine consumption were not related to asthma incidence, suggesting an especially beneficial effect of apple flavonoids. Vitamin C and vitamin E were not correlated with asthma incidence, and carotene intake was weakly, but positively, associated with asthma. Apple intake and orange intake were both associated with a reduced incidence of asthma in the Finnish study involving 10, 000 men and women . Flavonoid intake in general was associated with a lower risk of asthma, and the association was attributed mainly to quercetin, hesperitin, and naringenin. Other fruits and vegetables, such as onions, grapefruit, white cabbage, and juices, were not associated with a decreased risk in asthma.
In a study of over 13,000 adults in the Netherlands, it was found that apples might beneficially affect lung function . Apple and pear intake was positively associated with pulmonary function and negatively associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Catechin intake was also associated with pulmonary function and negatively associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but there was no association between tea, the main source of catechins, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease . A study of approximately 2500 middle aged (45–59 yrs) Welsh men also demonstrated a beneficial effect of apple consumption on lung function . Lung function was measured as forced expiratory volume (FEV) in one second, and was positively correlated with citrus fruit, fruit juice/squash, and apple consumption. However, the association with citrus fruit and fruit juice/squash lost significance after adjustment for smoking. Apple consumption remained positively correlated with lung function after taking into account possible confounders such as smoking, body mass index, social class, and exercise. Participants who consumed five or more apples per week had a significantly greater FEV of 138 mL when compared to those who did not consume apples .
Diabetes and weight loss
Not only may apples help decrease the risk of heart disease, cancer, and asthma, but apple consumption may also be associated with a lower risk for diabetes. In the previously discussed Finnish study of 10,000 people, a reduced risk of Type II diabetes was associated with apple consumption . Higher quercetin intake, a major component of apple peels, was also associated with a decreased risk in type II diabetes. Myrectin and berry intake were also associated with a decreased risk in type II diabetes, but onion, orange, grapefruit and white cabbage intake were not associated with a lowered risk.
Apple and pear intake has also been associated with weight loss in middle aged overweight women in Brazil . Approximately 400 hypercholestemic, but nonsmoking, women were randomized to one of three supplement groups: oat cookies, apples or pears, and each subject consumed one of each supplement three times per day for twelve weeks. The participants who consumed either of the fruits had a significant weight loss after 12 weeks of 1.21 kg, whereas those consuming the oat cookies did not have a significant weight loss. Those consuming fruit also had a significantly lower blood glucose level when compared to those consuming the oat cookies .
Based on these epidemiological studies, it appears that apples may play a large role in reducing the risk of a wide variety of chronic disease and maintaining a healthy lifestyle in general. Of the papers reviewed, apples were most consistently associated with reduced risk of cancer, heart disease, asthma, and type II diabetes when compared to other fruits and vegetables and other sources of flavonoids. Apple consumption was also positively associated with increased lung function and increased weight loss. Partially because of such strong epidemiological evidence supporting the health benefits in apples, there is increasing research using animal and in vitro models that attempts to more clearly explain these health benefits.
Doll R, Peto R: The causes of cancer: quantitative estimates of avoidable risks of cancer in the United States today.
J Natl Cancer Inst 1981, 66:1191-308. PubMed Abstract
Willett W: Diet, nutrition, and avoidable cancer.
Environ Health Perspect 1995, 103:165-170. PubMed Abstract
Woffram S, Block M, Ader P: Quercetin-3-glucoside is transported by the glucose carrier SGLT1 across the brush border membrane of rat small intestines.
J Nutr 2002, 132:630-635. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Finkelstein EA, Fiebelkorn IC, Wang G: National medical spending attributable to overweight and obesity: how much, and who's paying?
Health Aff Millwood 2003, (Suppl W3):219-226.
Block G, Patterson B, Subar A: Fruit, vegetables, and cancer prevention: a review of the epidemiological evidence.
Nutr Cancer 1992, 18:1-29. PubMed Abstract
Malin A, Qi D, Shu X, Gao Y, Friedmann J, Jin F, Zheng W: Intake of fruits and vegetables and selected micronutrients in relation to the risk of breast cancer.
Int J Cancer 2003, 105:413-418. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Joshipura K, Hu F, Manson J, Stampfer M, Rimm E, Speizer F, Colditz G, Ascherio A, Rosner B, Spiegelman D, Willett W: The effect of fruit and vegetable intake on risk of coronary heart disease.
Ann Intern Med 2001, 134:1106-1114. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Woods R, Walters H, Raven J, Wolfe R, Ireland P, Thien F, Abramson M: Food and nutrient intakes and asthma risk in young adults.
Am J Clin Nutr 2003, 78:414-421. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Willett W: Balancing life-style and genomics research for disease prevention.
Science 2002, 296:695-698. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Ames B, Shigenaga M, Hagen T: Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging.
Proc Natl Acad Sci 1993, 90:7915-7922. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Hollman P, Katan M: Absorption, metabolism and health effects of dietary flavonoids in man.
Biomed Pharmacother 1997, 51:305-310. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Liu RH: Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals.
Am J Clin Nutr 2003, 78(3 Suppl):517S-520S. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Vinson J, Su X, Zubik L, Bose P: Phenol antioxidant quantity and quality in foods: fruits.
J Agric Food Chem 2001, 49:5315-5321. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Hertog M, Feskens E, Hollman P, Katan M, Kromhout D: Dietary antioxidant flavonols and risk of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study.Lancet 1993, 342:1007-1111. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Knekt P, Jarvinen R, Seppanen R, Heliovaara M, Teppo L, Pukkala E, Aromaa A: Dietary flavonoids and the risk of lung cancer and other malignant neoplasms. Am J Epidemiol 1997, 146:223-230. PubMed Abstract
Knekt P, Kumpulainen J, Jarvinen R, Rissanen H, Heliovaara M, Reunanen A, Hakulinen T, Aromaa A: Flavonoid intake and risk of chronic diseases.
Am J Clin Nutr 2002, 76:560-568. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Sun J, Chu Y, Wu X, Liu RH: Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common fruits.
J Agric Food Chem 2002, 50:7449-7454. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Feskanich D, Ziegler R, Michaud D, Giovannucci E, Speizer F, WIllett W, Colditz G:Prospective study of fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of lung cancer among men and women.
J Natl Cancer Inst 2000, 92:1812-1823. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Le Marchand L, Murphy S, Hankin J, Wilkens L, Kolonel L: Intake of flavonoids and lung cancer.
J Natl Canc Inst 2000, 92:154-160. Publisher Full Text
Hollman P, Arts I: Flavonols, flavones, and flavanols-nature, occurrence and dietary burden.
J Sci Food Agri 2000, 80:1081-1093. Publisher Full Text
Arts I, Hollman P, Mesquita H, Feskens E, Kromhout D: Dietary catechins and epithelial cancer incidence: the Zutphen Elderly Study.
Int J Cancer 2001, 92:298-302. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Hertog M, Feskens E, Hollman P, Katan M, Kromhout D: Dietary flavonoids and cancer risk in the Zutphen Elderly study.
Nutr Cancer 1994, 22:175-184. PubMed Abstract
Sesso H, Gaziano JM, Liu S, Buring J: Flavonoid intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in women.
Am J Clin Nutr 2003, 77:1400-1408. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Knekt P, Jarvinen R, Hakkinen R, Reunanen A, Maatela J: Flavonoid intake and coronary mortality in Finland: a cohort study.
BMJ 1996, 312:478-481. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Knekt P, Isotupa S, Rissanen H, Heliovaara M, Jarvinen R, Hakkinen R, Aromaa A, Reunanen A: Quercetin intake and the incidence of cerebrovascular disease. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000, 54:415-417. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Arts I, D. J, Harnack L, Gross M, Folsom A: Dietary catechins in relation to coronary heart disease among postmenopausal women.
Epidemiology 2001, 12:668-675. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Shaheen S, Sterne J, Thompson R, Songhurst C, Margetts B, Buerney P: Dietary antioxidants and asthma in adults- population based case-control study.Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001, 164:1823-1828. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Tabak C, Arts I, Smit H, Heederik D, Kromhout D: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and intake of catechins, flavonols, and flavones.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001, 164:61-64. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Butland B, Fehily A, Elwood P: Diet, lung function, and lung decline in a cohort of 2512 middle aged men.
Thorax 2000, 55:102-108. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
de Oliviera M, Sichieri R, Moura A: Weight loss associated with a daily intake of three apples or three pears among overweight women.
Nutr 2003, 19:253-256. Publisher Full Text
Wolfe K, Wu X, Liu RH: Antioxidant activity of apple peels.
J Agric Food Chem 2003, 51:609-614. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Eberhardt M, Lee C, Liu RH: Antioxidant activity of fresh apples.
Nature 2000, 405:903-904. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Liu RH, Eberhardt M, Lee C: Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of selected New York apple cultivars.
NewYork Fruit Quarterly 2001, 9:15-17.
Lapidot T, Walker M, Kanner J: Can apple antioxidants inhibit tumor cell proliferation? generation of H2O2 during interaction of phenolic compounds with cell culture media.
J Agric Food Chem 2002, 50:3156-3160. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Liu RH, Sun J: Antiproliferative activity of apples is not due to phenolic-induced hydrogen peroxide formation.
J Agric Food Chem 2003, 51:1718-1723. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Mayer B, Schumacher M, Branstatter H, Wagner F, Hermetter A: High-throughput flourescence screening of antioxidative capacity in human serum.
Analyt Biochem 2001, 297:144-153. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Pearson D, Tan C, German B, Davis P, Gershwin M: Apple juice inhibits low density lipoprotein oxidation.
Life Sci 1999, 64:1919-1920. Publisher Full Text
Breinholt V, Nielson S, Knuthsen P, Lauridsen S, Daneshvar B, Sorensen A: Effects of commonly consumed fruit juices and carbohydrates on redox status and anticancer biomarkers in female rats.
Nutr Cancer 2003, 45:46-52. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Young J, Nielson S, Haraldsdottir J, Daneshvar B, Lauridsen S, Knuthsen P, Crozier A, Sandstrom B, Dragsted L: Effect of fruit juice intake on urinary quercetin excretion and biomarkers of antioxidative status.
Am J Clin Nutr 1999, 69:87-94. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Aprikian O, Levrat-Verny M, Besson C, Busserolles J, Remesy C, Demigne C: Apple favourably affects parameters of cholesterol metabolism and of anti-oxidative protection in cholesterol fed rats.
Food Chem 2001, 75:445-452. Publisher Full Text
Leontowicz H, Gorinstein S, Lojek A, Leontowicz M, Ciz M, Soliva-Fortuny R, Park Y, Jung S, Trakhtenberg S, Martin-Belloso O: Comparative content of some bioactive compounds in apples, peaches, and pears and their influence on lipids and antioxidant capacity in rats.
J Nutr Biochem 2002, 13:603-610. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Aprikian O, Busserolles J, Manach C, Mazur A, Morand C, Davicco M, Besson C, Rayssiguier Y, Remesy C, Demigne C: Lyophilized apple counteracts the development of hypercholesterolemia, oxidative stress, and renal dysfunction in obese Zucker rats.
J Nutr 2002, 132:1969-1976. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Leontowicz M, Gorinstein S, Bartnikowska E, Leontowicz H, Kulasek G, Trakhtenberg S:Sugar beet pulp and apple pomace dietary fibers improve lipid metabolism in rats fed cholesterol.
Food Chem 2001, 72:73-78. Publisher Full Text
Aprikian O, Duclos V, Guyot S, Besson C, Manach C, Bernalier A, Morand C, Remesy C, Demigne C: Apple pectin and a polyphenol rich apple concentrate are more effective together than separately on cecal fermentations and plasma lipids inrats.
J Nutr 2003, 133:1860-1865. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Saito T, Miyake M, Toba M, Okamatsu H, Shimizu S, Noda M: Inhibition by apple polyphenols of ADP-ribotransferase activity of cholera toxin and toxin-induced fluid accumulation in mice.
Microbiol Immunol 2002, 46:249-55. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Lee K, Kim Y, Kim D, Lee H, Lee C: Major phenolics in apple and their contribution to the total antioxidant capacity.
J Agric Food Chem 2003, 51:6516-6520. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Escarpa A, Gonzalez M: High-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection for the performance of phenolic compounds in peel and pulp from different apple varieties.
J Chromat A 1998, 823:331-337. Publisher Full Text
Leontowicz M, Gorinstein S, Leontowicz H, Krezeminski R, Lojek A, Katrich E, Ciz M, Martin-Belloso O, Soliva-Fortuny R, Haruenkit R, Trakhtenberg S: Apple and pear peel and pulp and their influences on plasma lipids and antioxidant potential in rats fed cholesterol-containing diets.
J Agric Food Chem 2003, 51:5780-5785. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
da SIlva Porto P, Laranjinha J, de Freitas V: Antioxidant protection of low density lipoprotein by procyanidins: structure/activity relationships.
Biochem Pharmacol 2003, 66:947-954. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Ebeler SE, Brenneman CA, Kim GS, Jewell WT, Webb MR, Chacon-Rodriguez L, MacDonaold EA, Cramer AC, Levi A, Ebeler JD, Islas-Trejo A, Kraus A, Hinrichs SH, Clifford AJ: Dietary catechin delays tumor onset in a transgenic mouse model.
AM J Clin Nutr 2002, 76:865-872. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Weyant M, Carothers A, Dannenberg A, Bertagnolli M: Catechin inhibits intestinal tumor formation and suppresses focal adhesion kinase activation in the min/+ mouse.
Cancer Res 2001, 61:118-125. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Sawa T, Nakao M, Akaike T, Ono K, Maeda H: Alkylperoxyl radical scavenging activity of various flavonoids and other phenolic compounds: implications for the anti-tumor promoter effect of vegetables.
J Agric Food Chem 1999, 47:397-402. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Kasai H, Fukada S, Yamaizumi Z, Sugie S, Mori H: Action of chlorogenic acid in vegetables and fruits as an inhibitor of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine formation in vitro and in a rat carcinogenesis model.
Food Chem Toxicol 2000, 38:467-471. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Lamson D, Brignall M: Antioxidants and Cancer III: Quercetin.
Altern Med Rev 2000, 5:196-209. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Peng I, Kuo S: Flavonoid structure affects inhibition of lipid peroxidation in caco-2 intestinal cells at physiological conditions.
J Nutr 2003, 2184-2187. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Molina M, Sanchez-Reus I, Iglesias I, Benedi J: Quercetin, a flavonoid antioxidant, prevents and protects against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in mouse liver.
Biol Pharm Bull 2003, 26:1398-1402. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
van der Woude H, Gliszcynska-Swiglo A, Struijs K, Smeets A, Alink G, Rietjens I:Biphasic modulation of cell proliferation by quercetin at concentrations physiologically relevant in humans.
Cancer Lett 2003, 200:41-47. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Mertens-Talcott S, Talcott S, Percival S: Low concentration of quercetin and ellagic acid synergistically influence proliferation, cytotoxicity and apoptosis in MOLT-4 human leukemia cells.
J Nutr 2003, 133:2669-2674. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Hubbard G, Wolffram S, Lovegrove J, Gibbins J: The role of polyphenolic compounds in the diet as inhibitors of platelet function.
Proc Nutr Soc 2003, 62:469-478. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Dupont S, Bennet R, Mellon F, Willamson G: Polyphenols from alcoholic apple cider are absorbed, metabolized, and excreted by humans.
J Nutr 2002, 132:172-175. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Hollman P, van Trijp J, Buysman M, Gaag M, Mengelers M, de Vries J, Katan M: Relative bioavailability of the various antioxidant flavonoid quercetin from various foods in man.
FEBS Let 1997, 418:152-156. Publisher Full Text
Walle T, Otake Y, Walle K, Wilson F: Quercetin glucosides are completely hydrolyzed in ileostomy patients before absorption.
J Nutr 2000, 130:2658-2661. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Day A, Gee J, Dupont M, Johnson I, Williamson G: Absorption of quercetin-3-glucoside and quercetin-4'-glucoside in the rat small intestine: the role of lactase phlorizin hydrolase and the sodium dependent glucose transporter.
Biochem Pharma 2003, 65:119-1206.
Schneider H, Schwiertz A, Collins M, Blaut M: Anaerobic transformation of quercetin-3-glucoside by bacteria from the human intestinal tract.
Arch Microbiol 1999, 171:81-91. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Crespy V, Aprikian O, Morand C, Besson C, Manach C, Demigne C, Remesy C:Bioavailability of phloretin and phloridzin in rats.
J Nutr 2001, 131:3227-3230. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Walle T, Walle K: The beta-D-glucoside and sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1)-inhibitor phloridzin is transported by both SGLT1 and multidrug resistance-associated proteins 1/2.
Drug Metab and Dispos 2003, 31:1288-1291. Publisher Full Text
Olthof MR, Hollman PC, Katan MB: Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans.
J Nutr 2001, 131:66-71. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Gonthier M, Verny M, Besson C, Remesy C, Scalbert A: Chlorogenic acid bioavailability largely depends on its metabolism by the gut microflora in rats.
J Nutr 2003, 133:1853-1859. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Olthof M, Hollman P, Buijsman M, van Amelsvoort J, Katan M: Chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-rutinoside and black tea polyphenols are extensively metabolized in humans.
J Nutr 2003, 133:1806-1814. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Spencer J: Metabolism of tea flavonoids in the gastrointestinal tract.
J Nutr 2003, 133:3255S-3261S. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Vaidyanathan J, Walle T: Glucuronidation and sulfation of the tea flavonoid (-) epicatechin by the human and rat enzymes.
Drug Metab Dispos 2002, 30:897-903. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
van der Sluis A, Dekker M, de Jager A, Jongen W: Activity and concentration of polyphenolic antioxidants in apple: effect of cultivar, harvest year, and storage conditions.
J Agri Food Chem 2001, 49:3606-3613. Publisher Full Text
Hammerstone J, Lazarus S, Schmitz H: Procyanidin content and variation in some commonly consumed foods.
J Nutr 2000, 130:2086S-2092S. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Awad M, de Jager A, van der Plas L, van der Krol A: Flavonoid and chlorogenic acid changes in skin of Elstar and Jonagold apples during development and ripening.
Scientia Hort 2001, 90:69-83. Publisher Full Text
Awad M, Wagenmakers P, de Jager A: Effects of light on flavonoid and chlorogenic acid levels in the skin of Jonagold apples.
Scientia Hort. 2001, 88:289-298. Publisher Full Text
Awad M, de Jager A, Westing L: Flavonoid and chlorogenic acid levels in apple fruit: characterisation of variation.
Scientia Hort 2000, 83:249-263. Publisher Full Text
Awad M, de Jager A: Relationships between fruit nutrients and concentrations of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid in Elstar apple skin.
Scientia Hort 2002, 92:265-276. Publisher Full Text
Awad M, de Jager A: Formation of flavonoids, especially anthocyanin and chlorogenic acid in Jonagold apple skin: influences of growth regulators and fruit maturity.
Scientia Hort 2002, 93:257-266. Publisher Full Text
Goulding J, McGlasson B, Wyllie S, Leach D: Fate of apple phenolics during cold storage.
J Agri Food Chem 2001, 49:2283-2289. Publisher Full Text
Lattanzio V, Di Vinere D, Linsalata V, Bertolini P, Ippolito A, Salerno M: Low temperature metabolism of apple phenolics and quiescence of Phlyctaena vagabunda.
J Agric Food Chem 2001, 49:5817-5821. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
van der Sluis A, Dekker M, Skrede G, Jongen W: Activity and concentration of polyphenolic antioxidants in apple juice. 1. effect of existing production methods.
J Agric Food Chem 2002, 50:7211-7219. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
Guyot S, Marnet N, Sanoner P, Drilleau J: Variability of the polyphenolic composition of cider apple (Malus domestica) fruits and juices.
J Agric Food Chem 2003, 51:6240-6247. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text