Corydalis solida

Phytochemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Corydalis solida and Pseudofumaria lutea

Sylwia Zielińska 1, Magdalena Dziągwa-Becker 2, Ewelina Piątczak 3, Anna Jezierska-Domaradzka 1 4, Malwina Brożyna 5, Adam Junka 5, Mariusz Kucharski 2, Serhat Sezai Çiçek 6, Christian Zidorn 6, Adam Matkowski 1 4

Corydalis and Pseudofumaria are two closely related genera from the Papaveraceae subfamily Fumarioideae with Corydalis solida (C. solida) and Pseudofumaria lutea (P. lutea) as two representative species. Phytochemical analysis revealed significant differences in the quality and quantity of isoquinoline alkaloids, phenolic compounds and non-phenolic carboxylic acids between aerial and underground parts of both species. Using the Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) technique, 21 compounds were identified: five protoberberine derivatives, three protopine derivatives, four phenanthridine derivatives, as well as three carboxylic acids, two hydroxycinnamic acids, one chlorogenic acid, one phenolic aldehyde, and two flavonoids. Moroever, significant differences in the content of individual compounds were observed between the two studied species. The phytochemical profile of C. solida showed a higher variety of compounds that were present in lower amounts, whereas P. lutea extracts contained fewer compounds but in larger quantities. Protopine was one of the most abundant constituents in C. solida (440-1125 µg/g d.w.) and in P. lutea (1036-1934 µg/g d.w.). Moreover, considerable amounts of coptisine (1526 µg/g) and quercetin (3247 µg/g) were detected in the aerial parts of P. lutea. Extracts from aerial and underground parts of both species were also examined for the antimicrobial potential against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. P. lutea herb extract was the most effective (MIC at 0.39 mg/L) against all three pathogens.

C. solida herb contained several times more phenanthridine derivatives such as chelidonine, chelerythrine and sanguinarine than the other species. Sanguinarine was previously detected in the corms of C. solida by Temizer et al. in 1992 [21]. The authors also found three protoberberine derivatives such as berberine, ophiocarpine and scoulerine, and one alkaloid from another chemical group—protopine. Tubers of C. solida examined by Sturm et al. in 2007 [22] also contained two protoberberine derivatives (corydine, palmatine), and one aporphine derivative bulbocapnine. No protopine and phenanthridine type alkaloids were detected in their plant material [22]. In turn, from the extract of whole C. solida plants, a spirobenzylisoquinoline alkaloid named corysolidine was isolated in 1986 by Rahimizadeh et al. [23]. On the other hand, Kilic et al. in 2019 [24], similarly to our results, found large proportions of protopine in the corms of C. solida ssp. incisa. The plant material was collected in Turkey, and five protopine type alkaloids and eight protoberberine type were detected in the extracts. The authors used an advanced LC-QTOF-MS technique for the compounds identification, nevertheless it is difficult to compare their results with ours, because they examined the subspecies of C. solida.

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The continuing research for the determination of bioactive secondary metabolites from Turkish geophytes as therapeutic agents for dementia is mainly based on the need for drug candidates suitable for brain diseases. In this study, the in vitro anticholinesterase properties and cytotoxic activities of the tuber extract and alkaloidal fractions of Corydalis solida (L.) Clairv. ssp. incisa Lidén were investigated. Furthermore, the content of the active alkaloidfractions of the tubers was determined by LC-Q-TOF-MS. The tubers of Corydalis solida (L.) …