On This Day in Aviation History AUGUST 23 rd

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1885 - Birth of Henry Thomas Tizard, British chemist and inventor, Self taught test pilot for making aerodynamical observations, chairman of the Aeronautical Research Committee, he experimented in the composition of fuel, devising the concept of "toluene numbers" – now referred to as octane ratings, and he supervised and championed the development of RDF (radio-direction finding, later to become more familiarly known as radar) in the run-up to the war.

1888 - Birth of Thomas Proctor, Irish WWI flying ace.

1893 - Birth of Arnold Jacques Chadwick, Canadian WWI flying ace. -

1896 - Birth of Arnold Edward Ansell, British WWI flying ace

1897 - Birth of Antoine Joseph Henri Louis Paillard, French WWI flying ace. -

1897 - Birth of Sidney Edward Cowan, Irish WWI flying ace -

1898 - Birth of Walter Alexander Tyrrell, Irish WWI fighter ace. -

1905 - Birth of Constantin 'Kostia' Wladimir Rozanoff, French WWII fighter pilot, test pilot, Colonel of the French Air Force, and one of the pioneers of jet aviation, chief-pilot at Dassault Aviation. -

1913 - Léon Letort carries out another non-stop flight between Paris and Berlin when he flies his Morane-Saulnier monoplane fitted with an 80-hp Le Rhône engine the 560 miles between the two capitals in 8 hours.

1916 – The Brazilian Navy establishes a naval aviation arm with the creation of a naval aviation school. -

1918 - Death of John Playford "Jack" Hales, Canadian WWI flying ace, killed in his Sopwith Camel over the Somme by anti-aircraft fire.

1918 - Death of James Martin Child, British WWI flying ace, killed while trying to rescue a fellow airman from the wreckage of a crashed plane. -

1918 - British WWI flying aces Arthur Rowe Spurling (pilot) and George Stanley Bell (Observer/gunner) flying a D.H.9 shot down 5 Fokker D.VII on a single mission. -

1921 – British airship R-38 (US Insignia ZR-2) experiences structural failure over Hull in England and crashes in the Humber estuary. Of her 49 British and American training crew, only 4 survive.

1923 - Death of Henry Croskey Mustin, American pioneering naval aviator who establised the 1st Naval Aeronautic Station (now Naval Air Station Pensacola) and performed the world's 1st catapulting of an aircraft from a ship underway.

1926 - 1st flight of The Sikorsky S-35,American twin-engined sesquiplane transport (later modified to three-engines), built for an attempt by Rene Fonck on a non-stop atlantic crossing.

1927 - 1st flight of the Blériot-SPAD 91, French single-seat single-bay biplane fighter prototype. -

1929 - 1st production Tupolev TB-1(development name ANT-4) 'Strana Sovyetov', Soviet angular monoplane bomber aircraft, begins its propaganda flight from Moscow to New York, taking an eastward course via Siberia.

1929 - 1st flight of The Fokker F.IX, three-engine, high-wing monoplane developed in the Netherlands.

1931 - Death of John Charles Bradley Firth, British WWI flying ace -

1935 - 1st flight of the Latécoère 301, French 4 engine (in tandem) parasol wing mail plane flying boat, issued from the Laté 300.

1936 - Death of Julio Ruiz de Alda Miqueleiz, Spanish raid aviator and politician.

1938 - Death of Frank Monroe Hawks, American record breaking aviator (using a series of Texaco-sponsored aircraft), Killed flying a Gwinn Aircar which crashed in East Aurora, New York. He took Amelia Earhart on her 1st flight.

1943 - Death of John de Havilland, british test pilot, son of Geoffrey de Havilland, the famous aircraft designer and manufacturer, During a test flight of a de Havilland Mosquito Mark VI, flying with flight test observer John H. F. Scrope, he collided in the vicinity of St Albans with another Mosquito Mark VI flown by pilot George Gibbins. Both aircraft were made of wood, and disintegrated in the air, killing all four occupants aboard.

1943 - RAF Bomber Command opens the preliminary phase of the 'Battle of Berlin' with a series of 3 major raids on the German capital.

1944 – A USAAF B-24 Liberator bomber crashes into a school in Freckleton, England killing 61 people.

1946 - Death of Fulco VIII, Prince Ruffo di Calabria, 6th Duke of Guardia Lombarda, Italian WWI flying ace. -

1947 – Avro Tudor 2 prototype G-AGSU crashed on takeoff from Woodford killing designer Roy Chadwick and test pilot Sydney Albert 'Bill' Thorne -

1948 - 1st flight of the McDonnell XF-85 Goblin, American prototype fighter aircraft intended to be carried in and deployed from the bomb bay of the giant Convair B-36 bomber as a parasite fighter.

1950 - 1st flight of the Supermarine Type 535, British prototype jet fighter, evolution of the Attacker and which provided the basis for the development of the Supermarine Swift.

1952 - Birth of Klaus-Dietrich Flade, German Air Force pilot and German Aerospace Center cosmonaut.

1953 - 1st flight of the Short SB.6 Seamew, British lightweight anti-submarine carrier born aircraft.

1954 - 1st flight of The Lockheed C-130 Hercules, American four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft which versatile airframe has found uses in a variety of other roles.

1955 - 1st flight of The Westland Widgeon, British helicopter, improvement of the Westland WS-51 Dragonfly.

1956 - Birth of David Alexander 'Bluto' Wolf, American astronaut, medical doctor and electrical engineer.

1958 - Birth of Fiorenzo Ramacci, Italian Air Force pilot.

1960 - Death of Bruno Loerzer, German WWI flying ace and high ranking officer in WWII. -

1961 - Death of Gotthard Sachsenberg, German WWI fighter ace, Baltic war pilot, Aero Lloyd Airline founder and designer of hydrofoils. -

1961 - Launch of Ranger 1, NASA unmanned spacecraft to test performance and parts necessary for carrying out subsequent lunar and planetary missions

1966 – Lunar Orbiter 1 takes the 1st photograph of Earth from orbit around the Moon.

1967 - Birth of Dominic Anthony "Tony" Antonelli, USN pilot and NASA astronaut.

1970 - Death of François Eugene Marie Antoine de Boigne, French WWI flying ace

1976 - Death of Paul Adrien Gastin, French WWI flying ace -

1977 - The Gossamer Condor became the 1st human-powered aeroplane, flying a figure-8 course to demonstrate sustained, controlled flight. It was capable of taking off under human power, piloted by amateur cyclist and hang-glider pilot Bryan Allen.

1979 - Death of U.S. Navy Lieutenant M. Hugh Brown. He lost control of the squadron's MiG-17F of the U.S. Navy's Test and Evaluation Squadron FOUR (VX-4), He entered a spin while dogfighting a U.S. Navy F-5, recovered, but entered a second irrecoverable spin too low to eject.

1983 - 1st flight of The Boeing Skyfox, American twin-engined jet trainer aircraft prototype, a highly upgraded development of the Lockheed T-33

1984 - Death of Gerald Frank Anderson, South African WWI flying ace. -

1990 - 1st flight of the Boeing VC-25, designation of a USAF passenger transportation aircraft, military version of the Boeing 747-200 B airliner, most famous for its role as Air Force One.

1992 - 1st flight of The HAL Dhruv, Indian utility helicopter in his civil version prototype.

2000 – Gulf Air Flight 072 Airbus A320-212 on approach to Bahrain International Airport from Cairo, crashes into the Persian Gulf near Manama, Bahrain, killing 143.

2005 - TANS Peru Flight 204 Boeing 737-244 crashed while making an emergency landing during a hailstorm about 5.5 km south of Pucallpa killing 40 people.

2009 - Wings of Bornholm, Danish airline, begins operations.

2010 - Death of Marcel Albert, French WWII fighter ace. -

2011 - Death of Robert Howden 'Bob' Fowler, Canadian WWII pilot and De Havilland Canada Test pilot.