VAK Learning Styles

Visual Learners 
Visual learners learn best by seeing information. 

• Visual learners often have poor auditory skills and weak verbal abilities. 
• Visual learners often have difficulty blending sounds and discriminating short vowel sounds. 
• Visual learners are often poor spellers 
• Visual learners easily remember information presented in pictures, charts, or diagrams. 
• Visual learners can make "movies in their minds" of information they are reading. Their movies are often vivid and detailed. 
• Visual learners often pay close attention to the body language of others (facial expressions, eyes, stance, etc.) Be aware of your body language and use it to emphasize important points you wish to make during class. 
• Use videos and overheads as part of your lectures. 
• Visual learners may tune out spoken directions. 
Tutoring Strategies for Visual Learners: 
1. Use overhead transparencies 
2. Use flash cards for key concepts 
3. Allow time for student to write down notes 
4. Use as many visuals as possible: pictures, diagrams, charts, etc. 
5. Use demonstrations whenever possible 
6. Write out all key phrases, words, terms, etc. 
7. Create outlines for lessons, leaving blanks for student to complete 
8. Encourage student to chart out information using maps, diagrams, etc. 
9. Have student copy problems and examples 
10. Present lesson objective at the beginning of lesson and summary at the end 
11. Provide additional worksheets for later practice and reinforcement 
12. Write on blackboard when presenting key concepts, etc. 
13. Encourage students to keep a notebook/folder of all written work for each lesson/unit 

Auditory Learners 
Auditory learners learn best by hearing information. They can usually remember information more accurately when it has been explained to them orally. 

• Auditory learners can remember quite accurately details of information they hear during conversations or lectures. (Don't be annoyed if the student isn't taking notes from your lectures) 
• Auditory learners have strong language skills, which include a well-developed vocabulary and an appreciation for words. 
• Strong language skills often lead to strong oral communication skills. They are usually talented at giving speeches, oral reports, and articulating their ideas. 
• Auditory learners may find learning a foreign language to be relatively easy. They also may have musical talents. 
• Auditory learners tend to have poor visual skills, so graphs, maps and charts may present a challenge to the auditory learner. They do best with oral directions and assignments. 
• Auditory learners often reverse words, for example: from, for, form and was, saw. 
• Auditory learners tend to have poor handwriting and small motor skills. 

Tutoring Strategies for Auditory Learners: 
1. Always present material orally 
2. Encourage discussion 
3. Use a tape recorder to tape session for student review 
4. Have student read aloud 
5. Ask for oral response to oral questions 
6. Ask student to repeat directions, key concepts, etc. 
7. Ask student to summarize main points 
8. Try to maintain eye contact 
9. Encourage student to think out loud 
10. Vary the tone and intensity of your voice 
11. Plan sessions that are organized in sequential order 
12. Give directions orally with only two or three steps at a time 
13. Have taped materials available for reference 
14. Encourage student to speak answers aloud before writing 

Kinaesthetic Learners 
Kinaesthetic learners learn best by moving their bodies, activating their large or small muscles as they learn. They are "hands-on learners" or "doers" who actually concentrate better and learn more easily when movement is involved
• Kinaesthetic learners often wiggle, tap their feel or move their legs when they sit. Many were labelled "hyperactive" as children. 
• Kinaesthetic learners work well with their hands. They may be good at art, sculpting, working with various tools, learning in lab situations or learning by computer. 
• Kinaesthetic learners need to take notes and highlight important information. They are using their small muscles to remember information. 
• Kinaesthetic learners need information broken into steps; like a systematic process: step 1, step 2, and step 3. They can remember historical dates, mathematical equations, and scientific information if it is presented in a sequential manner. 
• Kinaesthetic learners may have difficulty learning abstract symbols like letters and numbers. 

Tutoring Strategies for Kinaesthetic Learners: 
1. Have student try out a problem on a chalkboard or lab centre 
2. Encourage student to make their own flashcards 
3. Give demonstrations while allowing student to perform, step by step 
4. Plan ways for the student to manipulate the materials 
5. Use concrete examples to help the student use the skills gained 
6. Involve the student in the planning of the tutoring session 
7. Use computer assisted programs, so students can type and move mouse 
8. Use association techniques to link new learning with past experiences 
9. Allow student to stand, move, etc. during session 

-- adapted from “Use Learning Styles to Enhance Your Teaching,” Elizabeth Clinton, Waubonsee Community College.