Arguably one of the most progressive features of Waldorf education concerns sexual equality. From the beginning, Waldorf schools have been co-educational, and female Waldorf teachers have generally held faculty positions equal to those held by their male colleagues. In part, this reflects Anthroposophical doctrines about gender. Steiner taught that each human being incarnates as male in some lives and female in other lives. Moreover, an ostensible male in one incarnation carries female elements within, and an ostensible female is  —  in some senses  —  male within. Thus, gender differences are ephemeral and merely superficial. [1]

Yet some critics have claimed to find sexism in Waldorf education. How can this be? Anthroposophy asserts that there are some significant differences between the genders, differences that run deeper than physical. And certainly Steiner spoke about making distinctions between boys and girls  —  including class assignments, recommended reading, and so forth  —  that seem invidious by today’s standards. And yet Anthroposophy professes a forward-thinking, progressive stance on matters of gender.

So what is the verdict? How progressive has Waldorf education been on these questions? Here are representative quotations from Rudolf Steiner. Read them and draw your own conclusions. (Here’s a hint: Can you believe in a theory of gender equality that hinges on a) the existence of invisible parts of the human constitution, and b) a process of reincarnation that will iron out, eventually, inequalities experienced during our present lives? In other words, if we set aside occult fantasies, does the Waldorf worldview signify gender equality or inequality in our present, real lives?)

“Every human being manifests one gender in the outer physical body, but carries the other gender in the ether body. [2] So, a woman has a male ether body, and a man has a female ether body. Human beings, in their totality, are all double gendered; we carry the other gender within us.”  —  Rudolf Steiner, HUMAN VALUES IN EDUCATION (Anthroposophic Press, 2004), p. 132. 

 “In itself the soul is two-sided: male-female ... Both the male soul in the female body and the female soul in the male body again become double-sexed through fructification [i.e., fertilization] by the spirit. Thus man and woman are different in their external form; internally their spiritual one-sidedness is rounded out to a harmonious whole.”  —  Rudolf Steiner, COSMIC MEMORY (SteinerBooks, 1987), pp. 87-88.

 “[I]n earlier times, before the separation of the sexes, procreation took place without participation by the male. [3] If it were still the same today, what would happen? If the female element alone were to participate in the process of human procreation...evolution would result in the child resembling its forebears to the greatest extent possible ... The principle of generality, homogeneity, originates from the female element ... The male element provides individuality.” —  Rudolf Steiner, SEXUALITY, LOVE AND PARTNERSHIP (Rudolf Steiner Press, 2011), p. 27. [4]

 “For the girl [i.e., “the” female student], the moral and ethical impressions we give her should incline to the aestheric ... For the boy, on the other hand, it is the power that is at work in religion and morality that we must have more in mind. The girl needs to look at the religious and moral and see its beauty. With the boy we have rather to stress the courage and the sense of power that radiate from them. We must not of course push this to extremes ... We do right to arouse in the boy a sense of his own power....”  —  Ibid., pp. 63-64. [5]

 “[A]s the boy inclines more to the earthly, so the girl to the cosmos [i.e., the spirit realm]. Girls are inclined more to the cosmos.”  —  Ibid. pp. 68-69.

 The natural differentiation between the boys and girls will become self-evident ... For example, the following situation has come up [in the Waldorf school ... [D]uring lessons in spinning, the girls took to the actual spinning. The boys also wanted to be involved, and somehow they found their task in fetching and carrying for the girls. The boys wanted to be chivalrous ... This is what happened and we still need to digest it from the psychological perspective." —Rudolf Steiner, THE CHILD’S CHANGING CONSCIOUSNESS (Anthroposophic Press, 1996), pp. 159-160. [6]

 “[W]e soon found that a class with a majority of girls presented a very different psychological picture than those with more boys ... In the staff meetings of our teachers such matters as the proportion of boys to girls, and many other problems, are being worked through from a psychological and pneumatological aspect as part of a common study of soul and spirit.” —  Rudolf Steiner, THE CHILD’S CHANGING CONSCIOUSNESS, pp. 173-175. [7]

 “The essential thing for us during the first few months of our to observe the children, watching for these four characteristics [i.e., the four temperaments] so that we learn to recognize the four different types. [8] In this way we can divide a class into four groups, and you should gradually rearrange the seating of the children with this goal in mind. When we have classes of boys and girls, we will have eight groups, four groups of boys and four of girls — a choleric, a sanguine, a phlegmatic, and a melancholic group.” —  Rudolf Steiner, DISCUSSIONS WITH TEACHERS (Anthroposophic Press, 1997), p. 15. [9]

 “[T]he astral body has a stronger influence in girls than in boys. [10] Throughout life the astral body of women plays a more important role than that of men. The whole of the female organism is organized toward the cosmos through the astral body. Much of what are really cosmic mysteries is unveiled and revealed through the female constitution. [11] The female astral body is more differentiated, essentially more richly structured, than that of the male. Men’s astral bodies are less differentiated, less finely structured, coarser. Girls between the ages of thirteen or fourteen and twenty or twenty-one develop in such a way that their egos are strongly influenced by what goes on in their astral bodies. We can see how the ego of a girl is, one could say, gradually absorbed by the astral body, with the result that during her twentieth and twenty-first years there is a strong counterpressure, a strong effort to come to grips with the ego. [12] The process is essentially different in boys. Their astral bodies do not absorb their egos so strongly. Their egos are more concealed, are not as effective. The ego of the boy between the ages of thirteen or fourteen and twenty or twenty-one remains without the strong influence of the astral body. Because of this, because the ego of the boy is not absorbed by the astral body and yet lacks independence, boys at this age are less forward than girls. Girls are freer at this age, more at ease in their outer confrontation with the world than are boys. We can notice in those boys especially endowed with these qualities a reserve, a withdrawal from life, the result of this special relation between astral body and ego.” —  Rudolf Steiner, EDUCATION FOR ADOLESCENTS (Anthroposophic Press, 1996), pp. 75-76. [13]

 “If we bear in mind these differences between boys and girls we shall understand that the blessing of coeducation allows us to achieve much by a tactful treatment of both sexes in the same room. A conscientious teacher who is aware of his or her tasks in approaching such a coeducational situation will still differentiate between girls and boys.” — ibid., p. 77.

 ”We must consider the differences between girls and boys in our education ... We must make the effort to develop the girls’ moral and ethical feelings in a way that they [i.e., the girls] are directed toward the aesthetic life. We must take special care that the girls especially enjoy the moral, the religious, and the good in what they hear in the lessons. They should take pleasure in the knowledge that the world is permeated by the supersensible [i.e., supernatural]; they should be given pictures that are rich in imagination, that express the world as permeated by the divine, that show the beautiful aspects of the good and moral human being. In regard to boys, it will be necessary to provide them with ideas and mental pictures that tend toward strength and affect the religious and ethical life. With girls, we should bring the religious and moral life to their very eyes, while with boys we should bring the religious and beautiful predominantly into the heart, the mind, stressing the feeling of strength....” — Ibid. pp. 78-79.

 “[D]uring the whole of elementary education, [we must] see to it that the girls are directed to experience pleasure in the beautiful, to be impressed by the religious and aesthetic aspects of the lessons; and we must see to it that the boys are told: ‘If you do this, your muscles will grow taut, you will become a strong, efficient young man!’ The sense of being permeated by the divine must really be kindled in boys in this way ... With regard to girls, the ego is absorbed in the astral body ... The situation is different in boys. The boy’s ego is less mobile, does not absorb itself; we are dealing with a spirit and soul growing pale ... When a girl is chlorotic (maid-pale), the condition fully corresponds to the blushing of spirit and soul. When a boy turns into a real lout who easily gets excited, this behavior does not contradict the fact that his soul and spirit are growing pale.” — Rudolf Steiner, EDUCATION FOR ADOLESCENTS, pp. 79-80. [14]

 “[W]e shall also educate the girls correctly by recognizing the fact that they are more inclined to the cosmos and boys more inclined to the earth. Girls incline more toward the cosmic, and this means that their ideals are heroes and heroines; we should tell the girls about them, about their lives and deeds, about actual experiences. Boys need to hear about character, about complete human beings. This is essential; we must differentiate the needs of girls and boys.” — Ibid., p. 83.

 “We must...have girls and boys together in the room; but we must differentiate by giving them activities suited to their sex. We must not separate them. The boys should watch the girls during their activities and vice versa ... It is, therefore, necessary to give the boys something that is appropriate for this age: lessons in mechanics — not only theory, as in physics, but practical mechanics, leading to the making of machines. Our curriculum for the tenth grade class must include the basic elements of practical mechanics. [15] In regard to the girls, we must provide them with something that allows them to have clear ideas of the skills involved in spinning and weaving ... The boys, on the other hand, must, even if only in an elementary way that allows them to understand it, be taught the principles of surveying and mapping a pasture or forest. This is again essential for this age. Girls must learn the basic elements of hygiene and first aid, the different ways of bandaging.” — Ibid., pp. 83-84.

 “Spiritual science [i.e., Anthroposophy] speaks of the birth of the ego, the time when the ego actually comes fully into its own in life. We emphasized the fact that the ego of the girl at about the fourteenth or fifteenth year is absorbed into the astral body, is therefore not yet independent, while the girl’s astral body has already attained a certain independence at this age. The ego of the boy, we said, is not absorbed into the astral body; it leads a kind of withdrawn life. And I explained that both these tendencies, these characteristics, can indeed be seen as the result of the inner human development.” — Ibid., p. 105.

 “[I]n health class, teach simple bandaging, roughly what is needed in first aid. Let the boys do it also, tenderly and decently, and things will move along. It is not important whether they think they can do it, it is sufficient if they simply acquire an idea about it ... The boys should not do it, they should simply become accustomed to it. They could talk a little bit among themselves about which girls do it best. While the boys are drawing screws [i.e., doing mechanical work], the girls should talk about that in a more theoretical way.” — Rudolf Steiner, FACULTY MEETINGS WITH RUDOLF STEINER (Anthroposophic Press, 1998), p. 273. [16] 

 “It is quite curious that women are much better doctors than men.” — Ibid., p. 255. [17]

 “[S]omething we could expect at this age is present in the [teenage] boys, namely very strongly developed intellectual forces. These intellectual forces become apparent at puberty. Particularly with boys, this often arises as a certain subconscious desire to exercise their intellectual strength ... Intelligence is simply bursting out of [them] ... The main thing is that we work with the boys during the course of instruction so they can exercise their intellect in a way that brings it into a kind of tension and then finds resolution.” — Rudolf Steiner, FACULTY MEETINGS WITH RUDOLF STEINER, p. 652. [18]

 “In the Waldorf School we have mixed classes, girls and boys together. Now quite apart from what the boys and girls say to each other, or what they consciously exchange with each other, there is a marked difference to be seen in the classes according to whether there are more girls than boys or more boys than girls, or an equal number of each. For years I have been watching this, and it has always proved to be the case that there is something different in a class where there are more girls than boys. In the latter case you will very soon find that you yourself as the teacher become less tired, because the girls grasp things more easily than boys and with greater eagerness too. You will find many other differences also. Above all, you will very soon discover that the boys themselves gain in quickness of comprehension when they are in a minority, whereas the girls lose by it if they are in the minority. And so there are numerous differences that do not arise through the way they talk together or treat each other but that remain in the sphere of the imponderable and are themselves imponderable things.” — Rudolf Steiner, THE KINGDOM OF CHILDHOOD (Anthroposophic Press, 1995), pp. 118-119.

 “In Waldorf schools, the boys and girls are together and the boys become enthusiastic about knitting and crocheting; through this they also learn to manipulate their thoughts. It is not surprising that people, regardless of their training in logical thinking, cannot think clearly if they are incapable of knitting. [19] We can see that the thinking of today’s women is much more flexible. One merely needs to look at the results of admitting women to universities to see how much more flexible the soul of women is than that of men, who have become stiff and abstract through activities that lead away from reality. We see this in its worst form in the business world. Seeing how a man of business conducts his affairs can drive you crazy.”  — Rudolf Steiner, HUMAN VALUES IN EDUCATION (Anthroposophic Press, 2004), p. 170.

 “Anyone who has reached the first stage of exact clairvoyance, imaginative perception, knows...the larynx of a boy transforms at about fourteen. The same thing happens in girls to the ether body. The change withdraws to the ether body of the female and assumes a form exactly like the physical body of the male. And the ether body of a boy of fourteen assumes a form resembling the physical body of a female. However extraordinary it may seem to a mode of cognition that clings to the physical, it is nevertheless true that, from this very important phase onward, a man carries etherically a woman, and the woman carries etherically a man. This is expressed in different ways in males and females.” — Rudolf Steiner, A MODERN ART OF EDUCATION (Anthroposophic Press, 2004), pp. 65-66. [20]

 “If we teach in a class in which girls are in the majority, matters are not at all the same as in those classes where the number of boys and girls is the same, or where boys are in the majority. The classes are not given their individual character according to what the boys and girls do together — perhaps also the silly things they do together — but by intangible elements that wholly escape external, intellectual observation [i.e., clairvoyance is required].” — Ibid., p. 199. [21]

Like the racism that infests Anthroposophy [22], the sexism in Anthroposophy is unintended and even unconscious. But it exists, and its implications for Waldorf education are disturbing.

[R.R., 2014.]

"At this point I should like to remind you of something I have often pointed out with regard to the difference between male and female, pointing out the fact that to some extent the female element — not the single individual woman but rather 'womanhood' — has not entirely descended to the physical plane, whereas the man — again not a single individuality, not man in a particular incarnation but 'manhood' — has crossed the line and descended lower. As a result true humanity lies between man and woman; and it is for this reason that a human being also changes sex in different incarnations. But it is already the case that the woman, as such, because of the different formation of her brain and the different way in which she can use it, is able to grasp spiritual ideas with greater facility. By contrast the man because of his external physical corporeality is much better adapted to think himself into materialism, because, if we wish to express the matter crudely, his brain is harder. The female brain is softer, not so stubborn, that is to say in general — I am not referring to individual personalities. In the case of individual personalities there is no need to flatter oneself, for many truly obstinate heads sit on many a female body — to say nothing of the reverse! But on the whole it is true that it is easier to make use of a female brain if one is to understand something exceptional, as long as the will to do so is also present. It is for this reason that the evangelist after the Mystery of Golgotha allows women to appear first.

"'And now, as the Sabbath was over, Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, brought spices, so that they could go and anoint him.' (Mark 16:1.)

"And it was to them that the youth, that is, the cosmic Christ, first appeared; and only afterward to the male disciples. True occultism, true spiritual science is interwoven into the composition and details of the contents of the Gospels, and especially of the concise Mark Gospel."

— Rudolf Steiner, THE GOSPEL OF ST. MARK 
(Anthroposophic Press, 1986), 
lecture 10, GA 139.


[1] Steiner sometimes expressed concern over the status and treatment of women in contemporary society. He depended heavily on support from women. A high proportion of the earliest converts to Anthroposophy were women, and a similarly high proportion of Anthroposophists who became Waldorf teachers were women. (He had difficulty enlisting male teachers.)

[2] The ether body — also called the etheric body or life body — is the first of three invisible bodies that, according to Steiner, human beings incarnate. [For background information that helps clarify Steiner's various statements, the "The Semi-Steiner Dictionary" and "The Brief Waldorf / Steiner Encyclopedia".]

[3] Steiner taught that evolution has been a process leading to greater and greater specialization and individualization. Thus, proto-humans originally were unisexual; the separation into two sexes occurred as evolution progressed.

[4] Seen in this light, gender differences are profoundly important — a proposition that arguably is the essence of sexism. The sexes manifest different spiritual conditions or "elements," Steiner says. The female element is more basic, leading to uniformity. The male element represents a later evolutionary stage, leading to indvidualization.

[5] Here Steiner indicates that Waldorf schools should teach girls and boys differently. We will see additional statements along these lines (see, e.g., the next quotation). Girls are more oriented to the cosmos, Steiner says; they have aesthetic and nurturing impulses. Boys are more earthly; they are interested in power, courage, and practical disciplines such as engineering. Steiner's followers today still affirm his guidance on such matters, But, clearly, if a school today operates as Steiner prescribed, it would open itself to charges of sexism.

[6] "From the psychological perspective," Steiner says, we must recognize "the natural differentiation between the boys and girls." Rather than focusing on particular differences between individuals, Steiner focuses on generalized differences between large classes of people: genders. The implication is that all males are basically alike, all females are basically alike, and the two genders are distinctly dissimilar. Such a paradigm leaves little room for individual variation, such as a girl who is interested in courage and power, or a boy who feels deep aesthetic interests.

[7] Differences between classes with male or female majorities might be attributed to cultural influences: Boys and girls are raised differently, they are prepared for different roles in life, so they wind up having different interests and characteristics. But here Steiner traces the differences back to spiritual roots — "soul and spirit." (Pneumatology is a branch of Christian theology dealing with the Holy Ghost.) Thus, again, gender differences are deemed to be profound.

[8] See "Temperaments".

[9] Steiner instructs Waldorf teachers to segregate students by temperament and gender.

[10] The astral body — also called the soul body — is the second of our invisible bodies. The etheric body incarnates when a child is about seven; the astral body incarnates around age fourteen. [See "Incarnation".]

[11] According to Steiner, females are naturally oriented to the cosmos or spirit realm, and they have an innate (intuitive) sense of occult spiritual wisdom. [See, e.g., "Goddess".] From one perspective, such propositions elevate females. From another, they are sexist and thus demeaning. (The long history of the subjugation of women includes the simultaneous romanticization or idealization of women.)

[12] The "ego," in Anthroposophy, is the fourth of our invisible bodies, incarnating around age twenty-one. The ego (also called the "I" or "ego body" or "ego being", etc.) is the divine spark of spiritual identity, one's undying spiritual essence. [See "Ego".]

[13] As we have seen, some of the "natural differentiations" Steiner draws between the sexes actually elevate females (or seem to). The essential point to note, however, is that Steiner finds deep, spiritually significant differences between the sexes. This is the central proposition that feminists and others would object to.

[14] To "grow pale" has often been seen as an outward manifestation of spirituality. Here Steiner speaks of the differences between girls and boys when they grow pale. The paleness that counts, he says, is inward: the soul and spirit grow pale. (In Anthroposophy, the soul is one's spiritual identity during a single incarnation; you will have a different soul in your next incarnation. The spirit, on the other hand, is the spiritual identity that you carry from incarnation to incarnation.) Inward paleness means one thing for girls, another thing for boys. Note that in this passage, as in several of the preceding passages, Steiner discusses ways that Waldorf schools should treat girls and boys differently. Waldorf schools may be coeducational, but Waldorf teachers "will still differentiate between girls and boys.” Several of the following passages continue this theme.

[15] Steiner basically opposed modern technology and its machines. [See, e.g., "Materialism U.".] Here he concedes that boys need to be prepared for the sorts of careers that will be available to them in contemporary society. (Whether Waldorf schools really prepare students for life in the real world is moot. See, e.g., "My Life Among Them, Part 3".) In part, Steiner's views are based on societal realities; in part, they are based on his occult conception of gender differences. He goes on to specify other male careers and skills as well as female careers and skills.

[16] This is a fairly typical example of Steiner speaking candidly with his followers. Such conversations often reveal more than Steiner's carefully modulated statements intended for the general public of for students' parents. His candid remarks tend to ramble, however. Here, he says that boys should be taught first aid, although this is mainly a subject for girls. Let the boys do it, Steiner says, before correcting himself, in stages: Let them do it, or at least let them try it, or let them get an idea about it — don't have them do it but let them get accustomed to it. Ultimately, he says that the boys should watch the girls learning womanly skills, and the girls should watch the boys learning manly skills. (There is no room for male nurses or female mechanics in this vision.)

[17] Steiner affirms women's capacity and right to become doctors. He also makes a sweeping generalization about the sexes.

[18] Steiner associated intellectual power with masculinity and intuitive insight with femininity. Intellect is by no means a wholly positive force, from an Anthroposophical perspective. We need to develop intellect, Steiner taught, but we also need to transcend it. Our brains and intellects do not produce true wisdom, he said — for that, we need clairvoyance. [See, e.g., "Steiner's Specific".]

[19] The thinking behind Waldorf schools is ineluctably mystical. The "reasons" Steiner gives for things — reasons that Waldorf faculties generally endorse — must strike most people as bizarre. Here Steiner again differentiates males from females, and he offers females a compliment. He does this within the context of a point of pride: Waldorf schools put boys and girls together, they teach knitting to boys as well as girls. In this instance, unlike what we saw before, boys and girls are taught the same skills. But whether Steiner's explanation makes sense ("people...cannot think clearly if they are incapable of knitting") is, at a minimum, open to question. (Actually, his explanation here is less strange than what he said on other occasions about the same subject: 

“Go into our needlework classes and handicraft classes at the Waldorf School, and you will find the boys knit and crochet as well as the girls ... This is not the result of any fad or whim, but happens deliberately in order to...permeate the fingers with soul. And to drive the soul into the fingers means to promote all the forces that go to build up sound teeth.” — Rudolf Steiner, THE RENEWAL OF EDUCATION (Anthroposophic Press, 2001), p. 10.) 

Note that women have one sort of soul (just one), and men have another ("the soul of women is [much more flexible] than that of men"). Women think differently than men do (men think abstractly, stiffly, intellectually: Observing this in action "can drive you crazy”).

[20] This is an interesting mix of messages. Steiner affirms a sort of equality of the sexes (each sex carries, internally, the other) while also stressing gender differences ("This is expressed in different ways in males and females”).

[21] Steiner's views on gender — as on all other topics — center on intangible, invisible, spiritual influences and beings. These cannot be seen or understood 

by "external, intellectual observation" (i.e., the use of the physical senses or brain). Instead, the key capacity of spiritual science is needed: clairvoyance. If you do not believe in clairvoyance, and/or if you do not believe the things Steiner claimed to perceive clairvoyantly (such as the spiritual essence of gender differences), then you will have difficulty endorsing the concepts on which Waldorf education is based, including concepts concerning gender. [For more on clairvoyance, see "Clairvoyance" and "The Waldorf Teacher's Consciousness".]

[22] See "Steiner's Racism", "Embedded Racism", and "Races".


Rudolf Steiner died in 1925. We might hope that his antiquated way of looking at things died with him. But in fact his followers have continued using the sorts of terms he used — terms such as “the female soul.” Here is a quick sampling:

“We are entering an age when the female soul will become ever purer and broader, when an ever greater number of women will become profound inspirers, sensitive mothers, wise counselors, and farsighted leaders.” — Daniel Andreev, quoted in Robert Powell’s JOURNAL FOR STAR WISDOM 2015 (SteinerBooks, 2014).

◊ “[W]e can...distinguish typically male and typically female soul configurations ... [W]here men are concerned feeling is less strongly developed than thinking and will, whereas for women feeling is stronger and more differentiated.” — Almut Bockemuhl, A WOMAN'S PATH (Rudolf Steiner Press, 2009), p. 169.

◊ “[A] female soul inhabits the male body and a male soul the female body. We use 'soul' here to include the non-physical part of the generative forces which, rejected by the physical body, come to consciousness in the astral body.” — Armin Husemann, THE HARMONY OF THE HUMAN BODY (Floris Books, 2003), p. 81.

◊ “[W]e can distinguish masculine and feminine qualities in the soul ... [T]he male soul is more prone to cognizing functions. Precise perceptions, mental images, and thoughts belong predominantly to the masculine domain....” — F. W. Emmichoven, THE ANTHROPOSOPHICAL UNDERSTANDING OF THE SOUL (SteinerBooks, 1982), p. 132.

◊ The male and the female soul...develop in different directions. The man goes from the periphery to the center, from outwards inwards. The woman finds her nature just im this center and strives from there out to the periphery; her way is from inside outwards.” — F. W. Emmichoven, THE ANTHROPOSOPHICAL UNDERSTANDING OF THE SOUL, p. 135.

◊ “[I]t is simply a fact that the woman, in earlier times, was in truth not as individualized as the man on account of her living more strongly in the life and soul forces ... This phenomenon may still be observed today ...  A woman is inclined to want to experience whatever it may be together with the man she loves ... [O]ver the last hundred years a [new] development has taken place for the woman as she also wants to be an ego, a person of completely equal rights ... One important factor is certainly the intellectualization of the female soul as a result of education....” —  Wolfgang Gädeke, SEXUALITY, PARTNERSHIP AND MARRIAGE: From a Spiritual Perspective (Temple Lodge Publishing, 1998), pp. 80-81.

◊ “The male principle applies itself to the outer world and can only receive its spiritual inspiration from without. The female principle, by contrast, remains in contact internally with the spiritual world....” — Edward Reaugh Smith, THE BURNING BUSH (SteinerBooks, 1997), p. 369.

◊ “[W]isdom (the female principle) was brought into existence by the Creator God, presumably the male principle.” — Edward Reaugh Smith, DAVID'S QUESTION (SteinerBooks, 2001), p. 309.

◊ “It can be said that males over-incarmate and are thus more solid than females, and that females under-incarnate and are thus softer. The male influence is more earthly and the female more spiritual ... [T]he female [is] more spiritually receptive.” — Edward Reaugh Smith, THE SOUL'S LONG JOURNEY (SteinerBooks, 2003), p. 91.

◊ “The reason for equal representation of the male and female principle in the [Anthroposophic] Council seen in the spiritual scientific fact that beginning with the twentieth century the female incarnation will in the overall evolution of humanity gain equally great importance as did the male incarnation in the past.” — Sergei O. Prokofieff, MAY HUMAN BEINGS HEAR IT! (Temple Lodge Publishing, 2014), p. 375.

◊ “The pentagram is...the symbol of Venus ... Venus represents the female principle.” — Danielle Van Dijk, CHRIST CONSCIOUSNESS (Temple Lodge Publishing, 2010), p. 9.

◊ “The female principle, which includes intuitiveness, leads the male principle...which is more focused on reality.” — Ibid., p. 20.

— Compilation and commentary by Roger Rawlings

To visit other pages in the sections of Waldorf Watch
that include "Gender", use the underlined links, below.

also see "Life Processes"

blood : and race

ego : the spiritual ego, the "I"

four group souls : us, sort of


our parts : human constitution

tenth hierarchy : us, later

universal : human


Christmas : Waldorf-style

extremity : love, out of bounds

fairy tales : their use in Waldorf schools


holistic education : the "whole child"

if only : wishing, hoping...

more on education : quotations about education, religion, health...

PR : efforts to "re-brand" Waldorf schools

pseudoscience : at Waldorf schools

Q&A : informed opinions, and others

spiritual syllabus : in the open

star power : astrology Waldorf-style

this very day : Waldorf and Steiner schools pledging allegiance

visits : welcome?

Waldorf priests : doing their duty

BBC & SWSF : on the air