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Terms to be defined are shown in bold type. Definitions excerpted from the SteinerBooks dictionaries are placed within quotations marks. Anything I have added is placed within brackets. Definitions quoted from THE STEINERBOOKS DICTIONARY OF THE PSYCHIC, MYSTIC, OCCULT, published in 1973, are marked "73". Definitions quoted from THE NEW STEINERBOOKS DICTIONARY OF THE PARANORMAL, published in 1980, are marked "80".

- S -

Sabbathi "The angel of the celestial hierarchies who is assigned to the sphere of Saturn." 80 p. 251 [In Anthroposophical belief, the Archangel of Saturn (Archangels are higher than Angels) is Oriphiel or Uriel.]

sacerdotalism "Any religious system based on priestly order, rather than human and spiritual values." 73 p. 181

[sacred planets These are the seven classical planets of astrology, generally affirmed by Steiner as the real members of the solar system: Sun, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Earth, Uranus, and Neptune are omitted, while the Sun and Moon are labeled "planets." In some teachings, the Sun is included only as a stand-in for an invisible planet near the Sun, often identified as Vulcan. Likewise, the Moon is often a stand-in for an invisible "Planet of Death" that is near the Moon.]

sacred prostitution "Prostitutes in the role of beneficent agents are and have been since ancient times a part of many religions." 80 p. 231

[Sacrificial Will In Anthroposophy: the third of seven Regions of Soul, a region of preparation for liberation from karma and physical existence. The soul learns true self-relinquishment, as practiced by the gods — the will to serve and transcend. This evolutionary period is overseen by Libra.]

Sadhu "(Hinduism) A holy person or religious teacher, who carries a bowl for begging." 80 p. 251

[sagas Legends — especially Norse — of heroic achievements. According to Steiner, they are true clairvoyant accounts in disguised form.]

Saggitarius [sic: Sagittarius] "Astrological sign (November 23-December 22) ... Qualities — highly endowed with mental gifts, discriminatory abilities; unusually honest, fearless, and bluntly outspoken ... [C]an be too cautious, too timid...hasty temper...." 80 p. 251

[St. George A Christian martyr; the patron saint of Britain; in mythology, a dragon-slayer. In Anthroposophy: Michael's representative on Earth (or, sometimes, Michael himself).]

[St. John's festival June 24, honoring John the Baptist. Often celebrated at Waldorf schools with a large bonfire. Older students, preparing the leave the school, are sometimes allowed to jump over fire. Sometimes younger students are helped by teachers or senior students to leap the flames or embers.]

[St. Martin's festival November 11, honoring the saint who gave half his cloak to a beggar. At Waldorf schools, Christian and pagan elements are combined in this festival. Often lanterns are made by the students and used in outdoor processions on a dark evening.]

[St. Michael In biblical tradition, Michael is an archangel and, in Catholic tradition, a saint. In the book of Revelation, he leads Christ's armies against Satan. In Anthroposophical belief, he is the archangel of the Sun, Christ's champion, and the lord of our age (beginning around 1879 CE). The feast of St. Michael, September 29, is often celebrated in Waldorf schools, sometimes disguised as a "fall festival."]

[St. Michael's festival - see Michaelmas.]

[saints, lives of Stories about the lives of saints are stressed in second grade at Waldorf schools to show the benefits of mastering the lower influences of the astral body.]

sakti "That supernatural power which Hindus believe is able to protect one against the evil eye." 80 p. 252

[salamanders In Anthroposophy, drawing from ancient superstition: fire spirits, nature spirits that live in fire; not to be confused with the reptiles also called salamanders.]

[salutogenic medicine Medicine that professes to focus on the causes of health rather than the causes of illness.]

[salvation In Anthroposophy, salvation (i.e., evolutionary advancement) comes through walking the white path to attain higher and higher levels of spiritual consciousness.]

samãdhi "The eighth stage of Yoga; said to be the highest attainable earthly state. A deep trance of higher contemplation, and a complete temporary renunciation of earthly life and the body's needs." 73 p. 182

[Samael In Anthroposophical belief: the Archangel of Mars; also known as Samuel.]

samanera "(Buddhism) An initiate, considered a novice; a beginner on the path of spiritual development" 80 p. 254

samsãra "Hindu term for the karmic chain of birth, death and rebirth...." 73 p. 182

[Samuel - see Samael.]

sand reading "A personal psychic assessment of the imprint of the client's hand in a tray of sand." 80 p. 254

sanga "(Hinduism) The attachment to material and worldly things and cares which thwarts the achievement of moksa." 80 p. 254

[sanguine One of the four classical temperaments, a disposition predominantly influenced by blood. In Anthroposophical belief, sanguine individuals are carefree, happy, and rather thoughtless. They are the most nearly "normal" of the four human types.]

sankhya "One of the oldest systems of Hindu philosophy ... It was dualistic, postulating a positive equilibrium of spirit and substance, eternal without prime cause [i.e., a Creator]." 73 p. 182

sapphire "This gem is...considered to possess powers which bring the owner good luck, health, and cures for a number of ailments." 80 p. 255

Satan "The principle of evil in a number of major religions ... Satan has been an enormously pregnant [sic] figure in much of the Western Occult [sic], particularly in Necromancy, Sorcery, Witchcraft, Black Magic...." 80 p. 255 [In Anthroposophy, Satan is generally identified as Ahriman.]

Satellitium, Stellium "In astrology this signifies a cluster of sometimes as many as five planets in one sign or house." 80 p. 256

satori "Zen Buddhist term for enlightenment produced by meditation." 80 p. 257

Saturn "One of the most important planets in the history of mysticism and the occult ... Violet is its color; it is the choleric temperament — fire ... In Earth-evolution, the first stage is the Saturn epoch...." 80 p. 257 [Steiner taught that Saturn is the outermost member of the solar system. He called the first stage of our evolution "Old Saturn."]

Saturnalia "A festival or period during which people engage in unrestrained freedom of behavior [i.e., wild revelry]...." 80 p. 257

[Saturn evolution The first incarnation of our solar system: the stage of cosmic evolution that preceded Old Sun — Old Saturn. An individual may experience the equivalent of Old Saturnl in her/his spiritual existence.]

[Saturn humans In Anthroposophy: humans during Old Saturn, or on Saturn, or under the special influence of Saturn.]

Saturnine "[I]n astrology, one with a strong Saturn accent." 80 p. 258

[Saturn organ A spiritual organ developed through the influence of Saturn., according to Steiner. Such organs increase one's spiritual/perceptive capacities.]

[Saturn race According to Steiner: Native Americans. Existing under the influence of Saturn, they are senescent and, in effect, extinct, Steiner taught.]

[Saturn sphere In Anthroposophy: essentially, the entire solar system (i.e., the region of space defined by the orbit of the outermost planet, Saturn). The spheres of all other planets are nested within it. The Saturn sphere is home to gods seven levels higher than humanity]

[satyrs Creatures half-human, half-animal. According to Steiner: beings who use Luciferic and Ahrimanic powers for evil.]

[savages Members of low races, according to Steiner.]

savant "A learned person, a [leading] scientist." 73 p. 183

savin "The Devil's herb...used by European witches for the purposes of abortion and sterility." 80 p. 258

scapulomancy "Divination through the study of animal bones." 80 p. 258

[School of Michael In our time, this is Anthroposophy: the movement through which the archangel Michael bestows his wisdom (according to Anthroposophists).]

[School of Spiritual Science The central institution for Anthroposophical studies, located at the Anthroposophical headquarters, the Goetheanum.]

[science Systematic, rational study of phenomena using observation and experimentation. Like Theosophy, Anthroposophy claims to be the science of spiritual phenomena. But it is a faith, not a science. Steiner frequently belittled natural sciences and scientists. Anthroposophy is fundamentally antiscientific.]

[science curriculum at Waldorf schools Often quite weak, due to the antiscientific bias of Anthroposophy.]

[scientific method Essentially, the use of reason: Based on evidence, a hypothesis is framed and then tested; it is either confirmed or disproved. This new evidence is then used to repeat and extend the process, thereby expanding the accumulation of knowledge.]

[scientific theory An explanation of phenomena, based on solid evidence. In a scientific context, the word "theory" does not denote great uncertainty. The currently accepted theory in any sphere of science is the best, most firmly established explanation available to mankind. It is tentative only in the sense that the acquisition of additional information may lead to modifications of the theory or even the eventual replacement of that theory when a better theory — a better, more complete explanation — becomes possible.]

Scientology "'The science of knowing how to know' ... [Scientologists] employ a technique of 'Dianetics' to uncover memories of previous incarnations." 80 p. 260 [Dianetics is a system of relieving psychosomatic disorders by cleansing the mind. Scientology may be seen as a rival of Anthroposophy, in that both claim to be "scientific" spiritual systems. Their doctrines are, however, largely incompatible.]

scopelism "A magical practice in which charmed bones are thrown into a neighbor's field...warning [farm workers] not to cultivate the field if they do not wish to die...." 80 p. 260

Scorpio "Astrological sign (October 24-November 22) ... Qualities —...intense loyalty...highly capable, enthusiastic, courageous ... [H]owever...revengeful, pugnacious, arrogant...." 80 pp. 260-261

scriptograph "Messages alleged to have been written by deceased persons...which appear on sensitive photographic materials...." 80 p. 261

scriptures "Sacred writings of various religions." 73 p. 185

scrying "Divination by crystal-gazing." 73 p. 185

[Sealing or Ordeal In Anthroposophy: the penultimate Region of Soul, following Purification. The scourging/deifying effect of the Apocalyptic seals becomes almost complete as one evolves toward holy silence. The constellation of Cancer is paramount.]

[seals In Anthroposophy: mystical emblems resembling mandalas; especially seals designed by Rudolf Steiner to represent the seven seals of the Book of Revelation.]

seance "A sitting for the purpose of obtaining psychic manifestations, or for communication with the spirit world." 73 p. 185

[seasonal festivals At Waldorf schools, festivals containing both Christian and pagan elements are observed. Often they are given euphemistic names such as "fall festival," but they are fundamentally religious. The chief ones are Easter, Whitsun, St. John's, Michaelmas, St. Martin's, Advent, Christmas, and Epiphany.]

[seasons In Anthroposophical belief, the seasons reflect the breathing patterns of the Earth. (Steiner often taught that the Earth is alive; but he also sometimes said that it is dead.) The Earth breathes in during winter and out during summer. The seasons are celebrated in Waldorf schools through the staging of seasonal festivals that contain both Christian and pagan components.]

[Second Coming In Christianity: the prophesied return to Christ to the Earth. In Anthroposophy, the Second Coming of Christ has already occurred (around 1930 CE) — Christ "returned" not to the physical Earth but to the etheric realm encompassing the Earth. In essence, the "return" meant that Christ became knowable, specifically through Anthroposophy. The Second Coming was, essentially, the culmination of the emergence of Anthroposophy.]

second death "As a soul leaves the earth body for further development in a higher spirit sphere, so it is sometimes said there takes places a similar refinement of personality on passing to the next sphere above." 73 p. 186

[second dentition The replacement of baby teeth by adult teeth. In Waldorf belief, this signals the incarnation of the etheric body; the child is now ready to learn to read, etc.]

[second elementary kingdom The second of three kingdoms below the mineral kingdom (the lowest kingdom of nature that is usually acknowledged). Inhabited by the lowliest of subhuman beings, the elementary kingdoms gather and produce the constituents of the higher kingdoms. The second elementary kingdom underlies the plant kingdom especially.]

[Second Elementary Kingdom Condition of Life The second of seven conditions of life — for us, subdivisions of our current existence in the period called Present Earth. Here, we evolve upward through three elementary kingdoms to the mineral kingdom, then the plant, animal, and human kingdoms.]

[Second Hierarchy In Anthroposophical belief: the intermediate of three groupings of gods, consisting of gods four, five, and six levels higher than humanity. These gods dwell among the higher spheres of the solar system (Sun, Mars, and Jupiter), and they work to implement the designs formulated by the gods of the First Hierarchy.]

second sight "Supernormal perception...." 73 p. 186 [Such perception is usually identified as clairvoyance or extrasensory perception (ESP).]

[Second Woe In Anthroposophy: the penultimate Realm of Spirit, the last to occur under the Zodiac. Under the rule of Sagittarius, the development of the spirit within the seventh great epoch (Trumpets) is nearly now completed. The stage is set for the final trial (Third Woe) before humanity evolves to the Perfect Astral Stage.]

[secret brotherhoods Clandestine groups, often having evil intentions. Steiner taught that there have been many operating behind the scenes throughout world history. See conspiracy theories.]

[secret temple A temple devoted to secret or occult knowledge.]

seer "A natural clairvoyant or prophet." 73 p. 186

Sekhmet "[G]oddess of the ancient Egyptians who was depicted with a lion's head that bore the omnificent [sic] sun's disc...." 80 p. 261

[self-deception Convincing oneself that falsehoods are truths; arguably the basis of Anthroposophical belief.]

[self-movement, sense of According to Steiner: one of our 12 senses, one through which we experience our own movements. Also see movement, sense of.]

sending "The practice of one [sic] with supernatural power in which he sends an object or person to bring evil to a designated person." 80 p. 262

[sensationism According to Steiner, one of 12 justified world conceptions — relying on sense impressions to form a picture of reality.]

[sense of I In Anthroposophy: the spiritual sense that enables one to recognize the I in another. However, you cannot truly know another's I; only the individual can truly know his or her own I. Also see ego sense.]

[Sense-Free Thinking In Anthroposophy: the first of seven Regions of Soul, liberating thought from outward sensation, finding truth within. This is the needed developmental stage to permit true development of moral intuition and, beyond that, self-abnegation/self-realization (Moral Feeling and Sacrificial Will). Sense-Free Thinking is guided by Sagittarius.]

senses "The significators of the five physical senses are Mercury — sight, Venus — touch, Mars — taste, Jupiter — smell, Saturn — hearing." 80 p. 262 [According to Steiner, we have 12 senses: the senses of touch, life, movement, balance, smell, taste, sight, temperature, I, thought, hearing, and speech.]

sensitive "A person possessing psychic powers...." 73 p. 186

[sensitive crystallization Key analytical technique used in biodynamic agriculture: reading crystal patterns formed in a salt solution in order to determine the presence or absence of formative or etheric forces.]

[sentient body According to Steiner, the part of the astral body that receives sensations from the surrounding world.]

sentient soul "(Anthroposophy) That developmental stage of human consciousness typified by the Egypto-Chaldean period. Chiefly, it represents man's growth in perceiving the earthly world through the physical senses." 80 p. 262 [Steiner said that the sentient soul is the first of our soul members; it forms feelings and concepts. It fully incarnates in modern humans at about age 28.]

sephiroth "Kabalistic [sic: cabalistic] system, descriptive of ten variously named creative emanations from God, constituting the existence of the world." 73 p. 187

[Seraphim In Christian angelology: high angels associated with purity, light, and ardor. In Anthroposophy: gods nine levels above mankind. As the highest gods of the First Hierarchy, they are also known to Anthroposophists as Spirits of Love.]

[Sermon on the Mount, The Central sermon delivered by Christ, reinterpreted by Steiner as containing references to such things as etheric and astral bodies.]

[serpent Common symbol of evil; the devil.]

[7 (seven) The number of perfection, according to Steiner. It is the sum of three plus four, which Steiner said are the numbers of divinity revealing itself (three) and the cosmos or creation (four). More generally, in various esoteric traditions, seven is deemed a potent number. Ancient astrology recognizes seven planets, the Bible says the world was created in seven days, the seventh son of a seventh son reputedly has supernatural powers, there are seven deadly sins, there are seven heavens, etc.]

seven deadly sins "Pride; Jupiter; Covetousness, Saturn; Lust; Venus; Wrath, Mars; Gluttony, Mercury; Envy, Moon; Indolence, Sun." 80 p. 263

[sevenfold nature of man One of Steiner's descriptions of human nature. Our seven constituent parts, by this analysis, are physical nature, etheric nature, astral nature, intellectual soul, spirit self, life spirit, and spirit man.

Seven Heavens "In the pseudepigraphic Book of Enoch, there is a glorified description of the architecture and inhabitants of the Seven Heavens. These details had a pronounced effect on the New Testament and, beyond that, occultism." 80 p. 263 [Various spiritual traditions state that there are seven heavens or seven levels of heaven. The concept may have derived originally from astrology, which recognized seven "planets": Sun, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn.]

seven principles "(Spiritualism) ... 1.The Fatherhood of God. 2.The Brotherhood of Man. 3.Communion of Spirits ... 4.The Continuous Existence of the Human Soul. 5.Personal Responsibility. 6.Compensation and Retribution [hereafter] 7.Eternal progress open to every soul." 80 pp. 263-264

seven principles of man "(Theosophy) ... (1) Atma — Spirit; (2) Buddhi — Spiritual Soul; (3) Manas — Mind; (4) Kama — Feeling; (5) Prana — Life; (6) Lingasharira — Etheric Double; (7) Sthyka-sharira — Physical Body." 80 p. 264

[Seventh Epoch In Anthroposophy: the final great epoch of our stage of form, the epoch of trumpets, the end of physical reality.]

[seven-year cycles According to Anthroposophical belief: we incarnate in seven-year stages — the etheric body at age 7, the astral body at age 14, and so on.]

sex "Seems to play a mysterious part in psychic phenomena. There are more female mediums than male." 73 p. 187 [Steiner taught that there are fundamental differences between the sexes, embodying the masculine and feminine principles; however, we tend to alternate sexual embodiments in the process of reincarnation: a male in one life will usually be a female in the next life, and vice versa. Also, men have feminine qualities and women have masculine qualities, as secondary characteristics, he said.]

sextile "An apparent angle of 60 degrees between two celestial bodies, astrologically said to promote harmony between them." 73 p. 188

[shaded drawing Characteristic Anthroposophical drawing style in which pictures are built up from short, angled lines with parallel empty spaces between them. The effect is meant to be vibrant and spiritual.]

shaman "[A] medicine man in any primitive society." 80 p. 188

shamanism "Mediumistic practices of primitive tribes...." 73 p. 188

Shamash "The sun-god of the ancient Assyrian-Babylonion [sic] religion...." 80 p. 265

[Shamballa A mystical kingdom mentioned in ancient Asian folklore. Steiner said it was the portion of the spirit realm visible to ancient clairvoyants; future human will meet Christ Jesus there.]

Shang-Ti "Ancient supreme god of China...spontaneously evolved by the Yang and Yin interplay." 80 p. 265

[sheath A covering. In Anthroposophy, a sheath is a nonphysical womb in which a nonphysical body germinates; also, sometimes, "sheath" is used interchangeably with "body."]

[Shem In the Bible: a son of Noah, progenitor of the Semites. According to Steiner, Shem hosted an avatar — a god who descended to Earth.]

Shema "A central tenet of Judaism...the doctrine of the Unity or Oneness of God." 80 p. 266 [Steiner taught that Judaism is nearly unique in being monotheistic, and that the real universe is polytheistic.]

[Shepherds' Play A Medieval nativity play (i.e., a play about the birth of Jesus) often performed by Waldorf faculty or, sometimes, students.]

Shinto "Former monotheistic state religion of Japan ... [It] centered around the divine authority of the sovereign Mikado...." 73 p. 189

ship of the dead "Ancient belief of a phantom ship that carries away the souls of men." 80 p. 266

[Shiva A member of the Godhead, equivalent to the Son or the Word, according to Steiner. (Also see Siva, below.)]

Shu Shu "[T]he arts of divination in ancient China." 80 p. 267

sibyl "[A] prophetess, generally quite old." 80 p. 267

[sickness In Anthroposophy: often deemed a result of karma or astrological forces. Sickness may be a blessing and should not be "cured" if it is required by karma.]

siddha "(Hinduism) [O]ne of the 88,000 semi-divine beings...who inhabit the heaven between the earth and the sun." 80 p. 267

siddhi "Superhuman physical powers attained by Yoga experts." 73 p. 189

[Siegfried A hero of Norse and German mythology; protagonist in Wagner's cycle of "ring" operas. Steiner said Siegfried was really a pre-Christian initiate.]

[Sif The wife of the Norse god Thor; also the Nordic group soul.]

[Sig In Anthroposophical teachings: an ancient initiate, founder of the northern or Vidar mystery stream.]

[sight One of the 12 senses enumerated by Steiner: eyesight.]

sigil "In astrology, an indication of something important in a person's life...." 80 p. 267 [More generally: a painted or inscribed symbol having magical powers.]

sign "A particular 30 degree segment of the tropical zodiac, named after one of the constellations...." 73 p. 189 [A "sign" is also a portent or symbol. Steiner identified and explained numerous occult signs.]

signatures "The concept that plants were created by God for man's use ... [T]he structure of each plant showed its proper function...." 80 p. 268 [A "signature," in this sense, is the shape or characteristic quality of a plant.]

[Silence In Anthroposophy: the final Region of Soul, which occurs under Gemini. Evolution of mind and now soul is nearly complete; humanity verges on the developmental Realms of Spirit. Speech or outward communication or indeed striving of the soul, as previously experienced, is no longer necessary.]

[silver age In general usage: any enviably happy period that is, however, less glorious than a golden age. Hinduism and Theosophy, the "silver age" is the second major age in each recurring cycle of ages: Treta Yuga.]

silver cord "Occultists see this inner cord, which is anchored to the vestigial pineal the vital link with the astral form." 80 p. 268

simulacra "In ancient Egypt...paintings and statuettes of slaves, persons, animals...placed in tombs. These simulacra accompanied their masters into the other world to render them service...." 80 p. 269

sin "Commonly understood as a transgression of divine laws ... Spiritualist view admits of divine laws, but does not claim comprehensive knowledge of them, therefore refrains from condemnation of particular acts as 'sins'." 73 p. 190 [In Anthroposophy, sin is — primarily — failure to evolve as the gods wish us to do.]

sinister "A term in astrology, meaning a left-handed aspect...." 80 p. 269

sitter "A member of a seance or sitting...." 73 p. 190

Siva, Shiva "[O]ne of the three pre-eminent [sic] gods of Hinduism ... Originally, he was the god Rudra, the Destroyer ... But Siva also means 'gracious' ... Siva represents the divine reality in its negative aspect...." 80 p. 270 [Siva or Shiva is sometimes deemed the highest god, sometimes a member of a trinity with Brahma and Vishnu. He is associated with dissolution but also reproduction.]

[Sivers, Marie von (1867-1948) Rudolf Steiner's second wife; a leading Anthroposophist, especially after Rudolf's death.]

[6 (six) - According to Steiner, this is the number through which the Amshaspands (q.v.) rule the Izeds (q.v.).]

[666 According to some occult teachings: the mark of the beast, the devil.]

[Sixth Epoch In Anthroposophy: the great epoch that will follow our present great epoch — it will be the epoch of apocalyptic seals.]

sixth sense "Postulated many times under many names as an alternative to the spirit hypothesis ... [T]he source and sum of all the senses...[allowing] perception of the vibrations of reality." 73 p. 191 [More generally, the sixth sense is clairvoyance or extrasensory perception, sometimes associated with the "third eye."]

[skeleton The part of the body that, under the influence of Ahriman, is nearest death — according to Steiner.]

[skin color According to Steiner, skin color reflects the level of one's evolution. White (or peach blossom) is highest.]

sky walker "The yogi who can transcend his body and travel in astral form." 80 p. 271

[Skythianos An initiate who preserved Atlantean wisdom, Steiner said.]

sleep "[T]o dream that one is asleep and having a dream indicates that the chief incidents of such a dream...will occur." 80 p. 271

sleep-state "[T]he physical body may separate from the spirit body, which can then travel unhampered...." 80 pp. 271-272 [Steiner taught that during sleep the etheric body remains with the physical body, but the astral body and the "I" travel into the spirit realm.]

[sleepwalking - see somnambulism.]

[small-headed children One of two primary constitutional types identified in Waldorf belief: Small-headed children have poor concentration and dull imaginations; they are thin and pale, and they tend toward melancholy.]

[smell One of our 12 senses, Steiner said.]

smells, psychic "All kinds from delicate flower perfumes to noxious odours have been supernormally simulated many times." 73 p. 192

[snake Often a symbol of evil or the Devil. According to Steiner: also the symbol of the Earth as it developed from Old Moon.]

[social therapy In Camphill communities: therapeutic activities for people with developmental deficits; biodynamic agriculture and other Anthroposophical practices are employed.]

[social threefolding Effort to follow Steiner's prescription for dividing society into three spheres — spiritual/cultural, political, economic — that are kept strictly separate. Waldorf schools are sometimes organized in accordance with threefolding.]

[Sol Ancient Roman Sun god.]

[solar chart An astrological chart having the Sun in the ascendant position; considered less informative than a birth chart.]

[Solar Pitris In Theosophy and Anthroposophy: gods of the Sun. According to Steiner, the highest is Christ, the Sun God.]

solar plexus "An important network of nerves situated in the pit of the stomach. It is often associated with one of the psychic centres or 'chakras' of Yoga." 73 p. 195

solar semicircle "In astrology, these are the Signs or Houses from Leo to Capricorn...." 80 p. 274

[solar system The group of planets and other celestial objects that orbit the Sun. Steiner taught that Saturn is the outermost planet in the solar system — more distant planets do not truly belong to the system, he said.]

[Solomonic Jesus In Anthroposophy: one of two Jesus children who, after combining, became the host for the incarnating Sun God. This Jesus had the spirit of Zoroaster. Cf. Nathanic Jesus.]

[Solomonic-Nathanic Jesus In Anthroposophy: the Jesus child who combined the spiritual essence of the Solomonic Jesus (q.v.) and the Nathanic Jesus (q.v.).]

soma "The historically important plant which when made into an intoxicating liquor supposedly gives...supernatural powers." 80 p. 275

somnambules "[S]ensitives who were thrown into mesmeric trances for the purpose of activating supernormal faculties." 80 p. 275

[somnambulism] Sleepwalking. In occult belief, sleepwalkers may enter a spiritual trance. See somnambules, above]

[Son of God In Christianity, Christ the is the Son of God the Father. There is one God, but He has three parts or persons — Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Anthroposophy uses this terminology, sometimes, but with a different, more Theosophical meaning. There are many gods, Steiner taught, and one of these is an embodiment of divine will that may be called the Son or Logos, which is Christ, the Sun God.]

[Sons of Fire According to Anthroposophical belief: gods two levels above mankind. Essentially equivalent to Archangels, they stand at the middle rank of the Third Hierarchy. Other names for gods of this rank include Agnishvattas and Solar Pitris.]

[Sons of God A Theosophical concept, partially underlying the Anthroposophical view of the Son of God. The Sons of God are fallen angels or avatars, holy spirits that manifest in human form. Steiner spoke of such beings, especially during his Theosophical period.]

[Sons of Life According to Anthroposophical belief: gods one level above humanity. Essentially equivalent to Angels, they stand in the lowest rank of the Third Hierarchy. Other names for gods of this rank include Sons of Twilight and Lunar Pitris.]

[Sons of Twilight According to Anthroposophical belief: gods one level above humanity. Essentially equivalent to Angels, they stand in the lowest rank of the Third Hierarchy. Other names for gods of this rank include Sons of Life and Lunar Pitris.]

soothsaying "One of the ancient world's most important occult practices ... [S]oothsayers predicted future events...." 80 p. 276 ["Sooth" means truth. Soothsayers are clairvoyants or fortune tellers who claim to foresee the future.]

[Sophia In Anthroposophy: the divine female principle, often bearing occult wisdom.]

Sophia-Achemoth "For the Gnostics she was the Divine Mother and the bearer of divine wisdom." 80 p. 276

[Sorat In Anthroposophy: the Antichrist, the Sun Demon.]

[Sorath In some esoteric teachings, the spirit of the Sun; otherwise, Sorat.]

[sorcery The use of magic, especially black magic. In Anthroposophy, magic and sorcery are considered real.]

soul "In the usual sense it means the indestructible spiritual part of a personality ... It possesses a finer body, the etheric (astral, double)...." 73 p. 196 [Steiner differentiated between the soul and the spirit. The soul is the spiritual identity that one possesses during an incarnation; the spirit is the undying spiritual self passing through all incarnations, he said.]

soul aura "That part of the human aura which radiates the intensity of spiritual power attained by the individual." 73 p. 196

[soul body The astral body. According to Steiner: the second of three invisible bodies possessed by fully incarnated human. It consists of soul forces/living forces that fine-tune the physical body (which has been shaped by the etheric body). Among human beings, the astral body contains the senses (twelve in all) and it incarnates at about age 14.]

[soul economy In Anthroposophy, generally: using one's psychic energy prudently so that one may eventually become clairvoyant.]

[soul nature According to Steiner: the second major division of the ninefold nature of man, between body nature and spirit nature: the spiritual portion of ourselves that we possess during just one lifetime, as compared to our immortal spirit nature.]

[SOUL'S AWAKENING, THE The fourth and final mystery play written by Rudolf Steiner; finished in 1913.]

[soul-spirit In Anthroposophy: the combined soul and spirit; also called spirit-soul.]

[SOUL'S PROBATION, THE The second of four mystery plays written by Rudolf Steiner; finished in 1911.]

[soul types In Anthroposophy: planetary types, the imprints on the soul produced by passage through the planetary spheres, chiefly after death. One's primary soul type is produced by the planetary sphere where one lingers longest.]

[soul world According to Steiner: the world between the physical world and the spirit world; the realm of the soul. At least sometimes, Steiner identified the soul world with the moon sphere.]

[sound ether One of the subdivisions of ether, Steiner said: also called chemical or number ether. The term "sound ether" is also used as a synonym for the harmony of the spheres.]

space "[S]pace in the spirit world presents no limitations, the mere wish to travel being sufficient to bring it about." 73 p. 197

[special needs Human attributes, including "deficiencies," often result from karma and thus generally should not be tampered with, Steiner taught. Also, extreme deficiencies may indicate that a person is subhuman, he said. Still, Anthroposophists make some efforts to provide education for children with special needs; often these efforts center in Camphill communities.]

specter, spectre "An apparition." 73 p. 197 [Steiner said that specters are beings detached from the spirit world by human wickedness.]

spectral flames "Supernormal lights which have been seen around churches and cemeteries." 73 p. 197

speculum "A table in a horoscope detailing astronomical data...." 80 p. 277

[speech Steiner said that the gods often create through speaking their intentions. Humans also have this power, to a lesser degree, he said. Speech is a gift of the gods and it has formative effects.]

[speech formation In Anthroposophy: a type of recitation and declamation propounded by Steiner and his wife Marie, meant to project the spiritual essence and formative powers of language. It is the vocal equivalent of eurythmy.]

[speech sense One of our 12 senses, Steiner said — the ability to find the meaning in spoken sounds.]

spell in black magic "Casting a spell on a victim requires the exercise of both a prescribed verbal and ritual routine." 80 p. 277 [More generally, a spell is any magical charm or incantation.]

Spenta "[T]he helpers of the powers of Ahura Mazda." 80 p. 277

Sphere, Lower "(Spiritualism) The nearest condition to earth, a transition place through which all must pass at death." 80 p. 277

spheres "The several successive states of spirit life following that of earth. They would appear to exist at indeterminate levels above, and concentric with the earth's surface, interpenetrating, the higher levels invisible to the lower strata." 73 p. 198 [In Anthroposophy, a planetary sphere is the portion of the solar system bounded by the orbit of a planet. We ascend through the spheres when leaving earthly life, Steiner said. In esoteric teachings generally, the terms "plane," "realm", "sphere," and "world" are often used interchangeably, although distinctions can also be drawn.]

spheres, celestial "The sphere [sic: spheres] inhabited by beings far in advance spiritually of earth consciousness." 73 p. 198 [In Anthroposophy, these are essentially the planetary spheres (q.v.). The advanced beings who dwell there are, generally, gods.]

[spider beings According to Anthroposophy: monstrosities of intellect that, under Ahriman and technology, will spread across the Earth.]

[spiral Geometric form sometimes thought to have special spiritual significance. In Waldorf schools, some observances involve walking along spiral paths. The pattern is often meant to represent the soul's journey. See, e.g., "Spiral of Light".]

[Spiral of Light in a Waldorf school Advent observance in which students walk silently along a candlelit spiral of greenery laid on the floor of a darkened room.]

[spiral walk - see spiral and Spiral of Light.]

spirit "A being. In almost every tongue, it is related to 'breath'; the divine afflatus ... The word spirit is often loosely used to describe a discarnate person...." 73 p. 199 [Steiner said the spirit is the undying spiritual self. Compare this to his description of the soul. In general, esoteric teachings hold that spirit is divine or supernatural. In dualistic conceptions, it is the antithesis or inner, shaping essence of matter. In some usages, a "spirit" is a god, a ghost, some other type of discarnate being, or the essential core of any living being. Also see spirits.]

[spirit band The beings — generally discarnate — who assist a medium. See spirit operators.]

spirit body "See bodies." 73 p. 199 [In Anthroposophy, the "spirit body" is atma or spirit man.]

spirit children "[C]hildren who die before maturity are considered to continue their growing and development in spirit life. Often they help in mediumship...." 73 p. 199

[spirit communicator One who communicates with spirits; especially a medium. The term is also applied, sometimes, to a spirit that communicates through a medium.]

spirit councils "[C]ouncils are held in the spirit world to determine courses of missionary action in the earth sphere ... God works by delegation." 73 p. 200

spirit doctors "Doctors skilled on this earth, who have passed over [i.e., died] but who continue to administer to the sick from the spirit spheres...." 73 p. 200

[spirit healing Healing directed by beings or forces from the spirit realm. The healing spirit may be that of a physician, a shaman, or the patient. Also see "mental healing".]

spirit helper "Term for a discarnate entity...who is eager to assist a subject in a humble way." 73 p. 95

spiritism "The belief that the spirits of ancestors or other spirits can both communicate with and be contacted by man. Further, that there are souls of matter, nature spirits, demons, [and other spirit beings]...." 80 p. 281

[spiritland, Spirit-land In Theosophy, affirmed (with "corrections") by Steiner: the realm we enter after death. (Steiner's use of the terms "spiritland" and "Spirit-land" was somewhat fluid. He taught that the first stage of form is "higher spirtland" and the second stage of form is "lower spiritland." The sixth and seventh stages of form recapitulate these types of spirit land in reverse order and at a higher level.) On occasion, especially during his Theosophical period, Steiner identified spirit-land with the Sun sphere, the region of the cosmos under the direct and predominant influence of the Sun.]

[spirit man In Anthroposophy: the third, highest human spiritual member. It is the physical body as transformed and spiritualized by the "I." It survives into the "I" of the next incarnation.]

[spirit nature In Anthroposophy: the highest component of the ninefold nature of man — the immortal part of ourselves, higher than our soul nature and our physical nature.]

spirit operations "Cases have been known in spirit healing where portions of diseased tissue have apparently been excised by supernormal means." 73 p. 200 [Note that in this usage, "spirit operations" are medical procedures, not the general behavior of spirit operators.]

spirit operators "[W]orkers in the spirit band, who are assisting the production of psychic phenomena...." 73 p. 200 [As used in the SteinerBooks dictionaries, "spirit operators" may be incarnate or discarnate spirits; usually they are discarnate.]

[spirit people In spiritualism, generally, people who have died or who for other reasons are discarnate. They are said to assist mediums during seances; they are often the spirits "contacted" during seances.]

spirit photography "Reproductions on a photographic plate of discarnate entities...." 80 p. 281

[spirit realm The higher world(s), above the physical plane.]

[spirits In Anthroposophical usage, these are generally gods, beings more advanced than present-day humans. Beings lower than present-day humans, such as "nature spirits," do not really possess spiritual essence, Steiner said. (Note that the following definition of various types of "spirits" are drawn primarily from Steiner's teachings.) Also see "spirit," above.]

[spirit self The first human spiritual component in the ninefold nature of man, according to Steiner; also, the combination of this with the spiritual soul. It is the astral body as transformed and spiritualized by the "I."]

[spirit sheath In Anthroposophy: the spiritual "skin."]

[Spirits of Activity According to Anthroposophical belief: gods five levels above humanity. Centered in the sphere of Mars, they stand in the middle rank of the Second Hierarchy. Their task is to guide the motions of spiritual energy within the forms of evolution, thus maintaining the system of evolutionary advancement. Other names for gods of this rank include Spirits of Movement, Mights, and Principalities.]

[Spirits of Adversity In Anthroposophy: spiritual beings — especially gods — who have lagged behind in evolution; abnormal but not necessarily evil. Their actions, however, generally create difficulties for upward-evolving entities.]

[Spirits of an Age Steiner said these are gods three levels above mankind; they oversee cultural epochs; they are also known as Zeitgeists. Centered in the sphere of Venus, they stand in the highest rank of the Third Hierarchy. Cf. Time Archangels.]

[spirits of birth and death According to Anthroposophical belief: destructive nature spirits involved in the ending of life, leading (usually) to rebirth elsewhere; usually called elemental spirits of birth and death.]

[Spirits of Darkness In Anthroposophy: evil gods three levels above mankind; also rebellious spirits demoted from the spirit realm. Steiner taught that in 1879, minions of Ahriman — "Spirits of Darkness" — lost a battle with Michael and were cast out of the spirit realm.]

[Spirits of Dusk According to Anthroposophical belief: gods one level above humanity, essentially equivalent to Angels. They stand in the lowest rank of the Third Hierarchy, and are centered in the sphere of the Moon. Having been human during Old Moon, they now oversee us as individuals while we pass through our human stage.]

[Spirits of Epochs In Anthroposophical belief, these are gods three levels above mankind — they are in the highest rank of the Third Hierarchy. Centered in the sphere of Venus, they oversee human civilization during various historical periods or epochs. Gods of this rank are also known by such names as Archai, Spirits of Personality, and Time Spirits.]

[Spirits of Fire Gods two levels above mankind, Steiner taught. They are equivalent to Archangels, standing in the middle rank of the Third Hierarchy. Centered in the sphere of Mercury, they oversee human groups such as families, peoples, and races. Other names for gods of this rank include Agnishvattas and Solar Pitris.]

[Spirits of Form In Anthroposophy: gods four levels above humanity. They rank among the lowest gods of the Second Hierarchy, dwelling in the sphere of the Sun. They help to apply the works of higher gods to the human form. Other names for gods of their rank include Exusiai, Spirits of Light, and Powers.]

[Spirits of Freedom Us, in the distant future, according to Steiner — we shall have evolved to a level of unprecedented spiritual freedom.]

[Spirits of Harmony Gods eight levels above mankind, Steiner said. Standing in the middle rank of the First Hierarchy, they are also known as Cherubim. They dwell in the zodiac, where they help harmonize the solar system with the rest of the universe.]

[Spirits of Hindrance According to Anthroposophical teachings: demonic spirits, evil or at least abnormal gods. Also see "Spirits of Obstruction".]

[Spirits of Lies - see Spirits of Untruth.]

[Spirits of Light Gods four levels above mankind, Steiner taught. They stand among the lowest gods of the Second Hierarchy. Centered in the sphere of the Sun, they help convey solar influences into our evolution and our form. Other names for gods of this rank include Spirits of Form and Authorities.]

[Spirits of Love In Anthroposophical teachings: gods four levels above mankind; also gods nine levels above mankind. In the former case, they stand at the lowest rank of the Second Hierarchy, dwell in the sphere of the Sun, and help convey solar beneficence; in the latter case, they stand at the highest rank of the First Hierarchy, dwell beyond the solar system in the zodiac, and translate divine will into beneficent spiritual conceptions.]

[Spirits of Motion - see Spirits of Movement.]

[Spirits of Movement In Anthroposophy: gods five levels above mankind. Standing at the middle rank of the Second Hierarchy, they are centered in the sphere of Mars. Their task is to guide the motions of spiritual energy within the forms of evolution, thus maintaining the system of evolutionary advancement. Gods of this rank are also known as Dynamis, Mights, and Virtues, among other names.]

[Spirits of Obstruction According to Steiner: evil spirits, born of lies, who oppose man's proper evolution.]

[Spirits of Opposition In Anthroposophical belief: Spirits of Darkness (q.v.), in particular those who oppose the revelation of spiritual truth. They may especially oppose Anthroposophy itself.]

[Spirits of Personality Steiner said these are gods three levels above mankind; they stand at the highest rank within the Third Hierarchy. Dwelling in the sphere of Venus, they oversee the epochs of human evolution, giving each period its character or personality. Other names for gods of this rank include First Beginnings, Primeval Forces, and Zeitgeists.]

[Spirits of Selfhood In Anthroposophy: gods three levels above mankind. Dwelling in the sphere of Venus, they stand at the highest rank within the Third Hierarchy. They help evolving humanity to rise to progressively higher stages of selfhood Other names for gods of this rank include First Beginnings, Spirits of Personality, and Primeval Forces.]

[Spirits of Temptation According to Steiner, these are evil spirits of Saturn who strive to lead humanity astray.]

[Spirits of the Harmonies In Anthroposophy: gods eight levels above mankind, standing at the middle rank of the First Hierarchy. They dwell in the zodiac, and help harmonize the solar system with the rest of the universe. They are also called Spirits of Harmony and Cherubim.]

[Spirits of the Rotation of Time Gods that manifest as natural laws, Steiner taught.]

[Spirits of Untruth Gods who embody the essence of falsehood; especially, gods of the Third Hierarchy, Luciferic beings, who rebelled against the divine cosmic plan during Old Moon.]

[Spirits of Will Gods seven levels above mankind, according to Anthroposophical teachings — they stand at the lowest rank of the First Hierarchy. Gods of this rank are also called Thrones, Radiating Lives, and Radiating Flames. They dwell in the sphere of Saturn, which Steiner said defines the outermost extent of the solar system. They convey the plans of still higher gods into the solar system, providing the substance from which lower gods will work.]

[Spirits of Wisdom In Anthroposophy: gods at the highest rank within the Second Hierarchy. They stand six levels above humanity, and dwell in the sphere of Jupiter. They receive the beneficence of the First Hierarchy and oversee the process of implementing it. Gods of this rank are also called Dominions and Kyriotetes.]

[spirit-soul In Anthroposophy, generally: human identity consisting of both spirit and soul.]

[spirit spheres Spiritual regions generally coextensive with planetary spheres.]

[spiritual economy In Anthroposophy, generally: the divinely instituted arrangement whereby spiritual progress is passed from one evolutionary stage to the next.]

[spiritual ego In Anthroposophy: the "I", the highest of our three invisible bodies; it is our spark of divine selfhood.]

[spiritual exercises In Anthroposophy: meditations and other mental/emotional/spiritual procedures prescribed by Steiner, leading to initiation.]

[spiritual guides According to Steiner: elevated beings who help direct human evolution.]

spiritualism "Is the Science, Philosophy and Religion [sic] of continuous life, based upon the demonstrated fact of communication, by means of mediumship, with those who live in the Spirit World." 73 p. 202 [Usually, spiritualism is defined as a) a system of belief involving communication with the dead, or b) the philosophical position that a spiritual level of reality exists apart from the physical level, and/or c) that only the spiritual level exists, the physical level being illusory.]

spiritualist "One who has accepted [spiritualism]...." 73 p. 202

[spiritualistic agenda of Waldorf schools The real purpose of Waldorf schooling, usually more or less hidden: to spread Anthroposophy and to confer on children and their families the benefits of Anthroposophy.]

[spirituality In general: belief in spiritual beings and/or a spirit realm; generally including embrace of a particular religion. In Anthroposophy, true spirituality is deemed to be Anthroposophy itself; opposition to Anthroposophy is (inaccurately) deemed to be opposition to all forms of spirituality.]

[spiritual nature The third major division of the ninefold nature of man, Steiner taught; it is superior to soul nature and physical nature.]

[spiritual power In various mystical, esoteric, and religious systems: ability to perceive or create spiritual realities; also the power(s) exercised by spirits.]

[spiritual probation In occultism: the testing period for a candidate for initiation.]

spiritual realism "A doctrine that self-forgetfulness leads to a supreme realization of personality...." 80 p. 281

[Spiritual Revolution As presented in Waldorf schools: a spiritual awakening centered in Germany early in the 19th Century; it culminated in Anthroposophy in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries.]

[spiritual science Any "scientific" approach to the study of the spirit realm. Various mystical practices and systems have been described as "sciences," including alchemy and astrology. In addition, some religions have claimed to be scientific, including Scientology and Christian Science. Theosophists and Anthroposophists describe their systems as spiritual science. In Steiner's usage, "spiritual science" essentially means his own teachings and those teachings of the past that correspond to his.]

[spiritual seeds In Steiner's usage: kernels of spiritual power.]

[spiritual skin The envelope of a spiritual being, which may or may not have spatial extension or limits; a shape for that which is shapeless.]

[spiritual soul The highest member of soul nature, in Steiner's ninefold depiction of human nature. The spiritual soul stands above the sentient and intellectual souls.]

[spiritual world - see spirt world(s).]

[spirit vision In Anthroposophy: clairvoyance. Otherwise, any consciousness that produces perception of spiritual phenomena or that provides vision without use of the physical eyes.]

spirit world(s) "A collective term for all the realms of spirit, inclusive of the spheres or planes, but excluding the earth world." 73 p. 203 [Steiner said the spirit world is above the soul world. He generally said there are three worlds, the physical, soul, and spirit worlds, although he sometimes indicated that there are numerous, hidden worlds above the spirit world. He also, sometimes, used the term "spirit world" in a broader sense, meaning all levels of existence above the mundane.]

spodomancy "[D]ivination by interpreting the cinders remaining in sacrificial fires." 80 p. 282

[spring festival in Waldorf schools The observance of Easter mixed with pagan elements of seasonal celebration. Like all Waldorf festivals, at the surface this event may seem nondenominational; at root, it is an Anthroposophical religious observance.]

[sprite A fairy or elf.]

[square Symbol of man's fourfold nature, according to Steiner.]

squassation "A form of rope-hanging torture formerly used to force those accused of witchcraft to name their accomplices." 80 p. 283

[stages of form In Anthroposophy: seven evolutionary stages falling between conditions of life and great epochs. Each stage of form is a subdivision of a condition of life, and each contains seven subdivisions often termed great epochs.]

[stars According to Steiner: manifestations of spiritual powers, gods. The stars influence earthly life through their astrological powers, he taught.]

[states of elementary existence In Anthroposophy: seven levels of existence on the physical plane, given their character by seven ethers or elements — life ether, sound ether, light ether, warmth ether, air, water, and earth.]

statue "In old dream interpretation to dream of marble statues is a sign that the dreamer will soon experience preferment." 80 p. 283

[Steiner, Anna (1853-1911) Rudolf Steiner's first wife. See "Eunicke, Anna".]

[Steiner, Marie (1867-1948) Rudolf Steiner's second wife. See "Sivers, Marie von".]

Steiner, Rudolf (1861-1925) "Great Austrian psychic and clairvoyant. Founder of Anthroposophy, or 'spiritual science'...known chiefly for his educational influence ... He believed that human history shows an evolution of consciousness, and that new faculties of cognition are still to be developed." 73 p. 204 [Steiner was an avowed occultist, claiming to possess extraordinary clairvoyant powers. He was a Theosophist before breaking away to establish his own teachings, Anthroposophy, as a separate movement.]

[Steiner free schools In the U.K., these are Steiner schools that receive public financing and are thus part of the officially sanctioned educational system. They are the equivalent to Waldorf charter schools in the U.S.A.]

[Steiner schools Waldorf schools. Sometimes defenders of one or another Steiner or Waldorf school will claim that there are significant differences between various schools bearing these designations, and to some degree this is true. But in fact most of the schools use essentially the same curriculum based on essentially the same beliefs and aiming at essentially the same spiritualistic goals.]

[Steiner Waldorf schools Waldorf schools, chiefly in Great Britain. Waldorf schools, Steiner schools, and Steiner Waldorf schools are all essentially alike.]

[Steiner Waldorf Schools Fellowship (SWSF) Coordinating and certifying authority for Waldorf schools in the United Kingdom and Ireland.]

[stellar script In Anthroposophy: occult celestial writing, such as supposedly can be found in the Akashic Record.]

[Sthula-sarira, Sthyka-sharira, From Sanskrit: the changeable body, the physical body.]

stigmata "Marks on the body spontaneously produced, and usually resembling the wounds of the Crucifixion." 73 p. 205

stigmata diaboli "The seal or mark of the Devil...." 80 p. 285

[stigmatic writing Mysterious writing that appears on the skin in the location or approximate shape of stigmata.]

Stoicism "A dour system of philosophy, approaching monotheism ... It graduated from a materialistic pantheism to [worship of] an austere transcendant [sic] god, actually called Zeus [sic]." 73 p. 206 [More accurately, Stoicism was an ancient Greek school of philosophy teaching that virtue is based on knowledge, and the wise live in harmony with reason while generally disregarding suffering or pain.]

Strangler, the "[T]he Devil...." 80 p. 286

[strict clairvoyance In Anthroposophy: exact clairvoyance, the precise and disciplined clairvoyance that Steiner claimed to possess, and toward which Anthroposophists aspire.]

[STUDY OF MAN A collection of Steiner lectures that lay out the basic occult rationale for Waldorf education. It has also been published under the titles A GENERAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE HUMAN BEING and THE FOUNDATIONS OF HUMAN EXPERIENCE.]

[subhumans According to Steiner: beings who have not attained the human level of evolution. Also humans who become demonic or fall out of evolution; ceasing to be human, they become monstrous.]

subject "A creature of the earth, human or animal...." 73 p. 207

[subject teachers at Waldorf schools Teachers who, unlike Waldorf class teachers, are restricted to presenting one or two subjects to the students at various grade levels.]

[sub-material world - see sub-physical world.]

[sub-nature In Anthroposophy, generally: a demonic realm below the level of physical reality. Also see "sub-physical world".]

[subordinate nature spirits Lowly elemental beings; bad or retrograde humans may sink to this subhuman level, Steiner said.]

[sub-physical world In Anthroposophy: the realm underlying the physical world; in general, the domain of nature spirits, subhumans, and demons. Also see "sub-nature".]

[sub-race In Theosophical teachings, including Steiner's: a specific race occurring within a root race.]

[substandard souls The souls of subhumans or the souls of very low human races, according to Steiner.]

[subtle In esotericism: the quality of being incorporeal, existing on a level beyond the physical, beyond the reach of ordinary senses.]

[subtle body A nonphysical body or envelope. Steiner taught that human beings have three: the etheric, astral, and ego bodies.]

[subtle conditioning Indirect indoctrination or brainwashing. Critics accuse Waldorf schools of attempting to condition students in this manner.]

[succubus Female demon thought to have sex with sleeping men. Plural: succubi.]

Sufism "A mystical development within Islam ... The principal duty of the Sufi is meditation on the unity of God." 73 p. 208

sukya "Throughout Central America a sorcerer who practices the art of curing disease." 80 p. 289

Summerland "In Spiritualism it is the sphere of the spirit world most often referred to...a blissful land of rest and harmony...." 80 p. 289

[Sun In Anthroposophy, the star the Earth either orbits or follows, home of the Sun beings, and especially the home of Christ, the Sun God. "Old Sun," on the other hand, was the second major stage of our evolution, following Old Saturn.]

[Sun at midnight In Anthroposophy: initiates are thought to be able to produce the Sun's spiritual radiance even in the depths of night.]

[Sun beings In Anthroposophy: denizens of the Sun, chiefly gods (Solar Pitris), the chief of whom is Christ, the Sun God.]

[Sun evolution In Anthroposophy: the stage of cosmic evolution that followed Old Saturn and preceded Old Moon: Old Sun or its equivalent experienced by an individual in her/his spiritual existence.]

[Sun Genius The presiding spirit of the Sun: the Sun God, Christ.]

[Sun God The god dwelling within or on the Sun, ruling the Sun and its denizens. In Anthroposophy, this is Christ. According to Steiner, this deity was known to earlier religions by other designations (Ra, Baldur, etc.), but he was always worshipped as the Sun God.]

[Sun Hero A high initiate in Mithraism, and, higher still (according to Steiner), Christ.]

[Sun humans Proto-humans as they were during Old Sun., according to Steiner; also humans with a particular spiritual attachment to the Sun.]

[Sun Leader Christ as comprehended in Zoroastrianism, according to Steiner.]

[Sun sphere The region of the cosmos under the direct and predominant influence of the Sun, Steiner taught. Steiner sometimes designated this sphere as spirit-land. See Spiritland, Spirit-land, above.]

[Sun superrmen Superhuman beings of the Sun; see "supermen".]

[Sunbridge Institute A Waldorf teacher-training institution in upstate New York, USA.]

[sunspots Remnants of Old Saturn visible on the Sun, Steiner taught.]

superior planets "[In astrology] those farther in orbit from the Sun than the Earth's [sic]...." 80 p. 289

[supermen In Anthroposophy: beings superior to humans, generally standing at the level of gods one rank higher than humanity. Coming from various planets and the Sun, they make spiritual science possible, Steiner said, by bringing to Earth their superior wisdom.]

[supernal Celestial, of or relating to the heavens; heavenly or ethereal.]

supernatural "Phenomena which violate natural laws." 73 p. 209

supernormal "[S]upernatural, when describing psychic phenomena. Its modern equivalent is 'paranormal'...." 73 p. 209

[supersensible Beyond the reach of ordinary senses — perceptible only through clairvoyance, according to Anthroposophical belief.]

[supersensible world According to Anthroposophy: all of the universe, including the spirit realm, that lies beyond the reach of ordinary senses.]

[supersensory - see supersensible.]

[superstition Unfounded belief in magic and/or the supernatural. Critics argue that many strains of superstition are present in Waldorf beliefs and practices.]

[supplementary exercises In Anthroposophy: various additional spiritual exercises prescribed by Steiner: control of thought; control of will; control of feeling; positivity; open-mindedness; harmonization of inner and outer.]

survival "The demonstration of a continuation of personality after death...." 73 p. 209

Surya "(Hinduism) ... [T]he sun, the Sun-god [sic]." 80 p. 290

[SWSF - see Steiner Waldorf Schools Fellowship.]

sycomancy "Divination by using the leaves of the fig tree." 80 p. 292

[sylphs Nature spirits that live in the air, according to Anthroposophical belief based on ancient superstition.]

[sylvan spirits Nature spirits (or sprites, pixies, fairies) dwelling in woodlands.]

[symbols Generally signs or shapes used for representation or designation. Occult symbols are often believed to have magical or spiritual powers.]

[symbology The study and use of symbols. Anthroposophy is rife with occult symbols, some of which may be found in Waldorf schools.]

[sympathetic magic Magic based on the manipulation of figures or words, etc., that represent, correspond to, or "sympathize" with the object the magician wants to affect. Thus, a effigy may be damaged in order to harm a person, or a name may be invoked to control the object bearing that name.]

[sympathy In Anthroposophy: union of the soul with the surrounding world. We are most sympathetic in our lives between incarnations — when we are united with the spirit realm. Cf. antipathy.]

Synoptic Gospels "Those of Matthew, Mark and Luke, as giving a general view of the same events." 73 p. 211