> J - K - L - M - N - O <

Terms to be defined are shown in bold type. Definitions excerpted from the SteinerBooks dictionaries are placed within quotations marks. Anything I have added is placed within brackets. Definitions quoted from THE STEINERBOOKS DICTIONARY OF THE PSYCHIC, MYSTIC, OCCULT, published in 1973, are marked "73". Definitions quoted from THE NEW STEINERBOOKS DICTIONARY OF THE PARANORMAL, published in 1980, are marked "80".

- J -

Jacob's ladder "In Cabalism this represents a symbolic vision of the powers of alchemy...." 80 p. 144 [Jacob, a Hebrew patriarch, dreamed of a ladder reaching to heaven: Genesis 28:12.]

Jagad-Guru "(Hinduism) Brahma, Vishnu, or Shiva...[meaning] Teacher of the World." 80 p. 144

jagd-atman "[T]he soul of the world." 80 p. 145

[Jahve(h) - see Jehovah.]

Jainism "A unique minority religion of India: an offshoot of Hinduism ... The chief characteristic is the emphasis on the principle of 'Ahimsa' (non-violence) to extreme limits." 73 p. 109

Janardana "A name of Krishna, meaning 'the adored of the world.'" 80 p. 145

Jayas "[T]he 12 Emanations of Brahma...the 12 Creative Hierarchies of Hinduism." 80 p. 146

Jehovah "[T]he spirit control of Moses and special guardian of the Jews." 73 p. 110 ["Jehovah" is usually understood to be a name for the one and only God worshipped in monotheistic faiths, although Jehovah is often said to have a special relationship with the Jewish people. Some scholars indicate that Jehovah was originally one of many gods worshipped by peoples east of the Mediterranean; only later did he come to be identified as sole true God of the universe. Anthroposophy, which is polytheistic, harkens back to the disputed earlier tradition; Steiner taught that Jehovah, a fairly low-level god, has presided over the Hebrews from the Moon while multitudinous other gods — some of them much higher than Jehovah — have performed other functions throughout the cosmos. Also see "God", "Yahweh", "Yhva", and "YHWH".]

jelly "[D]reams of receiving pots of jelly...[signify] good fortune...." 80 p. 147

Jesus of Nazareth "Jesus was an outstanding Jewish medium born about 4 B.C." 73 p. 111 [Steiner taught that there were two Jesus children who combined to form the vessel for the incarnation of the Sun God, Christ, on Earth.]

jettatura "[T]he spell which is cast by a person with the evil eye." 80 p. 147

[Jewry - see Jews and Judaism.]

[Jews Descendants of the ancient Hebrews, practitioners of Judaism. According to Steiner, Jews have little capacity for spiritual insight. The Jewish people and culture should cease to exist, he taught.]

jinn "(Islam) The invisible spirits which are lower than the angels and able to appear in any shape ... One of the Jinn is Satan." 80 p. 147

jinx "Derived from the Greek...[meaning] that which is able to cast a spell...." 80 p. 147

jnana, jnanam "(Hinduism) The vision of clairvoyance; occult insight...." 80 p. 148

[Jötunheim In Norse myths: the land of the giants.]

[Jötuns In Norse myths: giants. They were the enemies of the gods.]

[Jove - see Jupiter.]

joy "[T]o dream of feeling joy, according to old dream interpretation, is a sign of pain, trouble...." 80 p. 149

joys "Astrologers describe the planets as being in their joys during periods when they are harmoniously located." 80 p. 149

[Judaism The Jewish religion and/or the Jewish people as a whole. According to Steiner, neither the religion nor the people has any reason to continue in existence — evolution has moved on.]

juju "In West Africa, an object with supernatural potency." 80 p. 149

Jul, Yul, Yule "In ancient Scandinavia...the disc or wheel of the sun ... [T]he period of the year which, being sacred to Freyer or Fro, the Sun-god, celebrated his powers...." 80 p. 150 [Anthroposophists often refer to Baldur as the Norse Sun God, seeing in him a Christ figure. Freyr is the Norse god of fertility, rain, and sunshine. "Jul", in Scandinavia, is July. The Yule feast, on the other hand, comes in December.]

[Jupiter The fifth planet from the Sun, also the god Jove. In Anthroposophy, Jupiter is the home of the Archangel Zachariel. Also in Anthroposophy, the term "Jupiter" is also sometimes used to refer to Future Jupiter — the coming planetary stage of evolution where/when we will have Jupiter consciousness: perfected imagination.]

[Jupiter consciousness Perfected imagination. Steiner taught that all humans will possess it during Future Jupiter or the Jupiter evolution.]

[Jupiter evolution The stage of cosmic evolution that will follow Present Earth: Future Jupiter or its equivalent experienced by an individual in her/his spiritual existence.]

[Jupiter humans According to Steiner: Europeans, or humans who migrated to Jupiter and their offspring; also humans at the Future Jupiter stage.]

[Jupiter organ A spiritual (clairvoyant) organ developed through the influence of Jupiter as we ascend through the Jupiter sphere — according to Steiner. In developing this organ, we attain benefits enabled by the forces of Jupiter.]

[Jupiter race Europeans — according to Steiner.]

[Jupiter sphere According to Steiner: the portion of the solar system defined by the orbit of Jupiter (if the planets actually orbit the Sun, which Steiner sometimes denied), and the portion of the spiritual realm coterminous with that portion of the physical solar system. It is the home of gods six levels higher than humanity.]

jyotis "(Hinduism) The light from the sun which is both physical and spiritual...." 80 p. 150 [More typically, jyotis is referred to as a form of Hindu astrology.]

- K -

ka "Ancient Egyptian equivalent for the double or etheric body." 73 p. 112 ["The exact significance of the ka remains a matter of controversy, chiefly for lack of an Egyptian definition; the usual translation, 'double,' is incorrect." — ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA.]

[Kabbalism The Jewish tradition of mystical interpretation of the Bible. Today it is largely found in Hasidism. Also see "Cabala".]

Kairos "The god of opportunity in ancient Greece." 80 p. 151

kala "(Hinduism) Time as the source of all...." 80 p. 151

[Kali A terrifying and hideous Hindu goddess, the goddess of time, doom, and death; she is the wife of Shiva.]

Kali Yuga "(Hinduism) The fourth and present age of the world..." 80 p. 151 [In Hindu teachings, Kali Yuga is the final age in each cycle of ages. Called the "dark age," it is the lowest and shortest of the yugas, lasting 432,000 years. (Anthroposophical texts generally make each of the yugas far shorter than in Hindu or Theosophical texts. Anthroposophists generally say that Kali Yuga ended in 1899 A.D., when Steiner began disseminating his occult teachings.) Kali Yuga follows Dvapara Yuga, the bronze age. (Note that the terms "dark age" and "bronze age" are used very differently in esotericism and religion than in conventional studies of history.)]

kalki avatar "The tenth avatar of Vishnu...." 80 p. 151

kalpa "A day and night of Brahma, which equals 4,320,000,000 years." 80 p. 151

[kama In Theosophy: feeling, desire, pleasure.]

kama rupa "Hindu term for [the] 'astral shell'...." 73 p. 112

[Kamaloca, Kamaloka Purgatory, Hades. Steiner taught that a soul stays in kamaloka for about one third of the time s/he lived on Earth during her/his most recent incarnation.]

Kamrusepa "The Hittite goddess who was the great practitioner of witchcraft." 80 p. 152

kapparah "(Judaism) "The 'scapegoat' whose annual sacrifice for the guilt of the people appeased the wrath of the gods [sic]...." 80 p. 152

karma "The Hindu Law of Action [i.e., destiny]. It is bound up with the traditional religious views...regarding the inexorability of reincarnation either higher or lower in the animal human [sic] scale." 73 p. 113 [Karma — one's self-created destiny — is an extremely important Anthroposophical doctrine. A central affirmation is that the purpose of Waldorf education is to help children with their karmas.]

karma yoga "Yoga pathway of consecrated unselfish action." 73 p. 113

kau "In Tibet...he who possesses a Kau, a very potent talisman, is impervious to bullets...." 80 p. 153

kephalomancy "A form of divination is which various signs were made on the baked head of an ass...." 80 p. 154

Keres "In ancient Greece, these were the malignant spirits who brought every kind of evil...." 80 p. 154

[kernel of life, soul-spiritual kernel In Steiner's Theosophical teachings: one's ultimate, inner selfhood; the essence of one's selfhood; one's monad.]

keshara "(Hinduism) A yogin who can enter his astral form. The term means 'sky-walker.'" 80 p. 154

key words "In astrology...the essential qualities of each of the twelve signs of the Zodiac." 80 p. 155 [E.g., Aries: aspiration, Libra: equilibrium.]

ki "The term for the human aura of mesmeric and potent emanation." 80 p. 155

[King Arthur Legendary British king whose knights sought the Holy Grail. Steiner taught that he was a pagan initiate.]

[kingdoms of life In Anthroposophy: conditions of life — evolutionary stages falling between conditions of consciousness and stages of form. Each condition of consciousness comprises seven conditions or kingdoms of life.]

[kingdoms of nature Realms of nature. In Anthroposophic belief, there are four: the mineral, plant, animal, and human kingdoms.]

[Kings' Play One of the spiritualistic plays frequently staged at Waldorf schools. The "kings" are the three wise men who traveled to honor the birth of Jesus.]

[King Winter A personification of a season — the frigid energies of winter — depicted in Waldorf schools, teaching children to accept the "reality" of nature spirits embodying the forces of spiritualized nature.]

Kirlian photography "Pictures which show the auras of living things...." 80 p. 156

kiss of shame "During the Sabbat [sic]...the participants kissed the buttocks of the Devil." 80 p. 157

[knitting Waldorf schools emphasize handwork such as knitting, in part to promote the students’ powers of thought. Steiner taught that we think better with our fingers than with our brains. He also said that knitting promotes the development of good teeth.]

[knowledge In Anthroposophy, true knowledge comes through clairvoyance; use of the brain, libraries, reading, science, and scholarship receive far lower emphasis, and are even viewed askance.]

[KNOWLEDGE OF THE HIGHER WORLDS AND ITS ATTAINMENT One of Steiner's seminal texts, laying out purported procedures for becoming clairvoyant. It has also been published under the titles KNOWLEDGE OF THE HIGHER WORLDS - How Is It Attained? and HOW TO KNOW HIGHER WORLDS.]

koan "A paradox or insoluble problem suitable for meditating upon in the practice of Zen Buddhism." 73 p. 115

kobolds "Elemental beings considered in some respects as evil 'house spirits'...." 80 p. 157

[Koguzki, Felix (1833-1909) The herb collector who is said to have given Steiner his first occult initiation. ("M" is said to have given Steiner a second, higher initiation.)]

kokinomancy "Divination by peering through a sieve...." 80 p. 158

Kosmon Bible "An astounding work of automatic typewriting...." 80 p. 158 [Published in 1882, this work — also known as OAHSPE — was produced during trance states by John Ballou Newbrough, a dentist, who claimed that he was channeling divine informants.]

Krishna "Meaning Christ 'the anointed one'." 73 p. 115 [In Hinduism, Krishna is the eighth avatar of Vishnu.]

[Krishnamurti, Jiddu (1895-1986) An Indian religious leader whom some Theosophists declared the reincarnation of Christ. Disagreement about Krishnamurti was one reason Steiner split from Theosophy to found Anthroposophy as a separate movement.]

[Krita Yuga From Hinduism: the golden age, the first of four world ages in each cycle of ages. Also called Satya Yuga, it lasts 1,728,000 years and is a period of harmony and godliness. The concept has been incorporated into Theosophy and appears in some of Steiner's teachings. Krita Yuga is followed by Treta Yuga, the silver age.]

Kronos, Cronos, Chronus "In ancient Greek mythology, the youngest son of Heaven and Earth. Having castrated his father, he and his fellow Titans ruled the earth." 80 p. 159

kundalini "According to Yoga teaching, a hidden psychic force which lies coiled at the base of the spine (the semen)...." 73 p. 115

Kuvera "In the Vedas he is the chief of all evil spirits. He is also the Hindu god of wealth." 80 p. 160.

[Kyriotetes In Anthroposophy: gods six levels above mankind. Dwelling in the sphere of Jupiter, they stand at the highest rank of the Second Hierarchy, playing a leading role in implementing the intentions of the First Hierarchy. Gods of this rank are also known by such names as Dominions and Spirits of Wisdom.]

- L -

ladder of life "A very inclusive term utilized by many occult schools and religions ... Mainly, it refers to the ascending grades or stages of the universe's development and also of the spiritual, mystical, and occult ascent of the adept." 80 p.161

ladybird, lady bug "Divination by this [insect] in which the captured insect was bidden to fly 'north, south, east, or west'...." 80 p. 161

lama "[P]riest of esoteric Buddhism...." 73 p. 115

Lamaism "In Tibet, Lamaism represents the body of religious doctrines and institutions which was derived from Mahayana Buddhism...." 80 p. 162

Lamb of God "An epithet referring to Christ." 80 p. 162 [This usage derives from the Passover lamb (Exodus 12:1-13; I Corinthians 5:7) — a suffering servant who is led to the slaughter.]

lamia "A child-stealing demon...." 80 p. 162

[language Created and bestowed by the gods, Steiner said; it is a formative, creative power. The gods often create by speaking their thoughts. Humans share this power to some degree, Steiner said, and we will share it more when we evolve higher.]

[language sense One of the 12 senses, according to Steiner — the "sense" that enables us to find meaning in language.]

[lantern walk In Waldorf schools: a Martinmas observance — the children make lanterns and carry them outdoors on a dark night. "The light in the lantern symbolizes the fact that in the dark season the light of the summer sun has gradually descended into the earth and then, through Advent, is born again within." — H. v. Oort, ANTHROPOSOPHY A-Z (Sophia Books, 2011), pp. 104-105]

lares "[F]amiliar household gods...." 80 p. 163

[large-headed children One of two primary constitutional types identified in Waldorf belief: Large-headed children are excessively influenced by their metabolic-limb systems. They tend to be stout and phlegmatic.]

[larynx The voice box. In the future, it will become the organ of reproduction, according to Steiner.]

[Last Supper In Christianity: the last meal Jesus shared with his disciples. The cup or platter used by Jesus at that meal became known as the Holy Grail.]

laya yoga "Yoga pathway of divine union through the etheric plane." 73 p. 116

lays-center "The mystical point where a thing disappears in one plane and passes to another." 80 p. 163

[lazure Wall-painting technique often used in Waldorf schools: multiple, thin layers of paint are applied, creating an effect of vibrant ("spiritual") colors.]

[leader In Anthroposophic belief: a highly evolved spirit, a guru.]

leader, circle "It is usually advisable to nominate a leader for a circle, apart from the medium ... [S/he] should be competent to deal with any emergency." 73 p. 116

leading houses "According to astrology, these are the Cardinal Signs — the first, fourth, seventh, and tenth." 80 p. 164 [Generally, these houses are 1: Aries 4: Cancer 7: Libra 10: Capricorn.]

[learning disabilities Steiner attributed many human limitations to demonic interference, and he indicated that Waldorf education is for normal children, not the abnormal. However, he also laid down guidance for "special education," and many of his precepts are followed in Camphill communities.]

lecanomancy "Divination by tossing an object into a full container of water...." 80 p. 164

[left hand Steiner said that left-handedness should usually be "corrected," since it leads to idiocy.]

[legends According to Steiner: true clairvoyant reports concerning the gods and other beings.]

[lemniscate A figure eight; a spiritually significant form in Waldorf belief, tracing interactions between spheres, levels, and planes.]

Lemuria "...This lost continent which preceded Atlantis was considered to have existed over a large area from India to South America. (See: Root Race)." 80 p. 165

[Lemurian Epoch The third great epoch of humanity's evolution on Earth, Steiner said. We lived on the continent of Lemuria.]

Leo "Astrological sign (July 24-August 23) ... Qualities — possess great charm and personality, endurance, and loyalty...but [Leos] can be ruinously restless, hot-headed [sic], impetuous, tricky...." 80 p. 165

[leprosy A disfiguring, infectious disease — spread by demons, according to Steiner.]

[lesson books In Waldorf education: notebooks created by students, chiefly by copying the work of their teachers displayed on chalkboards. Waldorf schools tend to shun mainstream textbooks, which present knowledge incompatible with the Waldorf vision. Students create lesson books instead, which means relying wholly on Waldorf authorities. Lesson books are also sometimes called block books or class books.]

levitation "[T]he supernatural rising of chairs, tables, human bodies and heavy objects, into the air ... [W]e have several accounts of mediums' levitation...." 73 p. 118 [In many mystical accounts, the term "levitation" applies especially to flying or airborne floating achieved by human beings without the use of any mechanical aids.]

Libra "Astrological sign (September 24-October 23) ... Qualities — exceptionally well-balanced, generous, sociable, esthetic, intuitive...but Libras exhibit a tendency to drift, to be materialistic, careless...." 80 pp. 165-166

[libraries Repositories of dead knowledge, pleasing to Ahriman — according to Steiner.]

[lies, lying Both a cause and consequence of karma, Steiner taught. Moreover, lies cause demonic beings to be born.]

[life after death and before birth In Anthroposophical belief, we reincarnate many times. Between earthly lives, we live in the spirit realm.]

[life body In Anthroposophy, drawing from Theosophy: the etheric body.]

[life conditions In Anthroposophy: conditions of life, evolutionary stages falling between conditions of consciousness and stages of form. Each condition of consciousness comprises seven life conditions, also sometimes called life kingdoms.]

[life ether In Anthroposophy: the finest form of ether, imparting life to an entity.]

[life force A hypothetical natural force that imparts life and health. A nineteenth century concept that was later discarded by scientists but retained by Anthroposophists.]

[life kingdoms - see life conditions.]

[life sciences Genuine, non-Anthroposophical sciences, such as biology and botany, that study living organisms. In Waldorf schools, however, these are often taught with mystical undertones if not explicit presentations of Steiner's doctrines. Cf. physical sciences.]

[life sense One of the 12 senses, according to Steiner — the "sense" that enables us to feel that we exist.]

[life spirit In Anthroposophy: an elevated part of our spiritual nature — the portion of the ether body lifted by the "I"; it does not die but accompanies the "I" when it travels to the spirit realm in preparation for the next incarnation.]

life waves "(Theosophy) ... The first Life Wave creates all matter; the second Life Wave creates life from matter; and the third Life Wave creates man." 80 p. 167 [According to Theosophical belief, such waves consist of groups of souls that, moving together in a pulse-like manner, evolve upward spiritually through a distinct series of stages. According to physics, light consists of photons that act partly like waves and partly like particles.]

[light According to physics, light consists of photons that act partly like waves and partly like particles. According to Steiner, light is neither waves nor particles but the condensation of spirit entering the physical realm.]

[light body According to Steiner: our true form, revealed after death.]

[light ether In Anthroposophical belief: the second of four subdivisions of ether: a substance emitted by objects that shine. ]

[light world In Anthroposophy: the spirit realm or the etheric realm.]

lights "This term in astrology refers to the two most important planets [sic], the Sun and Moon...." 80 p. 167

[Light, Spirits of In Anthroposophical doctrine: beneficent gods. They have directed the divine cosmic plan for humanity's benefit. Cf. spirits of darkness.]

like attracts like "An important 'law' of spirit contact ... If two persons, incarnate or discarnate have similar tastes and desires, their auras it is said, [sic] will blend...resulting in a degree of mental rapport." 73 p. 120

Lillith (Lilith) "Demonologists describe Lillith as being either the prince or princess who ruled the succubi." 80 p. 167 [In Jewish folklore, Lilith was Adam's first wife; a female demon, she tried to kill her children.]

[limb man In Anthrooposophy: the inner human being embodying the forces of the limbs and metabolism; carrier of the will.]

[limb-metabolic system - see metabolic-limb system.]

Limbo "Traditionally, the border of the next world where fools and sinners were restrained." 73 p. 120

[limbs Components of the metabolic-limb system, limbs are the part of us that prepare for life after death, or so Steiner taught.]

lingam "The stone male sexual organ which since ancient times has represented the god Siva...." 80 p. 168

[Lingasharira, Ling Sharira In Theosophy: the etheric pattern of the physical body, or of the etheric body or, sometimes, of the astral body.]

[lion In Anthroposophy: one of four early human group souls; the soul of those with aggression in their hearts.]

[literature In Waldorf schools, special emphasis is put on mystical stories and texts, such as Norse myths, that condition the mind to receive doctrines such as Steiner's.]

[little self In Hinduism: one's lower, transient identity; one's identity during an Earthly incarnation. The concept is accepted, with modifications, in Theosophy and Anthroposophy. See, e.g., "lower I". Cf. great self.]

[living thoughts In Anthroposophy, these are true thoughts implanted before birth; created by cooperation of gods and man; cf. intellect. To find truth, one should access these inbuilt thoughts, not seek to develop new thoughts through use of the brain, Steiner taught.]

Loa "In the Voodoo religion, these gods are appeased by the offerings of their worshippers," 80 p. 168

[Lodge of Twelve, The Seat of the guides of human evolution, Steiner indicated.]

[lodges In esotericism: meeting places for spiritual guides and initiates.]

[Lödur According to Anthroposophy: the Norse god of blood and pigmentation. Other sources indicate that Lödur is an enigmatic figure rarely mentioned in Norse myths.]

[logic Associated with the brain, akin to intellect: rational analysis. From an Anthroposophical perspective, logic is faulty and untrustworthy, although it is useful in understanding the physical plane of existence.]

[logicism One of seven world outlooks, according to Steiner: logically connecting thoughts to one another.]

[Logoi Three gods comprising the Godhead, according to Steiner. Originally, in ancient Greek mysticism, logoi were multiple components of the divine reason (logos) that organizes the universe.]

Logos "The Divine word, as representative of the Deity incarnate. Not consistent with Spiritualistic religion." 73 p. 122 [In Steiner's teachings — drawing from gnostic tradition — Logos is generally synonymous with Christ, as the embodied Word of God. Logos, then, may be deemed the second member of the triune God. However, Anthroposophy is polytheistic, and Steiner said that the three members of the Godhead are separate gods, Logoi.]

Loki "The Scandinavian god of evil...." 80 p. 169 [In Norse myths — which are emphasized in Waldorf schools — Loki is a prankster who betrays the gods and fights for the giants. Despite this betrayal, he is often depicted as more mischievous than evil. According to Steiner, Loki is Lucifer in disguise.]

[looping In education: keeping a group of students together as a class for several years under the same teacher.]

lord "In astrology...the ruler of a sign and...of a house." 80 p. 169

[Lord Brahma In Hinduism: a member of the divine trinity, the creator of the universe.]

[Lord of Karma According to Steiner: Christ — the god who can free us from karma.]

[Lord's Prayer, The The example of proper prayer given by Christ. Steiner revised it in various ways.]

[Lord's Supper, The In Christianity (especially Protestantism): Holy Communion, the Eucharist.]

lost spirits "Refers to those discarnate entities who are isolated by the results of their self-centeredness." 73 p. 122

lotus "The most prominent flower in [Hinduism] it symbolizes the earth." 80 p. 170 [In Anthroposophy, "lotus" is a synonym for "chakra," generally an organ of psychic sight or clairvoyance.]

[lotus flowers In Anthroposophy: chakras, incorporeal organs, especially organs of clairvoyance.]

love "In old dream interpretation, a dream that one is in love indicated the individual would make a fool of himself...." 80 p. 171 [In Anthroposophy, love is the repayment of a spiritual or karmic debt.]

Lower Astral "Common term for that part of the spirit sphere nearest earth. The level of ghosts, apparitions and poltergeist activities." 73 p. 123

[lower I In Anthroposophy: the portion of the I that exists on the physical plane during earthly life, giving one a sense of "ego."]

[lower mental plane In Theosophy: the less elevated portion of the mental plane, from which one can apprehend at a distance the primary precincts of Devachan.]

Lower Sphere "(Spiritualism) The nearest condition to earth, a transition place through which all must pass at death." 80 p. 277 [In Anthroposophy, this is often equated with the Eighth Sphere (q.v.).]

[Lower Spiritland In Anthroposophy: the lower of two levels of Spiritland, the region where archetypes conceived in Higher Spiritland are made specific.]

[Lower Spiritland Stage of Form In Anthroposophy: the second stage of form, coming between the Higher Spiritland Stage of Form and the Astral Stage of Form.]

[lower world Generally, in dualistic religious cosmologies: the physical realm, below the spiritual world(s). The lower world may include a place of perdition, or perdition may occur in a still lower world — hell. In various traditions, existence in the physical realm is itself a form of fall or perdition.]

lucidity "A collective term for the faculties by means of which supernormal knowledge may be acquired. It includes...clairvoyance, clairaudience, psychometry and premonitions." 73 p. 124

[Lucifer In classical Greek/Roman mythology, a god, bringer of the dawn, or the morning star. In Christian tradition: Satan before his fall. In Anthroposophy: a great demon, a fallen angel; destructive yet offering gifts. He is the lord of false spirituality; he is the rival/companion of Ahriman. (Steiner usually referred to Lucifer as a single being, but sometimes he indicated that Lucifer is compounded of various demonic beings. See" Luciferic beings".)]

Luciferians "In Medieval times, sects of occultists who debased and damaged the Eucharistic wafer in the presence of a figure of Lucifer. They were considered Satanists..." 80 p. 171 [In Anthroposophy, Lucifer is distinguished from Satan. Terms such as "Luciferic" are used to denote powers or beings under the sway of Lucifer.]

[Luciferic Associated with (influenced by, controlled by...) Lucifer.]

[Luciferic beings Minions of Lucifer. (In some teachings, Steiner indicated that "Lucifer" is actually a compound noun referring to numerous demonic beings: Moon adepts.)]

[Luciferic rebellion According to Steiner, Lucifer and his minions rebelled against the good Sun spirits during Old Moon. The most advanced "humans" of the period joined the rebellion, which led to the solidification of matter and existence on the lowly physical plane. Mankind "fell" when it came under Luciferic influence, particularly during the Lemurian Epoch. But the influence of Lucifer also created the possibility for humans to become free, in that they might choose between good and evil]

[Luciferic world The world or plane of existence dominated by Lucifer.]

luminous body "Pythagoras' term for the astral body." 80 p. 172 [A word of caution: Anthroposophists assign views to various philosophers, saints, authors, etc., that may be quite alien to those individuals' actual statements. None of Pythagoras' writings survive.]

[Lunar Pitris In Anthroposophy: Angels at their human stage, on the Moon or during Old Moon.]

lycanthropy "An ancient and primitive belief that a human being can be transformed into an animal." 73 p. 124

- M -

["M" The second being who, Anthroposophists believed, gave Steiner occult initiation; thought to be Christian Rosenkreutz. Steiner is said to have received his first, lower initiation from Felix Koguski.]

[macrocosm In Anthroposophy: the universe, the human being writ large. See "microcosm and macrocosm".]

maga "The general name for witch, but particularly a hedonistic witch." 80 p. 173.

Magi "A learned class of the ancient Medes and Persians who studied and practised magic." 73 p. 125 [In Christian tradition, the "three wisemen" or "three kings" who traveled to attend the birth of Jesus were the "Magi." In Waldorf schools, their story is portrayed in the "Kings' Play".]

magic "The art of the supernormal ... [Types include] Sympathetic magic ... White magic ... Black magic." 73 p. 125 [In general, "magic" can be defined as the use of mysterious or supernatural powers to affect people, objects, or events.]

magic circle "[S]orcerers, shamans, and wizards since ancient times have used the circle drawn around themselves or others as a kind of supernatural defense against demons." 80 p. 52

[magic code In various forms of esotericism: mysterious words, acronyms, or secret signs that, once decoded, confer great spiritual wisdom and/or power.]

magisterium "In alchemy, a term describing the 'process' that led to knowledge of the Philosopher's Stone." 80 p. 175 [In more common usage, "magisterium" refers to the authoritative, official teaching of the Roman Catholic Church.]

[magnetism According to Anthroposophy: a force in the realm of sub-nature, ruled by demons. Magnetism is a perverse over-densification of sound ether, Steiner indicated.]

[Maha-Para-Nirvana Plane In Theosophy and Anthroposophy: a level of consciousness/blessedness above the Para-Nirvana Plane (the realm of liquid beings) — it is the realm of living solid beings.]

[Mahat According to Steiner: gods five levels above humanity. As such, they stand in the middle rank of the Second Hierarchy. Functioning from within the sphere of Mars, they help focus the effects of higher gods in the forms of evolution.]

Mahatma "Sanscrit [sic] for 'Great Soul.'" 73 p. 126 [More generally, in South Asia: an individual regarded with respect and/or reverence. In Theosophy: an individual having supernatural powers.]

Mahayana "The larger or Northern division of Buddhist doctrine. Its message is addressed more to the laity ... [It includes] belief [in] the incarnation of a Buddha spirit in a series of Buddhist saints...[and] the idea that the human soul passes through a succession of heavens and hells before attaining a final beatitude." 73 p. 126

Mahdi "A future Messiah of Islam." 80 p. 176

[main lesson At most Waldorf schools: the long class at the beginning of the day; other classes and activities are often keyed to it.]

[Maitreya Buddha Successor to Buddha. In Anthroposophy, he is deemed to have been an avatar.]

[Malayan race The race formed under the influence of Venus, according to Steiner. He said this race is dying off because Malayans are "useless human beings."]

[male In Anthroposophical belief, female and male are significantly different spiritual conditions. Males have coarser astral bodies that are less receptive to the spiritual ego. Humans may alternate between male and female incarnations.]

malefica "A witch who inflicts injury...and who has been tutored in evil by a demon." 80 p. 177

Mamitu "The Mesopotamian goddess of fate." 80 p. 177

[Mammon The demon of covetousness. In Anthroposophy, he is identified as Ahriman.]

[man, mankind In Anthroposophy: humanity at its present stage of evolution; also, sometimes, humanity at previous stages; and one of the four group souls shared by humans at an early evolutionary stage ("man"), closer than the other three to the central line of human evolution. Cf. human beings, human stage of evolution.]

Manas "A term describing mind ... [T]he seat of intellectual operations and emotions." 80 p. 177 [In Anthroposophy, manas is the spirit self.]

mandala "[A] mystic symbol of immensely concentrated intricate composition of symbols of divinities...[used in] meditation...." 80 p. 177

manes "In early Roman times this was the name given to the collective souls of the dead, who were deemed 'good' and worshipped as gods...." 80 p. 178

[Mani Third-century (CE) Persian religious teacher, founder of Manichaeism.]

Manichaeism "A Gnostic [sic] attempt to combine traditional eastern asceticism and Zoroastrian principles with Christianity." 80 p. 178

mansions of the moon "In astrology 28 divisions of the moon's journey through one complete circuit of 360 degrees — representing one day's average movement of the moon." 80 p. 178

mantic "The art or science of magic, particularly divination." 80 p. 179

mantra "A Vedic poem of period 1500-800 B.C. A form of prayer...supposed to increase psychic power...." 73 p. 127 [More generally, a mantra is a hymn, phrase, or sound intoned repeatedly as an aid to meditation.]

mantra yoga "Yoga pathway of divine union and realization through prayer." 73 p. 127

[mantrum - see mantra.]

Manu "Sanscrit [sic] for a human archetype. Occult term for master or elder." 73 p. 127 [In Hindu mythology, the Manu was the archetypal first human, the father of the human race. In Theosophy, a Manu is the father or director of a race, especially a root race. In Anthroposophy, Manu is Noah, the initiate who led humanity out of Atlantis.]

[manvantara From Sanskrit, a term used in Theosophy: a period in which one emerges into existence or activity. In Steiner's teachings, a manvantara is a condition of conscious.]

many mansions "The spheres of spirit existence." 80 p. 179 [This is a typical Anthroposophical revision of Biblical teachings. Christ assured his followers that there is room for all in heaven, because "In my Father's house are many mansions." (John 14:2)]

Mara "(Buddhism) The personification of the power of evil...." 80 p. 179

Mare "This Germanic demon, a hideous hag, equivalent with the demon Incubus, sits on the chest of her victims, relentlessly smothering [them]...." 80 p. 179

[Mars In Anthroposophy: the planet whose influence produced the Mongolian race; home to the Archangel Samael. Also, the planet of war, where Buddha achieved his own form of Crucifixion. Mars is, in a sense, a reincarnation of Old Moon, Steiner said.]

[Mars "epoch" A period during historical times on Earth when human affairs were overseen by the Archangel of Mars, Samael. The end of the most recent such period ended in approx. 1479 CE.]

[Mars humans In Anthroposophy: humans who migrated to Mars and returned, or sometimes their offspring, or sometimes people under the particular sway of Mars.]

[Mars-Mercury A shorthand designation for Earth evolution, especially the period that includes the historical present.]

[Mars organ A spiritual organ developed through the influence of Mars, Steiner said; it opens us to the spiritual/evolutionary benefits of the Mars sphere.]

[Mars period a) A Mars "epoch", or b) the period that one spends in the Mars sphere during sleep or after death.]

[Mars race - see Mongol race.]

[Mars sphere The portion of the solar system enclosed by the orbit of Mars, Steiner sometimes indicated. Or, more importantly, the portion of the spirit realm coterminous with this portion of the solar system; the realm of gods five levels higher than humanity.]

[Martinmas The festival of St. Martin, November 11.]

Mary the Jewess "Famous in ancient times as one of the most accomplished of sorceresses." 80 p. 180

masculine planets "In astrology: the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus." 80 p. 180

[masculine principle According to Steiner: the outward-directed, more aggressive and thrusting principle found primarily in men; cf. the feminine principle. Cain represented the masculine principle, Abel represented the feminine principle, Steiner said.]

Maskim "The seven maleficent devils, [sic] in ancient Babylonian religion who, remarkably, bore close resemblance to the planet deities." 80 p. 180

Masleh "(Judaism) ... [T]he angel who ruled the Zodiac, and whose influence enabled the Messiah to transfer his power and influence to the Zodiac." 80 p. 180

[Masonry Freemasonry, a fraternal order having secret rites. Having roots in occultism, it has been the source of many beliefs about occult lodges, initiation ceremonies, etc.]

master "An adept...." 73 p. 128 [In Anthroposophical belief: Masters are spiritual guides, gurus, high initiates, or — indeed — adepts.]

Masters of Wisdom and of the Harmony of Feelings Bodhisattvas: "Northern Buddhist conception of High Beings who sacrifice their attainment of Nirvana in order to incarnate as saints, out of compassion for mankind." 73 p. 31.

[materialism Generally, excessive love of material possessions; in Anthroposophy: excessive incarnation on the material plane of existence — living, doing, and thinking at the material rather than spiritual level of existence.]

materialization "A form of physical mediumship whereby the visible production of temporary ectoplasm forms in various stages of solidity...." 73 p. 128

[mathematics The study of numbers. Mathematics as taught at Waldorf schools is often infused with occult feeling and intent.]

[mathematism One of the twelve justified or defended world conceptions, according to Steiner: accepting as true only those things that can be dealt with mathematically.]

[matter Physical substance. In Anthroposophy, matter is condensed spirit, but it is also antithetical to spirit.]

matter through matter "These curious phenomena have been produced in the seance room on several occasions. Knots have appeared in endless cords...sewn-up clothing has been removed from mediums and replaced intact...." 80 p. 182

matutine "In astrology, the appearance in the morning of the Moon, Mercury, or Venus...." 80 p. 182

maya "The entire phenomena of the physical world, considered to be illusory by orthodox Hindus [and others]...." 73 p. 130 [Steiner taught that the physical world is a realm of maya.]

[Maypole dance A pagan fertility rite, dancers circling a giant phallus. At Waldorf schools: a celebration of renewed life forces, the coming of spring.]

Mazda "(Zoroastrianism) The name of the one, supreme god, Ahura." 80 p. 183 [In Avestan usage, mazda means "lord." Ahura Mazda is the supreme god, the Wise Lord.]

[mechanization An Ahrimanic/American activity, according to Steiner; it causes demons to incarnate.]

Medea "Fabled witch, sorcerer, and goddess...." 80 p. 183

[media policies at Waldorf schools The schools generally ask parents of students to curtail their children's exposure to television, computers, cell phones, the Internet, and other electronic media or forms of electronic communication and entertainment. (These media are considered demonic, although other explanations may be proffered.)]

[medicine In Anthroposophy, medicine largely aims to bring the physical and spiritual members of the human organism into alignment. Illnesses are often, but not always, deemed the fulfillment of karma and thus should be allowed to run their course. Treatments used are often minimal, frequently "natural", herbal, mineral, and/or homeopathic. Meditations, prayers, artistic activities, etc., may also be prescribed.]

medicine man "[T]he Shaman (q.v.) or magician among many primitive and modern tribes...." 80 p. 183

meditation "A mental discipline...employed for the purpose of gaining insight into the inner nature and meaning of the universe." 73 p. 131 [Waldorf faculty members often employ Anthroposophical meditations in their individual and joint spiritual efforts.]

medium "A subject who...can be the means of relaying information from deceased persons to the living." 73 p. 131 [A medium is in the middle, between the living and dead. Mediums and seances are not, generally, major topics in Anthroposophy. However, in the SteinerBooks dictionaries, the term "medium" is used as a virtual synonym for "seer" or "clairvoyant." In this sense, all Anthroposophists aspire to become mediums. Moreover, Steiner sometimes conveyed messages from the dead to the living, and thus he performed as a medium as this term is ordinarily understood.]

medium coeli "Astrological term for the intersection of the observer's meridian with the ecliptic, an angle considered to be of prime importance in the horoscope." 73 p. 131

[melancholic One of the four classical temperaments. In Anthroposophical interpretations, melancholic individuals are sorrowful, oppressed by knowledge of the physical body, and attuned to the suffering of others.]

[members of the human constitution The major parts or systems of our being, making us human. Steiner gave varying accounts, indicating that we have three, four, seven, or nine major members.]

[memory According to Steiner, it is needed only in the present epoch, when our ties to the spirit realm are not immediately comprehended. (In the past, these ties were living realities and thus did not need to be remembered.) We will transcend the need for memory when we ascend again into spiritual existence. Steiner also taught that animals do not have memories.]

memory, cosmic "An idea similar to that of the Akashic records...a 'pool of memory' which may be tapped by individuals during certain trance states." 73 p. 132

[mental activity Use of the mind or, in various esoteric systems, actions undertaken outside the body in incorporeal regions such as the mental plane.]

mental body "Occult term for that part of a human personality which is composed of 'mental matter'." 73 p. 132

mental healing "Spirit healing has been known to give easement for every kind of illness." 73 p. 132 [Mental healing is therapy achieved purely through the mental activity of the healer and/or the patient.]

[mental matter According to various occultists, this is the subtle, impalpable material of which the sphere or plane of mental activity consists.]

mental mediumship "The powers of clairvoyance, clairaudience, trance speaking and psychometry are usually classified as distinct from physical mediumship." 73 p. 132

[mental plane In Theosophy: a level of existence essentially equivalent to Devachan: heaven or Spiritland. As the level of existence in which thoughts function, or pure mentality is attained, it is usually deemed to contain higher and lower regions.]

mental radio "A term for telepathy...." 80 p. 185

[mental telepathy Telepathy: supposed communication of mind directly to mind, without use of ordinary senses or ordinary techniques.]

[mental vision Inspiration, among other definitions: sights directly seen by the mind rather than through the eyes: clairvoyance, ESP.]

[mental world In Theosophy: the second "higher world"; it is situated beyond the astral world. The equivalent in Anthroposophy is the spirit world, which is higher than the soul world.]

mentiferous "Conveying or transferring mind or thought; telepathic." 73 p. 133

[Mephisto Mephistopheles. In Anthroposophy: Ahriman.]

[Mephistopheles A fictional demon, a familiar of the Devil; the evil spirit to whom Faust sold his soul. Although a literary invention, Mephistopheles is accepted as real in Anthroposophy, where he is identified as Ahriman.]

[Mercury The planet closet to the Sun. According to Anthroposophical belief, it is populated by beings more evolved than earthly humans; also it is the center for the abnormal spirits responsible for the “Negro race.” Its resident Archangel is Raphael.]

[Mercury period In Anthroposophical belief: the coming historical period on Earth — starting around the year 3300 CE — when Raphael will be Time Archangel. Also, the time one spends in the Mercury sphere during sleep or after death is sometimes called a "Mercury period".]

[Mercury race See "Negro" race.]

[Mercury sphere According to Anthroposophy: the portion of the solar system defined by the orbit of Mercury, or — more importantly — the portion of the spirit realm coterminous with this portion of the solar system. It is home to gods two levels higher than humanity.]

[Mercury supermen According to Anthroposophy: superhuman beings, dwelling on or near Mercury, who will descend to Earth, assisting in bringing spiritual wisdom to humanity.]

[meridian The imagined line in the sky generally corresponding to terrestrial longitude; deemed important in astrology.]

[mermaids Mythical half-human sea creatures; sometimes said to be undines (nature spirits that dwell in water).]

Meru "The mountain abode of the Hindu deities...." 80 p. 185

[mesmerism Hypnotism or, more specifically, the therapeutic system devised by F. A. Mesmer.]

messiah "Hebrew synonym for Christ or 'the Anointed One.' The Hindu form is Krishna." 73 p. 133 [In Judaism: the Messiah is the foretold savior of the Jewish people. In Christianity: the Messiah is Christ, the savior of humanity.]

[messianism Belief in a savior or belief that one has a role as a savior.]

[metabolic-limb man In Anthroposophy: the inner human being embodying forces of the will, centered in the metabolic-limb system.]

[metabolic-limb system One of three human physiological systems, according to Steiner: this system consists of organs of digestion, movement, and handling. The will is embodied in it.]

[metals In Anthroposophy: the seven astrological planets (in order: Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn) are associated with seven types of metal (in order: gold, silver, iron, mercury, tin, copper, lead). The metals, then, convey the powers of these planets.]

[metamorphosis Change of form; a basic concept for the Anthroposophical narrative of evolution — humans, gods, and the universe evolve or metamorphose to higher (or lower) forms.]

metaphysics "That branch of philosophy which seeks to determine the nature of things...the true nature of that which underlies the familiar world." 73 p. 134 [Metaphysics deals with first principles, such as "being", "knowing", "cause", and so forth.]

metempsychosis "The belief that the soul at death [sic: after death] can reside in a succession of bodies, human or animal." 80 p. 187

Mettraton [Metatron] "[T]he great angel who helped God in his work [creating the world]." 80 p. 187 [In Jewish legend, Metatron is an Archangel; he is Enoch risen to angelic state. Metatron is not mentioned by name in the Bible.]

[Michael In biblical tradition, Michael is an Archangel and, in Catholic tradition, a saint. In the book of Revelation, he leads Christ's armies against Satan. In Anthroposophical belief, he is the Archangel of the Sun, Christ's champion, and the lord of our age (beginning around 1879 CE).]

[Michael Hall The first Waldorf school in Great Britain, founded in 1925.]

[Michaelmas The feast of St. Michael, September 29. This festival is often celebrated in Waldorf schools, sometimes disguised as a "fall festival."]

[Michael, School of In our time, this is Anthroposophy: the movement through which the Archangel Michael bestows his wisdom (according to Anthroposophists).]

microcosm and macrocosm "The concept of man as a small universe [a microcosm], a replica of the macrocosm — the great universe." 73 p. 134

[midnight hour Metaphorically, according to some esoteric traditions, the moment when the reincarnating self leaves one life and begins another.]

[Mights Angels of the fifth rank or, in Anthroposophy: gods five levels above man. Standing within the middle rank of the Second Hierarchy, they are at home in the sphere of Mars. They use their power to help steer evolution into the correct channels, Steiner taught.]

[milk teeth Baby teeth. In the Waldorf movement, replacement of milk teeth by adult teeth is believed to signal the incarnation of the etheric body.]

mimpathy "A sharing of feeling, but not necessarily sympathy. A community of sensation." 73 p. 135

mind "The thinking faculty, in earlier periods often termed the soul, spirit or ego...." 80 p. 187 [Anthroposophists, among others, take the existence of the mind to be a proof of spiritual realities. But scientists generally account for the mind without reference to the spiritual: The mind is the product of the functioning of the brain.]

[mind soul The second of three soul members, according to Steiner — the level of soul that contemplates the impressions gathered at a lower soul level. It fully incarnates at about age 35.]

[mineral kingdom In Anthroposophy (drawing from ancient teachings): the lowest of four kingdoms of nature, standing below the plant kingdom. (Also see "minerals".)]

[Mineral Kingdom Condition of Life In Anthroposophy: the fourth of seven conditions of life. It is the subdivision of the condition of consciousness in which we now dwell, having evolved past the three elementary kingdoms but not having yet reached the Plant Kingdom Condition of Life.]

[minerals In Anthroposophical belief, these are physical embodiments of the powers of the Zodiac; as such, they are used in Anthroposophical medicine. Minerals are alive, Steiner taught. The mineral kingdom is the first of the four primary natural kingdoms, standing above the elementary kingdoms and below the plant, animal, and human kingdoms.]

miracles "Effects or events which are supernatural." 73 p. 136 [Usually miracles are deemed welcome events that are hard if not impossible to explain without reference to spiritual beings or powers.]

[mirror neurons In some accounts: nerve cells in the brain that fire in sympathy with another's brain, enabling one to feel another's experiences.]

Miru "A monster female spirit...who gorges herself by devouring souls." 80 p. 189

[missions In Anthroposophy: purposes assigned by the gods.]

mistletoe "The white-berried evergreen steeped in mystery and occult qualities ... It is so mysterious it must never be cut." 80 p. 189 [Steiner taught that the mistletoe is not of this Earth, and he promoted it as a treatment for cancer.]

Mithraism "A religious cult of fertility, which originated in Iran, Persia, about 400 B.C. ... The Mithraic cult centered around a saviour sun-god hero Mithras, who lived and died for the sins of the world." 73 p. 137

Mithras "(Zoroastrianism) The Invincible Sun-God, born in human form who, as a chosen servant of God, kills a sacred bull, the blood of which fertilizes the Earth." 80 p. 189 [The Anthroposophical "Christ" — the Sun God who descends to incarnation on Earth — is in some ways nearer to Mithras than to the Christ worshipped in mainstream Christian denominations.]

moksa "(Hinduism) Salvation from Maya and liberation from the effects of Karma...." 80 p. 190

[Molt, Emil (1876-1936) Director of the Waldorf-Astoria cigarette factory in Stuttgart, Germany; bankroller for the first Waldorf school.]

monad "In Greek philosophy, one or a unit ... Among occultists it is used to denote the indestructible divine spark of an individual carried through successive reincarnations." 73 p. 137 [The concept of monads is central to Theosophy. "Monads are the ultimate elements of the universe, spiritual-substantial entities, self-motivated, self-impelled, self-conscious, in infinitely varying degrees." — ENCYCLOPEDIC THEOSOPHICAL GLOSSARY.]

[monadism One of the twelve justified or defended world conceptions, according to Steiner — an abstract form of spiritism.]

[Mongolian race According to Steiner: the Mars race, formed and existing under the influence of Mars.]

[Mongols According to occult teachings: the seventh sub-race that arose on Atlantis.]

monism "Philosophical systems which uphold the fundamental unity of the universe, as opposed to dualism." 73 p. 137 [Steiner taught that monism is mistaken. Anthroposophy teaches of many worlds and gods. Also see "monotheism".]

monition "A supernatural warning...." 73 p. 137

monotheism "The doctrine that there is only one God." 73 p. 138 [Steiner taught that monotheism and/or monism are false — or, at best, they are distant ideals. He taught that the universe is polytheistic.]

[Moon According to Steiner: the seat of Jehovah, who has ruled over the Jews from the Moon. Judaism is, thus, the moon religion. (Steiner referred to the Moon as a physical object, one of the "planets." He also referred to it as a phase of evolution. In the latter case, "Old Moon" is a more accurate label. Old Moon was the third major stage of human evolution, the third incarnation of the solar system.)]

[Moon adepts In Anthroposophy: forefathers of humanity, adepts during Old Moon.]

[Moon beings In Anthroposophy: residents of the Moon and/or beings of the Old Moon period.]

[Moon crisis In Anthroposophy: an emergency during the Lemurian epoch when the substance of the earth became too hardened for most people to bear; the Moon broke away from the Earth, carrying off the most hardened elements. Humans who had fled to other planets could then return to Earth.]

[Moon evolution In Anthroposophy: the stage of cosmic evolution that preceded Present Earth: Old Moon or its equivalent experienced by an individual in her/his spiritual existence.]

[Moon Fathers In Anthroposophy: Lunar Pitris — Angels at their human stage, on the Moon or during Old Moon.]

[Moon humans In Anthroposophy: humans as we were during Old Moon. (We were not truly human, then; the gods we call Angels had reached their own "human" stage of evolution at that time.) Some humans on the Earth have also been particularly influenced by the astrological/spiritual powers of the Moon.]

[Moon landings Between 1969 and 1972, several Apollo astronauts landed on the Moon. Anthroposophists sometimes deny this, because Steiner taught that the Moon is inaccessible.]

[Moon node In astrology: the passage of the Moon through the ecliptic; emblematic of birth and major life changes.]

[Moon religion According to Steiner: Judaism, because the god of the Jews, Jehovah, lives on the Moon.]

[Moon sphere The portion of the cosmos under the predominant influence of the Moon. Steiner at least sometimes identified it with the soul world.]

[Moral Feeling In Anthroposophy: the second stage of soul development among the seven Regions of Soul. Having attained sense-free thinking, and evolving toward the development of sacrificial will, we develop unmediated morality. This will occur under the aegis of Scorpio.]

[morality In general, behavior consistent with the right and good, contrary to the wrong and evil. In Anthroposophy, morality is specifically acting in accordance with divine will to promote proper human evolution.]

[morning lesson in Waldorf schools - see "main lesson".]

[morning "verses" in Waldorf schools Prayers written by Rudolf Steiner, recited by Waldorf students and teachers. The prayers are disguised as "verses".]

[Moses In Anthroposophy: an Egyptian initiate, a student of Zarathustra.]

[Mother Earth The personification of the Earth; sometimes Gaia, the feminine aspect of Creation.]

[mother forces In Anthroposophy, drawing from ancient teachings: primordial female creative forces.]

[Mother Lodge A central, nurturing lodge, especially the great Lodge presided over by Moses, according to Steiner.]

[mother principle In Anthroposophy: the female principle active in etheric and astral bodies.]

motor automatism "[M]ovement of the medium's head, tongue or limbs by an inner motor impulse beyond conscious will." 80 p. 193 [In this context, "motor" refers to physical muscles providing motive force.]

[movement, sense of According to Steiner: one of our 12 senses, one through which we experience our own movements. Anthroposophists also sometimes say this sense allows us to be aware of movements around us.]

moving "In old dream interpretation, a dream of moving from your residence or place of business is a positive sign of future poverty." 80 p. 194

mundane astrology "That aspect of astrology which is devoted to prognosticating the future of a country or national activities...." 80 p. 194

music "There are many instances in history of strange music heard by people during religious revivals. We hear of it again at deathbeds." 73 p. 142 [Steiner taught that music provides passageways to and from the spirit realm.]

music of the spheres "Pythagoras' purely speculative mathematical relationship between the frequencies of the diatonic scale intervals, and the orbit distance of the planets (then unknown)." 73 p. 142 [In occult tradition, the planets create a mystical, inaudible music as they move, expressing the harmony of the created universe.]

myomancy "Divination by watching the actions of rats and mice." 80 p. 196

[mystai According to some esoteric accounts: ancient initiates concerned only with their own divinity.]

[mysteries Spiritual realities that transcend ordinary human understanding; also the occult knowledge of such matters, and rituals performed by occult initiates.]

[mystery centers - see mystery schools.]

[mystery knowledge Occult or hidden knowledge, especially knowledge of spiritual mysteries.]

[Mystery of Golgotha The occult meaning of Christ's Crucifixion: enabling humanity to evolve higher following our long descent. Also see "Turning Point of Time".]

[mystery plays Dramas or pageants presenting spiritual mysteries. Steiner wrote four: THE PORTAL OF INITIATION, THE SOUL’S PROBATION, THE GUARDIAN OF THE THRESHOLD, and THE SOUL’S AWAKENING.]

[mystery schools Secret temples or oracles providing mystery knowledge to initiates.]

[mystery science According to Steiner: Anthroposophy and earlier forms of spiritual science examining mystery knowledge.]

[mystery streams According to Anthroposophical belief: four lines of spiritual knowledge and power, culminating in Anthroposophy: the Arthurian stream, the Grail stream, the Rosicrucian stream, and the Vidar stream.]

[mystery wisdom - see mystery knowledge.]

[mystic A spiritual aspirant who seeks unity with the divine or the absolute by looking inward, through meditation or contemplation or intuition, largely abjuring external knowledge while affirming a subjective sense of spiritual harmony. Cf. occultist. In Anthroposophy, mysticism and occultism may overlap. The individual human, the microcosm, is thought to reflect the divine cosmos, the macrocosm.]

[mystic perception Clairvoyance or supernal vision, thought to yield knowledge of the spirit realm.]

mysticism "Transcendental knowledge of God by contemplation. The belief that spiritual truth may be attained by direct apprehension, apart from the intellect or normal senses." 73 p. 143

myth "A metaphorical or symbolical truth that tells the legends of cosmology, history, and the origins of traditions, with divinities as the heroes." 80 p. 197 [In Anthroposophy, myths are deemed true accounts of ancient clairvoyant experiences.]

- N -

Naga "The legendary, semi-divine cobra snake with a human face." 80 p. 197.

nail fetishism "Devotees drive nails into these fetishes so that the fetish is assured they are praying to it." 80 p. 197

names in dreams "[T]o be insulted in a dream by malicious names foreshadowed the receiving of an honor." 80 p. 198

Narakana "The Hindu hell...." 80 p. 198 [In Hindu teachings, evil souls are purged in Narkana before their next incarnations.]

[Nathanic Jesus In Anthroposophy: one of two Jesus children who, after combining, became the host for the incarnating Sun God. This one had the spirit of Buddha. Cf. Solomonic Jesus.]

[Nathanic-Solomonic Jesus - see Solomonic-Nathanic Jesus.]

[nation spirit A god, an Archangel, who oversees a nation and provides its culture and language — according to Steiner.]

national horoscope "A map [of the sky] which is used in astrology to read the future of a nation." 80 p. 199

[national missions The tasks assigned to various nations by their gods, their nation spirits — according to Steiner.]

[national spirit - see nation spirit.]

[nations Embodiments of group souls, peoples dwelling in particular lands, standing at shared levels of evolution — according to Steiner.]

[Native Americans According to Steiner: the Saturn race (existing under the influence of Saturn); it is senescent and, in effect, extinct.]

Nats "(Hinduism, Buddhism) ... [C]elestial spirits who are superior to human beings, but of a lower order than gods." 80 p. 199

[natural clairvoyance According to Steiner, ancient peoples had innate, unschooled clairvoyant powers that modern humans have largely lost. Cf. atavistic clairvoyance.]

[natural history From an Anthroposophical perspective: the history of life on Earth as influenced by gods and nature spirits.]

[natural science Ordinary science dealing with physical reality. (Cf. spiritual science.) From an Anthroposophical perspective, natural science is largely mistaken, although Steiner said that it will eventually confirm his occult teachings, and he sometimes claimed that his teachings are consistent with natural science.]

[nature In Anthroposophic belief, nature is to be revered as the condensation of spirit, but it is also to be mistrusted — it exists on the physical plane where maya prevails.]

nature spirits "Non-human spirits, rarely mentioned by spirit communicators ... Primitive peoples and occultists believe in powerful 'elemental' spirits, said to control natural forces." 73 p. 144 [In Anthroposophy, there are four primary forms of nature spirits (gnomes, sylphs, undines, and fire spirits) as well as numerous subsidiary types. Evil humans may descend so low as to become nature spirits. "Elementals" and "elemental beings" are other labels for nature spirits.]

[nature tables In Waldorf classrooms: shelves, tables, or altars bearing natural objects and, sometimes, semi-religious accessories such as candelabra.]

[Naturphilosophie Anti-rational philosophy of nature that influenced Steiner. Its chief proponent was F. W. J. von Schelling.]

[Nazism German fascism, in some senses an antithesis of Anthroposophy, yet also overlapping Anthroposophy in various ways. Among other influences, Nazism had various occult roots.]

necromancy "Divination by pretended conjuring up of the dead. A form of black magic." 73 p. 144

["Negro" race According to Steiner: childish and sexually supercharged, unevolved humans; Africans. He said they are the Mercury race (i.e., chiefly influenced by Mercury).]

Nemesis "[A]ncient Greek divinity ... [I]n the main she represents retribution, or indignation by the gods at human arrogance." 80 p. 201

Neo-Platonism "A philosophical religion ... Really derived from [Asian] Indian sources, though claiming Plato's doctrines. It was based on mysticism...." 73 p. 145

neophyte "A candidate for initiation." 73 p. 145

nephelomany "Divination by reading the portent of the clouds." 80 p. 201

[Neptune a) Ancient Roman god of the sea. b) In astronomy: the eighth planet from the Sun. According to Steiner, it is not really part of the solar system.]

[nerve a) In medical science: a fiber or bundle of fibers carrying sensory signals to the spine and brain, and sending impulses from there to the organs and muscles. b) In Anthroposophy: sensory equipment that serves the astral body.]

[nerve system, nervous system a) In medical science: the network of nerves that transmit electrical nerve signals throughout the body. b) In Anthroposophy: the nerve-senses system. It is not involved in true cognition, Steiner said. Nerves relay the activities of the astral body, he taught. True cognition is clairvoyance.]

[nerve-senses man In Anthroposophy: the inner human being embodying the forces of sensation and "thinking" (which must be distinguished from true cognition).]

[nerve-senses system One of three human physiological systems, according to Steiner; this one consists of the nervous system and brain: the nerve system.]

[nervous system - see nerve system; nerve-senses system]

Netzah "The seventh of the ten Sephiroth which signifies 'the lasting endurance' of God." 80 p. 202

[New Testament The second part of the Christian Bible, containing books centered on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. Steiner "corrected" it with his Fifth Gospel. (The first four books of the New Testament are referred to as the four Gospels).]

nictalopes "Persons possessing the rare faculty of being able to see in the dark." 80 p. 203

night houses "In astrology, the six houses below the horizon...." 80 p. 203

night spell "The recitation of sacred words, psalms, and special prayers to safeguard the sleeper against the evil devices of Satan." 80 p. 203

nimbus "See halo." 73 p. 146 [You might also see "aura".]

[9] nine "[T]he number of aspiration and wisdom and the 'harmony of harmony' since three times three equals nine." 80 p. 204

[ninefold nature of man One of Steiner's descriptions of human nature. Our nine parts are physical nature, etheric nature, soul nature, sentient soul, intellectual soul, spiritual soul, spirit self, life spirit, and spirit man.]

Nirvana "Oriental idea of the extinction of individuality without loss of consciousness." 73 p. 147 [A transcendent state, beyond suffering, Nirvana is the goal of Buddhism.]

[Nirvana Plane In Anthroposophy, generally: the highest plane of enlightenment and blessedness. (In early Theosophical teachings, Steiner put the Para-Nirvana Plane (the realm of liquid beings) above the Nirvana Plane (the realm of gaseous beings), but later he folded the two planes together as the Nirvana Plane.)]

Nix, Nixie "In Germanic myth, evil water sprites...." 80 p. 204

niyama "Second stage of Yoga. Withdrawal from the world, purification of the mind and attainment of contentment." 73 p. 147

[Noah In the Bible: a Hebrew patriarch, tenth in descent from Adam and Eve; he built the Ark. In Anthroposophy: an initiate from Atlantis; the Manu; he led survivors from Atlantis, Steiner said.]

nodes "In astrology, rays or lines of force which mainly come from the action of the moon...." 80 pp. 204-205

[nonphysical bodies In Anthroposophic belief, humans have three nonphysical bodies in addition to the physical body: the etheric, astral, and ego bodies.]

[normal According to Steiner, normal beings are those who keep pace with evolution; generally, they are virtuous. Cf. abnormal.]

Norns "In Scandinavian and German mythology the semi-divine goddesses [sic] who seal the fate of men." 80 p. 205

[Norse myths Myths from northern Europe; the myths of the Norsemen (Scandinavians or Aryans, including Germans). These myths are given great emphasis in Waldorf schools because they supposedly present an accurate picture of spiritual evolution.]

northern signs "In astrology, the sequence of signs which runs from Aries to Virgo." 80 p. 205

nous "Occult term denoting the first emanation from the Godhead." 73 p. 147 [More common definitions are that nous is mind or intellect or, sometimes, common sense.]

[nuclear power In Anthroposophy: a force in the realm of sub-nature, ruled by demons. Nuclear power is a perverse over-densification of life ether.]

number 13 "Astrologers call this the earth's number, since it [sic: the Earth] is the center of the 12 houses." 80 p. 206

[number ether In Anthroposophical belief: one form of ether — chemical or sound or number ether, which helps densify spiritual essence to become physical.]

numbers "Throughout human history numbers have signified magical, mystical, and supra-mundane powers." 80 p. 206 [In Anthroposophy, numbers have occult significance, and the study of numbers (mathematics) is meant to lead toward spiritual awareness and/or clairvoyance. Also see "numerology".]

numerology "A study of the occult powers of numbers." 73 p. 147 [In Anthroposophy, the line between numerology and mathematics often disappears.]

numinous "Referring to the feeling of the mysterious, awe-inspiring, the holy and sacred, which is beyond all reason." 80 p. 206

[nymphs In Anthroposophy: attractive nature spirits who dwell in water; undines.]

- O -

oak "A tree of magic...." 80 p. 207

oak apples "[U]sed as a divinatory test to determine whether a child was bewitched." 80 p. 207 [An oak apple is a spherical gall that forms on an oak tree due to the actions of gall wasps.]

obsession "That state of being in which the mind, emotions and spirit are besieged by the Devil or another malevolent spirit...." 80 p. 207 [In more common terms, an obsession is an excessive preoccupation.]

[Oceanic Realm In Anthroposophy: the second of seven Realms of Soul, higher than the Continental and preceding the Atmospheric. Having evolved beyond the spiritual equivalent of earth, we evolve through the spiritual equivalent of water. This period of spirit development will be presided over by Aries.]

[occult Hidden or secret, known only to initiates; dark, mysterious. (In common usage, "occult" often implies the demonic, but this was not Steiner's intention is using this word (okkulte), as he did innumerable times in his writings and lectures.) Also see "occultism".]

occult hierarchy "See White Brotherhood." 73 p. 148 [In occult teachings, including Steiner's, the White Brotherhood is generally an occult league of the good powers; the true, hidden government of the world.]

[occult initiation Becoming initiated in occult spiritual knowledge, gaining admittance into occultists' inner circles. Occult initiation is a central goal for Anthroposophists; most Anthroposophists and many Waldorf teachers consider themselves to be occult initiates.]

[occult knowledge Hidden or secret knowledge, possessed only by initiates; especially secret knowledge of spiritual matters.]

[occult lodges Meeting places of spirits possessing occult knowledge; there are both good (white) and bad (black) occult lodges, Steiner said.]

[occult medicine Unorthodox medical practices based on occult spiritual knowledge or beliefs. Such medicine is generally practiced in Anthroposophical communities; see "Anthroposophical medicine".]

[occult orders - see occult lodges.]

[occult science The methodical, "objective" acquisition of occult spiritual knowledge. Various practices and systems have been deemed occult sciences, including alchemy and astrology. As used by Rudolf Steiner — whose seminal book is AN OUTLINE OF OCCULT SCIENCE — the term "occult science" is virtually synonymous with "spiritual science," which is Anthroposophy.]

[OCCULT SCIENCE - AN OUTLINE Steiner's magnum opus, in which he sketches his overall spiritual vision, Anthroposophy. The book has also been published under variant titles, such as AN OUTLINE OF OCCULT SCIENCE and AN OUTLINE OF ESOTERIC SCIENCE.]

[occult script The writing in the Akashic Record, invisible to ordinary sight — clairvoyance is required, Steiner indicated.]

[occult wisdom - see occult knowledge. (If wisdom is distinguished from knowledge, then occult wisdom is the deep significance of occult knowledge.)]

occultism "Theories and practices concerned with the attainment of secret powers of mind and spirit." 73 p. 148 [Steiner considered occultism to be the process of discovering, recording, and penetrating occult or hidden spiritual knowledge. Also see "gnosticism".]

[occultist A spiritual aspirant who seeks the divine through secret or hidden knowledge of spiritual truths. Cf. mystic.]

[Odin The highest god of Norse mythology. Steiner identified him as an abnormal Archangel and/or Buddha.]

old hat "[Method] of raising the Devil ... [A] hat was placed in a circle and the Lord's Prayer was intoned backwards." 80 p. 210

[Old Moon In Anthroposophy: our third condition of consciousness — i.e., the third mega-phase of our evolution, the third incarnation of the solar system. Old Moon is spiritually connected to, but different from, the Moon that exists in today's solar system.]

[Old Saturn In Anthroposophy: our first condition of consciousness — i.e., the first mega-phase of our evolution, the first incarnation of the solar system. Old Saturn is spiritually connected to, but different from, the planet Saturn that exists in today's solar system.]

old soul "Term for a soul who has incarnated many times on this earth, and has presumably gained much wisdom...." 73 p. 150 [In Anthroposophy, many reincarnations do not necessarily indicate upward progress or accumulation of knowledge. A soul may get stuck at a certain level, reincarnating there many times. A soul may also evolve downward (devolve), moving toward ignorance, self-centeredness, and animality.]

[Old Sun In Anthroposophy: our second condition of consciousness — i.e., the second mega-phase of our evolution, the second incarnation of the solar system. Old Sun is spiritually connected to, but different from, the Sun that exists in today's solar system.]

[Old Testament This is the Christian designation of the Hebrew Bible — the books in the Christian Bible that precede the New Testament. Bible stories, especially from the Old Testament, are often told to young Waldorf students, along with myths and other tales having spiritual meaning; the intended interpretations are Anthroposophical.]

[Olympian deities In Greek mythology: the gods who succeeded the Titans as heavenly rulers.]

[Olympics Athletic competitions patterned on ancient Greek games. At Waldorf schools, these are competitions/festivals generally staged for fifth grade students, who are believed to have reached the evolutionary level of ancient Greeks.]

[Olympus In Greek mythology: the home of the twelve principle gods; sometimes identified with Mount Olympus, a mountain in northern Greece.]

om "Sanskrit word credited with magical powers by its utterance." 73 p. 150 [The word is used as a mantra in meditations and prayers. Steiner reportedly used it in, for example, a revision of The Lord's Prayer. Also see "aum".]

omen "A magical, supernatural, or divinely inspired clue to the future." 80 p. 210

omniverse "In astrology, the whole of space...." 80 p. 210

[Ongod According to Steiner: an ancient European perception of divinity leading to the idea of One God and, more particularly, the "I."]

[1 (One) - According to Steiner, "In all occultism [i.e., in all "real" occultism] the One has always designated the indivisible unity of God in the universe. God is indicated by the number one."]

onychomancy "Divination by studying the reflection of the sun on a boy's fingernails...." 80 p. 211

opposition "Astrologically, when one celestial body is exactly on the opposite side of the ecliptic circle to another...[indicating] high tension." 73 p. 150

[oracle In various forms of esotericism, including Anthroposophy: a place or being that possesses — and may at least partially reveal — gnosis.]

orb of influence "In astrology...that area of continuing influence which extends beyond an aspected planet...." 80 p. 211

[orbit Curved path of an object around a planet, star, etc., under the influence of gravity. Sometimes Steiner said planets orbit the Sun, sometimes he said they don't.]

[organic agriculture Agriculture that avoids the use of artificial chemical pesticides, fertilizers, etc. Natural agents are used instead. The Anthroposophical form of organic agriculture — which incorporates astrological and magical practices — is called biodynamic agriculture.]

[organic architecture In Anthroposophical practice: a style of construction meant to embody life forces that imply or manifest spiritual realities.]

[organization In Steiner's usage, this word often means system, constitution, or body.]

[organs of clairvoyance Nonphysical organs that permit true cognition, according to Steiner.]

[Orientals According to Steiner: abnormal descendants of the population of Atlantis; spiritually adolescent. Also see "Asians".]

[Original Accadians - see Akkadians.]

[Original Forces In Anthroposophy: gods three levels above mankind. They stand in the highest rank of the Third Hierarchy, and are located principally in Venus. They provide the energy and direction for human groupings such as races, peoples, and nations.]

[Original Mongolians - see Mongols.]

[Original Semites - see Primal Semites.]

[original sin In Christianity: the innate tendency of all humans to sin. In Anthroposophy: descent to the physical realm.]

[Original Toltecs - see Toltecs.]

[Original Turanians - see Primal Turanians.]

[Oriphiel In Anthroposophical belief: an Archangel who oversees periods of tribulation; he is the Archangel of Saturn; he is also called Uriel.]

[Ormazd Ahura Mazda, the chief god of Zoroastrianism. In Anthroposophy: Christ as apprehended by the ancient Persians.]

Orphism "Greek philosophic religious cult...enormously important in...Western mysticism and in occultism ... [I]t celebrated the concepts of reincarnation..[and] karma ... [It taught that] the body [is] a prison of the soul...." 80 p. 212

orthos "A term descriptive of the spirit world, coined by the spirit of Betty Buck [sic]...." 80 p. 212

Osiris "The chief god the the ancient Egyptians ... [H]e represented the sun, fire, was ruler of the day and night, and arbiter of the soul's destiny...." 80 p. 213 [In Anthroposophy, Osiris is Christ as apprehended by the ancient Egyptians.]

Ouija board "A small wooden board [bearing alphabet letters] ... Under control [by spirits], messages are spelt out by the hand's movements." 73 p. 151

Ouroborus "The mystical-magical figure of a snake biting its own tail...meaning everything changes but nothing dies...." 80 p. 213 [Ouroboros or Uroboros is usually taken as a symbol of infinity or the eternal cycle of creation and destruction, life and death.]

[OUTLINE OF OCCULT SCIENCE, AN Steiner's magnum opus, in which he sketches his overall spiritual vision, Anthroposophy. It has also been published under variant titles, such as OCCULT SCIENCE - AN OUTLINE and AN OUTLINE OF ESOTERIC SCIENCE.]

overself "The Great Self. Atman...." 73 p. 151

overshadowing "The controlling of a medium by a discarnate spirit." 73 p. 152

oversoul "A very loose term applied to concepts of Brahma, the Absolute, group-soul, higher self, etc." 73 p. 152 [Steiner often used the term as a synonym for "group soul".]