Furthermore, Transitions.

Yup, that's right...transitions.  But before I list it all out...

Signs that you may need more transitions in your writing.

If someone, i.e. Ms. Hynes, or yourself, think that your writing is "choppy," "jumpy," "abrupt," "needs more flow," "needs signposts," or asks, "How is this related?" then...you need to add transitions...


Definition of a Transition

According to Dictionary.com:

tran·si·tion    (trān-zĭsh'ən, -sĭsh'-)  
n.  

    1. Passage from one subject to another in discourse.

    2. A word, phrase, sentence, or series of sentences connecting one part of a discourse to another.

    3. A modulation, especially a brief one.

    4. A passage connecting two themes or sections.




Types of Transitions

~Similarity
~Contrast
~Sequence and Time
~Example
~Emphasis
~Place/Position
~Cause and Effect
~Additional Support
~Conclusional



Similarity
These transitions describe a situation where two things may be related.

i.e.:
Intro: Ice cream can be made in several ways.
P1 ...ice cream can be made using an ice cream machine...
P2 Likewise, it can also be made with two large cans, ice, and rock salt.
...

Transitions classified under Similarity:
 Also,In the same way, Just as...,  So too, Likewise, Similarly,




Contrast
These transitions compare two or more different things.

i.e.:
Intro: There are two main differences between Box A and Box B.
P1 In Box A, the box appears to have a living object inside, because the box appears to contain motion inside...
P2 On the other hand, Box B seems to contain something cold and motionless, possibly an ice cube...
...

Transitions classified under Contrast:
 But, However,In spite of,  On the other hand,
 Notwithstanding,In contrast, Still,On the contrary, 
 Nevertheless,Nonetheless,Yet,  




Sequence and Time
These are the transitions you probably are most familiar with.

i.e.
Into: How to build an ice cream sundae.
P1: To start withtake a cup and fill it with your favorite ice cream flavor half-way.
P2: Afterwardscrush some "Oreos" in a big plastic bag and sprinkle on top.
P3: To finishadd some caramel, chocolate and/or strawberry syrup.
...

Transitions classified under Sequence or Time:
 First, *Second,*Third, *
 Next,Then,Finally, 
 To start with,To begin with, Afterwards, 
 Following,Following up, To finish, 
 Finally,At #:## am,  After...,
At last,Before, Currently, 
During, Earlier, Immediately,
Later, Meanwhile,Now,
Recently, Simultaneously, Subsequently, 
Then,  Lastly, 

*Although firstsecond, and third are all considered part of the sequence group, these are "boring" transitions.  Try to stay away from them if possible.  However, these transitions are not forbidden.  Sometimes, these transitions may do the best job...but try not to use them if they are not necessary. (see example below)

i.e.
Intro: The talent show was amazing.
P1: First, the clowns came out.
P2: Second, the yo-yo-ers performed their tricks.
...

This is an example of a paragraph were the writer used the first, second, third approach.  But better is... (see below)

i.e.
Intro: The talent show was amazing.
P1: To start the show off, the clowns came out.
P2: Right afterwardswere the yo-yo-ers who performed their tricks.
...



Example
These transitions, you've probably guessed, are used to signify an example.  For example, you would use an Example transition to illustrate some a point.

i.e.
Intro: Everybody loves blue.
P1: To illustrate, the biggest hotel in the world is painted a nice shade of blue from top to bottom.
P2: Another example, is that the largest apple ever grown was spray painted blue for $5,000.
...

***Note: The above statements aren't true.***

Transitions classified under Example:
 For example,For instance, Namely, Specifically,To illustrate, 

Normally, you wouldn't use all example transitions in a paragraph or essay, I did that above to make a point.  Usually, in a composition where you are trying to make a point using specific cases, you would use this format.

Intro: No transition needed.
P1: Any appropriate transition will work.
    D1: Example transition
    D2: Example transition
    D3: Example transition
...



Emphasis
These transition are normally used in the concluding statements of a composition.

i.e.
Intro: Building snowmen is fun.
...
Conc.: Indeed, snowman building is exciting.

Transitions classified under Emphasis:
 Even,Indeed, In fact, Of course,  Truly, 



Place/Position
These transitions are sometimes prepositions (i.e. above), not always though, but they do signify a place.

i.e.
Intro: There are many great things about my room.
P1: To the left of my door, is a giant box where I keep an archive of all my school work.
P2: Above that, is a ceiling with a bunch of glow in the dark stars.
...

In case you are wondering, I don't have stars on my ceiling, but I do keep an archive of my school work (soft and hard copies).
Another in-case-you-are-wondering, soft copy refers to a copy of a document on the computer or in an email, hard copy refers to actual paper.

Transitions classified under Place/Position:
 Above ...,Adjacent to...,Below..., Beyond...,Here, 
In front of...,In back of..., Nearby, There,  Underneath...,



Cause and Effect
You would normally use these transitions after an example sentence, this intros a concluding remark (not necessarily at the conclusion).

i.e.
Intro: Our group's equipment for the Microscope Lab was poor or out of date, thus our data may have been...
P1: For example, (example transition) our microscope was old and the image was rarely clear at 40x.
    D1: Therefore, our data for 40x may have been "none" or a blob.
...

Transitions classified under Cause and Effect:
 Accordingly,Consequently,Hence, So, 
Therefore, Thus, As a result, As science predicts, 



Additional Support
These transitions are like an addition to reasoning.  

i.e.
Scenario: you are a teacher.  

You say, "Donald, you owe me detention because you were late to class five times this month. Furthermore you didn't do your homwork." 
***Furthermore, is an Additional Support transition and kind of adds another detail or argument to a statement.***

Verses: You owe me detention for many reasons.  For example, you were late to class several times.  For instance, you didn't do your homework. 
***That just sounds like you are repeating yourself, but then you stop and say something different.  Don't confuse your reader, use the following transitions for added reasons.***

Transitions classified under Additional Support:
 Additionally,Again, Also, 
 And,As well as, Besides, 
 Equally important,Further, Furthermore,
 In addition,Moreover, Then, 



Conclusional
Finally, these are the ending enhancers.  These transitions are kind of similar to the Emphasis group, but Emphasis transitions give more bolding and reminding, while the Conclusional transitions are more of a summary type thing.

i.e.
Intro: To solve a single variable equation, follow the order of operations (OOO) and use PEMDAS (Parenthesis, Exponents, Multiplication, Division, Addition, Subtraction).
...
Conc.: In summary, use OOO to solve a single variable equation which is PEMDAS.

***You might be saying, what is all this nonsense?   Mathy stuff***

Anyways, back to Language Arts, Transitions classified under Conclusional:
 Finally,In a word, In brief, 
 In conclusion,In the end, In a final analysis,
 On the whole,Thus, To conclude,
 To summarize,In sum, In summary, 



Sources:
UNC Handouts and Links

Dictionary.com



Add ons by Da Hynes: (Do's and Don't's) 
~Try to refrain from overuse of First, second, third, also, then, and next. 
~Use a variety of transitions versus the same ones throughout your writing.




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