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The Carlisle Indian School Farmhouse :

 A Major Site of Memory

 

On a forgotten corner of historic Army garrison Carlisle Barracks, in south central Pennsylvania, an old white farmhouse peeks through towering spruces, vacant, awaiting the decision which will determine its fate.

 

The story goes that one day, a young Jim Thorpe was trudging through the fields, on his way back to the Carlisle Indian School campus from his work on the school farm, when he approached the school track and was fascinated by the sight of his fellow Indian students running and leaping over the hurdles. Unhindered by his farm boots and overalls, Jim Thorpe impulsively joined the athletes and was soon hurdling and racing with the best of them. It was on this day that the legendary Pop Warner discovered Carlisle’s most famous athlete and future Olympian.[1]

 

The school farm from which Jim Thorpe was returning played an integral role in the education and experiences of Carlisle’s Indian students. At its heart was a stately brick farmhouse, spacious and inviting, which not only housed the head farmer and his family, but also provided an agricultural classroom, sleeping quarters and meals for the student farm laborers.

 

As time passed, the Indian School was closed, and the farmland was occupied by Army garrison buildings. But the farmhouse remained, eventually housing officers and families from the U.S. Army War College, which has operated on the post since 1951. Its significant connection to the Carlisle Indian School has been largely forgotten, and having been allowed to fall into disrepair, the farmhouse is now in danger of being demolished to make room for modern family housing.

Early History

 

The farmhouse has a long history, significant to the town of Carlisle and garrison of Carlisle Barracks, but symbolically critical to the Indian School it once served.  The original front portion of the home was built between 1853-1856, most likely by Daniel B. Keiffer.[2]  Its 109-acre farm encompassed all the land now occupied by the northeast quarter of Carlisle Barracks, including the area of the Commissary, the PX, the Chapel, Young Hall, Indian Field, the Strategic Studies Institute, and the Heritage Heights housing development.[3]

 

The farmhouse was built in high style, according to the fashions of the time. The center gable with its decorative bargeboard and circular window, as well as the peaked attic windows, are fine examples of the Gothic Revival style, while the bracketed cornice adds an Italianate touch.[4]  Nine-foot ceilings and tall 6/6 windows throughout give it a spacious feel.  Formal living and dining rooms, four large bedrooms, a generous basement and attic provide plenty of living and storage space.  But the crowning feature of this home is the central entry passage, open to the third floor, with the original staircase and its mahogany railing which curves all the way up to the roof.[5]

 

On 31 March 1860, Daniel Keiffer sold the farm to Richard Parker.[6] Richard Parker also owned a house in Carlisle Borough on High Street directly behind the First Presbyterian Church, of which he was a prominent member like his fathers before him.[7]  With his brother-in-law William M. Henderson, he owned the Henderson & Parker Milling & Distilling Company from 1837-1848.  They operated the old stone mill which still stands on the Harrisburg Pike near the Wilson House, both now part of Carlisle Barracks property.[8]  William Henderson’s mother’s first husband was the same Major James A. Wilson who lived in the Wilson House.[9] 

 

Richard Parker had a wife, Hadassah Graham Parker, and three young children: Andrew Henderson Parker, Mary Parker (McKeehan), and Richard McCue Parker.[10]  By 1862, he had built a frame tenant house and stables on the property, in addition to the farmhouse and stone bank barn he had bought from Keiffer.[11] Many years later, Mary P. McKeehan visited the farmhouse and reminisced about her childhood there.  She recalled that during the Civil War, when Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell’s troops invaded Carlisle on 27 June 1863, a party of Confederate soldiers came to the farmhouse and were fed and sheltered for the night by her mother. [12] The next morning, they were called to Gettysburg.

 

Richard Parker died on 4 March 1864, and is buried at the Meeting House Springs Cemetery in Carlisle.[13]  His widow and children moved back into their town house and rented out the farm, sixteen acres of which was used by the Cavalry School at Carlisle Barracks as a drill ground until 1 April 1871.[14]  An 1872 map labels the property as “A. Parker, Big Spring” showing that son Andrew had inherited the farm.[15]  By 1877, both Andrew and his brother Richard were living on the farm. Between 1880 and 1883, the gross value of the property jumped from $6,240 to $10,300, suggesting that it was during this time that the rear wing was added on to the house.[16]

The Indian School Era

 

In 1879, the War Department transferred the deserted Army garrison to the Department of the Interior, and Lt. Richard H. Pratt established the Carlisle Indian Industrial School at Carlisle Barracks.  His intent was to educate Native Americans to be able to function and compete in white society.  Pratt wrote :

 

One of the most important branches of our industrial training at Carlisle is the agricultural.  More than half of our boys will eventually find in agriculture their life work. It is healthful, profitable, and the most independent of all industries.[17]

 

Accordingly, as soon as the school was organized, Pratt set out to acquire farmland for training his students.  For the year 1880, the school rented ten acres of land joining the Barracks property.  From 1881 to 1883, the school rented the entire 109 acres of the Parker farm, until it was able to purchase a 157-acre farm three miles away in Middlesex from Benjamin W. Hocker in 1884.[18]

 

By 1886, Pratt found the Hocker farm to be inadequate for the needs of his growing school, and too far away to be truly effective in accomplishing his goals.  He applied to Congress for funds to purchase the Parker farm:

 

I am now able to buy the Parker farm, which bounds our property on the east, and is best adapted for our uses.  It can be obtained for $18,000.  It naturally drops in as a part of Government property and furnishes an outlet to the public road on two sides, an advantage never before possessed by the Government. It has one of the best and largest springs in the county, and running water along the whole west side.  The buildings are a farm house of brick, commodious and well-built, a good stone barn, and a frame tenant house.  The property contains 109.57 acres, and is worth the money asked.[19]

 

The money was granted, and on 7 April 1887, the Parker family sold their farm to the United States for $18,000 to be used by the Carlisle Indian Industrial School.[20]  The school continued to use the Hocker farm as well, referring to it as the “lower farm” and the Parker farm as the “upper farm” or “near farm”.

 

By 1892, the school with the labor of the Indian students had updated the farmhouse, torn down the old stone barn, and built a spacious new yellow barn which included a modern dairy and piggery.[21] In 1918 the school farmer James S. Giffen wrote an article about the farm buildings:

 

One of the most attractive features of the farm to the pupils is the old-fashioned farm house, which was built some time before the Civil War and was occupied by one of the first families of Pennsylvania…

To the rear of the house at the foot of a gentle slope is a bubbling spring, which rises in the old fashioned stone spring house and forms a small lake, which does not freeze over in the coldest weather and is stocked with rainbow trout.

The house was planned for commodious hospitality and comfort.  The rooms are large and of colonial style, having very high ceilings and a fire place in nearly every room.  A large colonial doorway opens from a wide porch into a hallway through the middle of the house, and from this hallway a winding stair with a mahogany railing extends to the attic. The house after being purchased by the school was slightly remodeled to meet the needs of its present use.  It has been electrically lighted, has a steam heating plant, and running water.  One room has been equipped as a school room and each day agricultural classes are held for the boys who work on the farm and dairy, covering the subjects of farming and stock raising, horticulture, farm machinery, types and breeds of farm animals, and dairying.

Overlooking the lake formed by the spring is a neat cottage for the dairyman…

The pride and joy of every Pennsylvania farmer is his barn, and very few in Cumberland County surpass in size the one at the first farm.  The original barn had been made over a number of years ago, and is now of the prevailing style typical of this part of the country…

The boys who work on the dairy stay all night at the farm house and get their supper and breakfast, while the boys who work on the farm get their dinners only.”[22]

 

            The school’s head farmer and his family lived in the farmhouse and supervised the work of the students, as well as provided meals and beds for those who spent the night. In April 1914 the school newspaper reported that students Ed. Bresette and Francis Obern were assigned to the first farm.[23]  Besides the older boys who labored on the farm, many boys and girls often walked out to the farm as a fieldtrip or a Sunday afternoon excursion.  One young boy wrote:

 

First we went and took a ride in the boat.  It is big enough for us to take three at a time.  Then we went down in the cellar and saw how they hatch eggs without a hen.  They kept them in a box where it is warm.   It is a dark place and they carry a lamp in the cellar, and we came out again to where they kept the little ones when they are hatched out.[24]

 

            As Giffen’s article pointed out, the school’s head dairyman lived in a cottage overlooking the lake formed by the spring.  It is probable that this cottage was the “frame tenant house” which was part of the property the Indian School bought from the Parkers.  It is unknown exactly where this house stood, or when (after 1918) it was demolished. However, there does appear to be the roof of a small house down to the left of the farmhouse in the earliest photos. This would fit with having an "outlook from the west balcony" over the spring pond (see paragraph below).

 

            In 1891, a former Indian School student Richard Davis (Cheyenne) returned to the school to serve as its head dairyman.  His wife Nannie Aspinall (Pawnee) had also attended the school, and the two had been married in the school chapel in 1888.[25]  They now had two daughters Richenda and Mary.[26]  The dairyman’s cottage was spruced up in preparation for their arrival.  The school newspaper reported on 9 October 1891: “The balustrades on the front porch of Richard Davis' house at the near farm are the same that were built around the Captain's house in 1863.”[27] ; and on 23 October 1891: “Richard Davis’ house at the near farm is receiving its last touch of paint and will soon be ready for occupancy.  Richard and Nannie will have a nice little home there.  The outlook from the west balcony is beautiful.”[28]  A third daughter Esther was born on 2 June 1892 at their home on the school farm.[29]

 

            A new telephone was installed in the farmhouse in December 1896 connecting it to the school’s administration building.[30]

 

On 12 January 1901, the Indian School bought another farm of 175 acres from Christopher C. Kutz which bordered the Parker farm on the north, extending out to the Harrisburg Pike and beyond.[31]  The Kutz farm featured another farmhouse (no longer standing), a fine orchard, a large barn, and good stables.[32]  The Hocker farm was no longer needed after this time.[33]  The Parker farm was now referred to as the “first farm” and the Kutz farm as the “second farm”.[34]  Together, the two farms provided enough food to the school to make it virtually self-sustainable.[35]

Post-Indian School Era

 

On 1 September 1918, with the end of World War I, the War Department reclaimed Carlisle Barracks for use as a rehabilitation hospital for wounded soldiers. Thus the Carlisle Indian Industrial School was closed and General Hospital Number 31 was opened in its place.  The school farms, along with the farmers, were retained to serve the hospital by providing both food and rehabilitation skills to the soldiers.

 

The fresh milk and eggs from the farm, as well as fresh meat, did much to restore the convalescents to health.  Many of the patients were assigned to duty on the farm and learned practical lessons in agriculture from the ex-instructors of the Indian School.[36]

 

By 1920, the number of patients had dwindled and the hospital was closed, replaced by the Medical Field Service School.  Again, the farms were maintained at their full capacity.

 

The two farms attached to the reservation grew great fields of wheat, hay and corn requiring the full time of a detachment of colored soldiers.  Proceeds from the sale of these products enriched the mess fund of the troops.  The large “yellow barn” located near the Spring housed a herd of pedigreed cattle which supplied rich milk for officers’ families and enlisted men, and a herd of pigs which furnished the garrison with fresh pork.  Fortunate were those who served at the Medical Field Service School during the ‘early days’![37]

 

Gradually however, the farms decreased in importance as the need for training space outweighed the need for agricultural products.  The cattle were “disposed of” in the early 1930’s, and the big yellow barn was destroyed by fire on 16 October 1938.  At the same time, the garrison was undergoing a major building program, and more of the farmland was occupied by the familiar buildings still on post today.[38] It was about this time that the farmhouse ceased to house farmers and became officers quarters for Carlisle Barracks.

 


        A plaque which formerly stood near the house stated that it was remodeled in 1943, 1948, and 1981. However, no details are available of the changes it underwent at these times. A few interior elements remain which are likely original, such as the front door with its hardware, sidelights and stained glass transom window, the staircase and banister, several other interior and exterior doors with hardware, most of the windows, and the stacked fieldstone foundation and hand-hewn floor beams visible in the basement. Although three chimneys remain, all the fireplaces but one have been covered over with sheetrock.

A Fading Memory

 

Over time, the farmhouse’s significant connection to the Indian School has been minimized and forgotten. In 1961, the remaining buildings of the Carlisle Indian School were designated a National Landmark on the Historical Register; however, the farmhouse was excluded due to its quarter-mile distance from the main campus. This was in spite of an evaluation declaring it to be “an important part” of the proposed Landmark.[40]

 

In 1985, the farmhouse was again evaluated for placement on the National Historic Register but was rejected once more due to “unknown historical significance” and “average exterior and interior integrity” due to its several remodels. [41] According to yet another evaluation in 1996,

 

The Building is not part of a potential historic district; it is isolated from other historic resources at the installation.  As a potential individual property, the building does not convey its association with agriculture, since its barn and attendant agricultural outbuildings were demolished during the twentieth century…The farmhouse does not possess architectural integrity for listing in the National Register of Historic Places.[42]

 

            In 2004, as Carlisle Barracks saw the need to replace outdated family housing, a “Programmatic Agreement” was signed by the Pennsylvania State Historic Preservation Office, Carlisle Barracks, the Cumberland County Historical Society, and the Cheyenne-Arapaho Tribe of Oklahoma, agreeing that all buildings outside of the National Landmark designation were subject to removal if necessary.[43] Since the farmhouse had been declared insignificant by the previous evaluations, none of these organizations saw any reason to preserve it.
 
            In the fall of 2010, the official decision to raze the farmhouse was made based on past evaluations, and on the outdated condition of the house which by this time was in sore need of renovation, particularly in its electrical, plumbing, heating and cooling systems. New duplexes were replacing the 1950s-era housing in the adjacent College Arms neighborhood, and the large farmhouse lot was needed for two new duplexes.[44] The only thing lacking was the necessary funding from Congress to move ahead with the project.

Significance Restored

 

            In the meantime, new residents had moved into the farmhouse and experienced an overwhelming sense of its past importance. When inquiries of its history were met with insufficient answers, new research was conducted by this author and published in February 2011, revealing the farmhouse’s important connection to the Carlisle Indian School.[45] Thanks to a continued lack of funding, the pending demolition was postponed another year, during which time requests for re-evaluation based on the new research were denied, citing the 2004 Programmatic Agreement.[46]
 
            Funding was finally received in the summer of 2012, and the demolition of the Carlisle Barracks farmhouse was officially announced, set to take place in the coming fall. By this time, knowledge of the farmhouse had spread among descendants of Carlisle Indian School students[47], and Louellyn White, PhD (Akwesasne Mohawk, Assistant Professor, First Peoples Studies, Concordia University) started an online petition which generated an individual email to the Public Affairs Office of Carlisle Barracks with each of the 900 signatures and comments.[48]
 
This overwhelming media campaign, combined with several news articles, and the resulting concern expressed by a number of Native American tribes[49], finally prompted an official response from the Garrison Commander, citing the above justifications for razing the farmhouse and insisting that due process had been carried out.[50] With generously donated legal advice[51], the hastily formed “Coalition” of descendants, relatives and friends of the Carlisle Indian School countered with precise arguments defending the preservation of the farmhouse.[52]

The case for preservation is a strong one. Besides its historic and cultural connections to multiple eras and ethnic groups, the farmhouse has distinctive attributes, making it unique among the historic buildings at Carlisle Barracks. Most importantly, with every other original Indian School building occupied by the U.S. Army War College, the farmhouse is the only remaining building which could possibly be dedicated to the memories and experiences of Carlisle Indian School students. In fact, with the possible exception of Washington Hall[53], the farmhouse is the only remaining building at Carlisle Barracks where Indian students slept, ate, and attended classes. With the exception of the Hessian Guard House[54], the farmhouse is the oldest Indian School-related building at Carlisle Barracks. Furthermore, the argument that the farmhouse has fallen into disrepair is invalid since it is the responsibility of Carlisle Barracks to maintain its historic buildings. Lastly, the criteria of the National Landmark status has changed since the 1960s and new parameters of cultural relevance would most certainly bring the farmhouse under Carlisle Indian School’s National Landmark status.[55]

With the upcoming symposium  Carlisle, PA : Site of Indigenous Histories, Memories, and Reclamations hosted 5-6 October 2012 by neighboring Dickinson College, Carlisle Barracks officials knew the garrison would soon be inundated by descendants, scholars, and friends of the Carlisle Indian School. Just prior to the start of the conference, an official announcement was made that the demolition of the farmhouse had been put on hold indefinitely, pending an independent investigation into the history and significance of the house.[56] As part of the symposium, Carlisle Barracks officials met with Coalition members to discuss the cultural importance of the farmhouse and possible future uses, such as a museum dedicated to the Carlisle Indian School. While only one tribe, the Cheyenne-Arapaho of Oklahoma, was specified in the 2004 Programmatic Agreement, the Army officials agreed that every tribe affected by the Carlisle Indian School, including those not federally recognized, would be consulted about the ultimate decision to keep or raze the farmhouse.[57]

            Dovie Thomason (Lakota/Kiowa Apache, Storyteller, Officer of the Board, Viola White Water Foundation for Native Culture and Education) stated that American Indians have been displaced of a land base, and historic preservation of these sites is all they have. The CIIS became a land base and is a visible landmark and site of memory. Sandra Cianciulli, (Lakota, Co-Chair United Methodist Church-Eastern PA Conference Committee on Native American Ministries) pointed out the growing popularity of Indian tourism, and expressed a desire to have the farmhouse be a major destination where Native Americans could learn of their ancestors and honor their memory.[58]

            During the previous media campaign, Joanne Shenandoah, PhD, (Grammy Award-winning Iroquois singer, Wolf Clan of the Oneida Nation of the Six Nations Iroquois Confederacy) stated “Our history gives us a sense of identity, understanding and [the opportunity to] apply this knowledge toward our future. Many Iroquois young people were brought to Carlisle and the influence of this era is still felt today…Carlisle was the place where the Pan Indian Movement was born. It brought many Native nations together and this is where they began to defend their rights… I feel that this important part of our history [the Carlisle farmhouse] should be told and kept intact for future generations.” [59]
General Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain once said of Gettysburg “Forms change and pass; bodies disappear; but spirits linger, to consecrate ground for the vision-place of souls. And reverent men and women from afar, and generations that know us not and that we know not of, heart-drawn to see where and by whom great things were suffered and done for them, shall come to this deathless field to ponder and dream; and lo! the shadow of a mighty presence shall wrap them in its bosom, and the power of the vision pass into their souls.[60]
 
This “spirit of place” is strong within and surrounding the Carlisle Indian School farmhouse.  Indeed, spirits linger, consecrating its ground. And reverent men and women from afar will be heart-drawn to see where and by whom great things were suffered and done for them. There is honor and healing in remembering our ancestors, and in passing their stories on to future generations. May the farmhouse remain standing as a symbol of all that the Carlisle Indian School represents to Native America.

 

Written by Carolyn Tolman

Farmhouse resident 2010-2011

16 February 2011

Revised 22 March 2013

*Many thanks to Barbara Landis and Richard Tritt at the CCHS, and Jessica Sheets at the USMHI for their help with this project.

 




[1] Buford, Kate, Native American Son : The Life and Sporting Legend of Jim Thorpe, (New York : Random House, 2010).

[2] Cumberland County, Pennsylvania Tax Rate Books, microfilm at Cumberland County Historical Society, Carlisle, PA. 1853 shows property owner as Ulrich Strickler, with a 2-story stone house.  1856 shows property owner as Daniel B. Keiffer, with a brick house. Also: Deed of Sale from Ulrich Strickler to Daniel B. Keiffer, 2 Apr 1855, Cumberland County, PA, Deed Book 2F, page 342. County Recorder's Office, Carlisle, PA.

[3] Schmidlapp, Christina. A Cultural Resource Overview and Management Plan for the United States Army, Carlisle Barracks. Cumberland County, Pennsylvania: Archealogical & Historical Consultants, Inc., 1988.

 

[4] See McAlester, Virginia and McAlester, Lee. A Field Guide to American Houses. New York: Knopf, 1984.

 

[5] Giffen, James S. "The Farm Buildings." The Carlisle Arrow and Red Man 8 Feb. 1918: 18-19.

[6] Deed of Sale from assignees of Daniel B. Keiffer to Richard Parker, 31 Mar 1860, Cumberland County, PA, Deed Book 2L, page 10. County Recorder's Office, Carlisle, PA.

 

[7] Map of Carlisle, PA on wall of Hamilton Library, Cumberland County Historical Society, Carlisle, PA.

[8] Tritt, Richard L., Here Lyes the Body : the Story of Meeting House Springs. Carlisle, PA : First Presbyterian Church, 2009.

[9] Sheets, Jessica J., “Wilson House”, 16 Dec 2010. Carlisle, PA : U.S. Army Military History Institute, 2010.

[10] Tritt, Richard L., Here Lyes the Body : the Story of Meeting House Springs, Carlisle, PA : First Presbyterian Church, 2009.

[11] Cumberland County, Pennsylvania Tax Rate Books, Cumberland County Historical Society, Carlisle, PA.

[12] Giffen, James S. "The Farm Buildings." The Carlisle Arrow and Red Man 8 Feb. 1918: 18-19.

[13] Tritt, Richard L., Here Lyes the Body : the Story of Meeting House Springs, Carlisle, PA : First Presbyterian Church, 2009.

[14] Tousey, Thomas G. Military History of Carlisle and Carlisle Barracks. Richmond, VA : The Dietz Press, 1939, p.264

 

[15] Beers, F.W. Atlas of Cumberland County, Pennsylvania. New York : F.W. Beers & Co., 1872.

[16] Cumberland County, Pennsylvania Tax Rate Books, Cumberland County Historical Society, Carlisle, PA. 1877, 1880, 1883. According to a Pennsylvania Historic Resource Survey Form (see note 3), the rear ell is not original to the house.  However, it exists in an 1895 photo.  According to the magazine article (note 10), the Indian School only “slightly remodeled” the home to meet the school’s needs.

[17] Pratt, Richard H. "Our Farm." The Morning Star : Eadle Keatah Toh [Carlisle, PA] May 1884: 1. Print.

[18] Pratt, Richard H. "Our Farm." The Morning Star : Eadle Keatah Toh [Carlisle, PA] May 1884: 1. Print.

[19] Letter from the Acting Secretary of the Treasury, Transmitting Letter of Secretary of the Interior Relative to the Improvement of the Indian Industrial School at Carlisle, PA. 29 Jun 1886. Box 9, Folder 13, Carlisle Barracks Collection, U.S. Army Military History Institute, Carlisle, PA.

[20] Deed of sale from Hardarsah Parker, widow, Richard M. Parker and Mary P. McKeehan, 7 April 1887. Cumberland County, PA, Deed Book 4C, page 152. County Recorder's Office, Carlisle, PA. (Andrew Parker and his wife Mary had conveyed all their interest in the property to his mother on 16 Sep 1884, Deed Book 3W, page 374.)

 

[21] Based on several entries in The Indian Helper [Carlisle, PA]  17 Apr 1891, 8 May 1891, 19 Jun 1891 and 17 Jul 1891.

[22] Giffen, James S. "The Farm Buildings." The Carlisle Arrow and Red Man 8 Feb. 1918: 18-19.

[23] The Carlisle Arrow [Carlisle, PA], 17 Apr 1914. Cumberland County Historical Society, PA.

[24] The Indian Helper [Carlisle, PA], 15 May 1891. Cumberland County Historical Society, Carlisle, PA.

[25] The Indian Helper [Carlisle, PA], 23 March 1888. Cumberland County Historical Society, Carlisle, PA.

[26] Landis, Barbara. “Richard Davis” http://home.epix.net/~landis/davis.html, viewed 16 Feb 2011.

[27] The Indian Helper [Carlisle, PA], 9 Oct 1891. Cumberland County Historical Society, Carlisle, PA.

[28] The Indian Helper [Carlisle, PA], 23 Oct 1892. Cumberland County Historical Society, Carlisle, PA.

[29] The Indian Helper [Carlisle, PA], 17 June 1892. Cumberland County Historical Society, Carlisle, PA.

[30] The Indian Helper [Carlisle, PA], 11 Dec 1896. Cumberland County Historical Society, Carlisle, PA.

[31] Tousey, Thomas G. Military History of Carlisle and Carlisle Barracks. Richmond, VA : The Dietz Press, 1939, p.299.

[32] Giffen, James S. "The Farm Buildings." The Carlisle Arrow and Red Man, 8 Feb. 1918: 18-19.

[33] Pratt, Richard H. “The Farms.” The Red Man and Helper, 18 Sep 1901. Cumberland County Historical Society, Carlisle, PA.

[34] However, in the 1960’s, after the Parker farmland had been taken over by post buildings, the Kutz farm was referred to as “Farm No. 1” when it was sold off to Dickinson College. (See Box 22, Folder 14, Carlisle Barracks Collection, U.S. Army Heritage and Education Center, Carlisle, PA.)

[35] The Carlisle Arrow [Carlisle, PA], 10 Sep 1909. Cumberland County Historical Society, PA.

[36] Tousey, Thomas G. Military History of Carlisle and Carlisle Barracks. Richmond, VA : The Dietz Press, 1939, p. 357-358.

[37]Tousey, Thomas G. Military History of Carlisle and Carlisle Barracks. Richmond, VA : The Dietz Press, 1939,  p. 364.

[38] Tousey, Thomas G. Military History of Carlisle and Carlisle Barracks. Richmond, VA : The Dietz Press, 1939,  p. 386.

[40] Shedd, Charles E., “National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings, Carlisle Barracks” Department of  the Interior, National Park Service, 6 Sep. 1960. Document at Reference Desk, U.S. Military History Institute, Army Heritage and Education Center, Carlisle, PA.

[41] Schmidlapp, Christina. A Cultural Resource Overview and Management Plan for the United States Army, Carlisle Barracks. Cumberland County, Pennsylvania: Archealogical & Historical Consultants, Inc., 1988.

[42] Archeological and Architectural Investigations at Carlisle Barracks, Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, Volume 1 of II, July 24, 1996, R. Christopher Goodwin and Associates, Inc.], page 111.

[43] “Programmatic Agreement among Carlisle Barracks, PA; Pennsylvania State Historic Preservation Officer for the privatization of family housing at Carlisle Barracks, PA,” 31 August 2004. Provided by Carlisle Barracks. 

[44] McPhillips, Ty, “Farmhouse History,” Email to author, 12 November 2010.

[45] Tolman, Carolyn, The Farmhouse at Carlisle Barracks, https://sites.google.com/site/thefarmhouseatcarlislebarracks.

[46] Hall, Caroline D., Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, Letter to LTC William G. McDonough, Garrison Commander, Carlisle Barracks; and Jean Cutler, Pennsylvania Bureau for Historic Preservation, 16 February 2012. See “Farmhouse SHPO Demolition Agreement 2012”  on “Carlisle Farmhouse Friends”  Group on www.facebook.com.

[47] See Group “Carlisle Farmhouse Friends,” Facebook, www.facebook.com.

[48] White, Louellyn, “Carol Kerr: STOP the demolition of the historic CIIS Farmhouse,” Petition on www.change.org. Now closed, but still accessible 22 March 2013.

[49] The St. Regis Mohawk Tribe, The Potowatami Tribe, The Gun Lake Tribe, The Saginaw Chippewa Tribe of Michigan. See “Roundtable minutes Oct 2012” document on “Carlisle Farmhouse Friends” Group on www.facebook.com.

[50] McDonough, William G. McDonough, Garrison Commander, Carlisle Barracks, Letter to Louellyn White, 24 August 2012. See “Letter from Carlisle Barracks Cmdr,” document on “Carlisle Farmhouse Friends” Group on www.facebook.com.

[51] Walt Powell of Stone Fort Consulting, generously hired by Jeff Woods of the Whistlestop Bookshop, Carlisle, PA.

[52] White, Louellyn, Letter to LTC William G. McDonough, Garrison Commander, Carlisle Barracks, 27 August 2012. See “Coalition_USAG-CB Letter” document on “Carlisle Facebook Friends” Group on www.facebook.com.

[53] The former Indian School athletic dorm and hospital, now a guest house for the U.S. Army War College.

[54] Built in 1777 by Hessian prisoners of war captured at Trenton during the Revolutionary War. It was used as a guardhouse and detention center for the Indian School. It now houses a museum of Carlisle Barracks’ history, including a small exhibit on the Indian School. Almost every other building on post was built after the Confederate-started fires of 1863.

[55] White, Louellyn,“Roundtable minutes Oct 2012” document on “Carlisle Farmhouse Friends” Group on www.facebook.com.

[56] “Farmhouse demolition on hold: Army to re-evaluate building’s history,” Army War College Community Banner, 5 October 2012, http://www.carlisle.army.mil/banner/searchDisplay.cfm?id=2715&searchText=farmhouse. Accessed 22 March 2013. See also “Re-evaluation Letter from McDounough” document on “Carlisle Facebook Friends” group on www.facebook.com.

[57] White, Louellyn,“Roundtable minutes Oct 2012” document on “Carlisle Farmhouse Friends” Group on www.facebook.com.

[58] Ibid.

[59] Shenandoah, Joanne, Email to Louellyn White, 27 August 2012.

[60] Chamberlain, Joshua Lawrence, “Dedication of Maine Monuments, Gettysburg, PA, October 3, 1888,” http://www.joshua.lurker00.com/jlcspeeches.htm, accessed 22 March 2013.