Table 1.7 Roots, prefixes and suffixes in chemistry - From the Sourcebook for Teaching Science
a, an not, without - amorphous, anhydrous, anaerobic, atypical
Amorphous carbon does not display crystalline structure.
acid, acri sour, sharp - acid, acidity, acrid, acidify, acidophilus
Acids, such as those in lemons and other citrus fruits, produce a sour taste.
ag, act move, proceed - reagent, action, reaction, agent, activity
Chemical reagents are necessary for a reaction to proceed.
al, allo other, different - allotrope, alloy, alter, allosteric, alias, alien,
Graphite, charcoal, and diamond are allotropes (different forms) of carbon.
alpha first - alpha particle, alpha helix, alpha ray, alpha position, alpha test
Alpha radiation was the first radiation characterized by Ernest Rutherford.
amin amine - amine, amino acid, vitamin, acetaminophen, deaminate, ammonia
At the center of amino acids are amine groups.
amph double, both - amphoteric, amphibolite, amphibole
Amphoteric species can act both as acids or bases.
an apart - analytical, analysis, anode, anabolism, anabolic
Analytical chemists break compounds apart to determine chemical structure.
-ane single covalent bond - methane, alkane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, hexane, octane
Methane, ethane, propane and butane have only single bonds.
-ate negatively charged ion - carbonate, phosphate, sulfate, hydrate, bromate, chlorate, iodate
Carbonate, phosphate and sulfate are negatively charged ions.
anti against, opposite, inhibit - antioxidant, antifreeze, antacid, antinodes, antimatter
Antioxidants, such as vitamins C or E, inhibit oxidation.
aqu water - aqueous, aqua regia, aquamarine, aquatic
In aqueous solutions, the solute is dissolved in water.
baro pressure - barometer, bar, barometry, barometric pressure, hyperbaric chamber
Barometers are used to measure air pressure.
beta second - beta particle, beta decay, beta ray, betatron
Beta radiation was the second type of radiation characterized by Ernest Rutherford.
bi two - bivalent, binary compounds, bicarbonate, bimetallic
Bivalent (divalent) elements have a valence of two.
bio life, living - biochemistry, bioassay, biocatalyst, biodegradable
Biochemistry is the chemistry of living systems.
calor heat - calorimeter, calorie, caloric, kilocalorie, calorimetry
Calorimeters measure heat released or absorbed in reactions.
carb coal, carbon - carbohydrate, carbonic acid, bicarbonate, carbon dioxide, carbide, carboxylic acid
Carbohydrates are carbon-based molecules, including sugars, starch and cellulose.
cat down, negative - cathode, catalyst, catabolism, catastrophe
Cathodes are negatively charged electrodes.
cau, caus burn, heat - caustic, cauldron, cauterize, caustic soda
Caustic substances, such as sodium hydroxide, can burn organic tissues.
chem chemical - chemisorption, chemistry, biochemistry, chemoautotroph, chemoreceptor, chemist
In chemisoprtion, the adsorbed substance is held by chemical bonds.
chrom color - chromium, chromosphere, chromatography, monochrome, dicrhomate
Chromium compounds are very colorful.
co, com with, together - conjugate, composition, coefficient, colligative, compress, conduction, convection
Conjugate acids and bases exist with each other, differing only by the presence of a proton.
cry cold - crystal, cryogenic, crystalline, liquid crystal, crystallize, cryoprecipitate
Crystals form when supersaturated solutions are cooled.
de down, lack, from - denature, decomposition, dehydrate, decant, deformation
Denatured proteins lack the critical three-dimensional structure required to function.
dens thick - density, dense, condense, condenser, densimeter
Density is a measure of "thickness" (amount of mass per unit volume).
di double - disaccharide, dipeptide, dichloride, dioxide, dibromide, disulfide, dichroic
Disaccharides are formed by the bonding of two monosaccharides.
dis, dif separate, apart - dissociation, discontinuity, disperse, dispersion, differentiate
Salts dissociate when component ions separate in solution.
duc, -t led, pulled - ductile, product, conduct, induce, deduce, deduction
Metals are ductile and can be pulled to produce wires.
e, ex, ef out, without, from - emit, evaporation, explosion, exothermic, effervescence, effect, effuse
Thermochemists measure the amount of heat emitted from reactions.
electr electricity - electrolyte, electricity, electrode, electromotive force, dielectric, electron
Electricity flows in solutions containing electrolytes.
elem basic - elements, elemental, elementary particle
Elements can't be broken down into more basic substances by normal chemical means.
en in, into - endothermic, endergonic, energy, enthalpy
Endothermic reactions take heat energy in from the environment.
-ene double covalent bond - benzene, alkene, ethene, propene, butene, pentene, polypropylene, toluene
Benzene forms a six-carbon ring with three double covalent bonds bonds.
equ equal - equilibrium, equate, equation, equal, equidistant
Equilibrium is a dynamic condition in which two opposing reactions occur at equal rates.
erg work - energy, erg, bond energy, energetics
Energy is the capacity to perform work.
ex, exo out, outside - exothermic, extrinsic, exterior, extrapolate, external
Exothermic reactions release heat to the outside environment.
ferr, ferro iron - ferromagnetism, ferrous, ferric, ferricyanide, ferrite, ferroalloy
Ferromagnetic materials, such as iron, are strongly attracted to magnets.
fiss cleft, split - nuclear fission, fissionable, fission bomb
Nuclei split during nuclear fission.
fix fix, fasten - fixation, fixture, affix, prefix, suffix, fix
During carbon fixation, atmospheric carbon is fixed into molecules of glucose.
flu flow - fluids, reflux, fluctuate, influx, flux, flux density
Liquids and gasses are classified as fluids because they flow.
fract break, broken - fractional distillation, fraction, refract, fractionate
During fractional distillation, mixtures are broken down and separated by different boiling points.
glyc sweet, sugar - glycolysis, glycogen, glycolipid, glyceride, glycol
During glycolysis, glucose sugar is broken down, and pyruvic acid and energy are released.
graph writing, printing - graphite, chromatography, crystallography, thermography, photography
Graphite is a planar form of carbon that makes gray marks when writing with pencils.
halo salt - halogens, halocline, halite, halogenate
Halogens (group VII) often combine with metals to form salts.
here, hes stick to - cohesive, cohesion, cohere, adhere, adhesion, adhesive, coherent
Cohesive substances stick to each other, while adhesive substances stick to other substances.
hybrid combination - hybrid orbital, hybridize, sp3 hybridization, hybrid bond, hyperon
Hybrid orbitals are produced by the combination of two or more orbitals of the same atom.
hydr water - hydrazine, hydrolysis, dehydrate, hydrogen, rehydrate, dehydration synthesis
Although very different chemically, hydrazine resembles water in that both are colorless liquids.
hyper over, above - (hy)perchloric acid, hypertonic solution, (hy)perchlorate, hyperbaric, hyperacidic
The oxidation state of chlorine in perchloric acid is above the oxidation state in chloric acid.
hypo under, beneath - hypochlorous acid, hypotonic, hypothesis
The oxidation state of chlorine in hypochlorous acid is lower than in chlorous acid.
-ic higher valence - sulfuric, hydrochloric, phosphoric, nitric, bromic, ferric
Sulfur in sulfuric acid has a higher valence than in sulfurous acid.
-ide derived from - bromide, chloride, fluoride, iodide, oxide, dioxide, monoxide, sulfide, hydride
Bromides are derived from bromine.
ign fire - ignite, lignite, ignition, ignitable, igneous
Sulfur can be ignited with a hot flame.
-ile describing - ductile, volatile, tensile, percentile, mobile
Volatility describes a substance's vapor pressure.
-ite negatively charged ion - nitrite, chlorite, bromite, flourite, sulfite
Nitrite is a negatively charged ion.
-ion process - fusion, fission, dilution, solution, adhesion
Fusion is the process of combining (fusing) nuclei to form a heavier nucleus.
iso equal, same - isomers, isotonic, isometric, isotope, isosceles
Isomers are compounds that have the same molecular formula, but different structures.
-ist one who studies - chemist, biochemist, organic chemist, geomorphologist, metalurigst
A chemist is one who studies chemistry.
kilo thousand - kilogram, kilocalorie, kilojoule, kilopascal, kiloton, kilowatt
A kilogram is one thousand grams.
liqu fluid, liquid - deliquescence, liquefy, liquid, liquefaction
Deliquescence is the tendency to become liquid.
lys, lyz loosening, breaking - electrolysis, hydrolysis, catalysis, hydrolyze, acidolysis
Electrolysis is the breaking apart of a substance by an electric current.
malle hammer - malleable, mallet, malleability
Malleability is the ability to bend when hit by a hammer.
mer a part - dimer, polymer, polymerization, monomer, dimerize
Dimers, such as O2 or Cl2, are made of two identical parts.
meter measure - meter, voltammeter, thermometer, metric system, calorimeter, colorimeter, eudiometer
Thermometers are used to measure the intensity of heat energy.
mill one thousand - milliliter, milligram, millibar, milliamp, millimole
A milliliter is one-thousandth of a liter.
misc, mix mix - miscible, immiscible, mix, mixer, mixture
Oil and water are immiscilbe, unable to mix to form a homogeneous mixture.
mon single - monomer, monosodium glutamate, monoglyceride, monobasic, monochromatic, monoxide
Monomers are single molecular units that can join to form polymers.
morph form, shape - amorphous sulfur, dimorphic, geomorphology
Amorphous sulfur does not have a consistent shape.
neg no - negligible, negate, negative, negligence, negate
A negligible measurement error will have no effect.
neutr neither - neutral, neutron, neutralize, neutrality
Neutrons are neither positive nor negative.
nitro nitrogen - nitrogen dioxide, nitroglycerin, nitride, nitric, nitrogen, nitrile, nitrite, nitrosyl, nitrous
Nitrogen dioxide is composed of one nitrogen and two oxygen atoms
non not - nonpolar, nonferrous, nonabrasive, nonenzymatic
Nonpolar substances, such as butane, do not demonstrate polarity.
oct eight - octet rule, octane, octanol, octyl, octagonal
The octet rule describes the tendency of atoms to establish a full set of eight valence electrons.
-on unit - electron, proton, lepton, baryon, fermion, photon, boson
The electron is the smallest unit of electricity.
-ous lower valence - sulfurous, nitrous, bromous, ferrous
Iron in ferrous oxide has a lower valence than in ferric oxide.
oxid, oxy oxygen - oxidizer, oxide, dioxide, oxidize, oxidation, oxidize
Oxidizers resemble oxygen, removing electrons from other substances.
pent five - pentahydrate, pentane, pentose, pentoxide, pentachloride,
Copper sulfate pentahydrate binds five water molecules per copper sulfate unit.
phil love - hydrophilic, nucleophilic, acidophilic, basophilic
Hydrophilic substances are "water-loving" and dissolve rapidly in water.
photo light - photochemical smog, photon, photolysis, photocatalysis, photochemsitry
Photochemical smog contains pollutants that are synthesized in the presence of sunlight.
polar end of axis - polar covalent, polar, dipole, polarimeter, nonpolar
In polar molecules, the ends of the axes carry partial charges.
poly many - polyester, polymer, polysaccharide, polyacrylic, polyvinyl chloride, polyacrylamide
Polyester is a polymer made by bonding many ester groups.
pre before - precursor, precaution, predict, preheat, precede
Precursors are substances that arise before products form.
pyr fire, heat - pyrolysis, pyrotechnics, pyrite, pyroclastic, pyrometer
Pyroloysis is decomposition by heat at high temperatures.
quant amount - quantum, quantity, quantify, quantitative
A quantum is a discrete amount of energy.
radi, ray ray, radius - radioactive, radius, ray, radiant, gamma ray
Radioactive materials emit rays of electromagnetic energy.
re back, again - reflux, reabsorb, reaction, reactant, reactive, rehydrate, remove, reduction, reheat
During reflux, vapor condenses, returns and is vaporized again.
sacchar sugar - monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharide, Saccharomyces
Monosaccharides, such as glucose and fructose, are sugars.
sat full, maximum - saturate, satisfy, polyunsaturated, supersaturated, unsaturated
Saturated solutions contain the maximum amount of solute that can be held in solution.
semi half, partial - semiconductor, semipermeable, semisolid, semicrystalline
Semiconductors are partially conductive.
sol dissolve - solubility, solution, dissolve, soluble, solvent
Solubility is a measure of a substance's potential to dissolve in a specific solvent.
spec look - spectator ions, specimen, specific, spectrum, specifications
Spectator ions "look on", but are not involved in reactions.
sub under, below - subscript, subatomic, submerge, subtract, subscale, sublimation, sublimate, substrate
Subscripts are numbers or letters placed below a term, such as the "2" in H20.
super above, beyond - supersaturate, superheat, supercool, superscript, superfluid, supernatant, superoxide
A solution is supersaturated when its concentration is increased beyond the saturation point.
therm heat - thermochemistry, thermometer, therm, endothermic, exothermic, thermite
Thermochemistry studies changes in heat energy accompanying chemical and physical changes.
thesis statement, arranging - hypothesis, synthesis, thesis, photosynthesis, chemosynthesis
A hypothesis is a testable statement and proposed explanation.
trans across, through - trans-fatty acid, transition elements, transaminase, trans-, transfer, transmutation
In trans-fatty acids, carbons are situated across from each other at the double bonds.
un not - unsaturated, unbonded, untested, unheated, undissociated, unstable, unfavorable
Unsaturated bonds have not been saturated with hydrogen.
vac empty - vacuum, vacate, evacuate, vacant, vacuous
A vacuum is an empty place, void of matter.
val strength, worth - equivalence point, equivalent, validate, validity, evaluate, value
At the equivalence point, the strength of the base is equal to the strength of the acid.
-yne triple covalent bond - alkyne, ethyne, butyne, propyne
Alkynes have one or more triple covalent bonds.