Table 1.3 Roots, prefixes and suffixes in biology - From the Sourcebook for Teaching Science
a, an not, without - asymptomatic, aphasia, anemia, aseptic, amorphous, asexual, anhydrous, anaerobic
A patient is asymptomatic if they do not have symptoms.
ab away from - abductor, absent, aberrant, abstain, abnormal, abscission, abscissic acid
An abductor is a muscle that moves a limb away from the body.
acu sharp - acute, acupuncture, accurate, acumen
Acute pains are sharp pains.
ad towards - adductor, addiction, adhesion, additive, adhere
Adductor muscles brings limbs toward the body.
ag, act do, move, cause - agent, reaction, reagent, agitate, action
Disease agents cause diseases.
-al relating to, at - nocturnal, diurnal, arboreal, terrestrial, biological
Nocturnal animals are active at night.
alb white - albino, albacore, albedo, albumin, linea alba
Albinos appear white due to an absence of pigmentation.
ambul to walk - ambulatory, amble, ambulance, somnambulist
Ambulatory patients can walk.
amph double, both - amphibian, amphoteric, amphibious, Amphipoda
Amphibians live both on land and in the water.
amyl starch - amylase, amylose, amylopectin, amyloplast
Amylase is an enzyme that converts starch to simple sugars.
an upwards, apart - anaphase, anode, analysis, anabolism
During anaphase, chromosomes are pulled apart.
andr, anth male, man - androgen, anthropology, anther, antheridia, anthropomorphic
Androgens are male hormones.
ann, enni circle, year - perennial, annelid, annular rings, annual, biennial
Perennial plants stay alive through all seasons of the year.
ante before - antenna, anterior, antedate, antebrachium
The antenna are located on the front of the organism.
anti against, opposite - antiseptic, antibiotic, antigen, antibody, antibacterial, antioxidant, anticodon
Antibodies protect against antigens.
arbor tree - arboreal, arboretum, arborvitae, arborist
Arboreal species live in trees.
-arium place - aquarium, terrarium, planetarium, vivarium
Aquariums are places for aquatic organisms.
arth joint - arthritis, arthropod, arthroscope, arthrogram, Arthropoda
Arthritis is an inflammation of the joints.
aud sound - auditory meatus, audible, audiologist, audiogram, audience
Sound waves travel through the auditory meatus to the ear drum.
auto self - autotrophic, autoimmune, autocatalytic, autonomic nervous system, automatic, autonomous
Autotrophic organisms are considered self-feeders because they produce their own food.
av, avi bird - Aves, aviary, aviation, avian flu, aviculture
Aves is the class of animals composed of birds.
bio life - biology, biochemistry, biometrics, biome, biosphere, antibiotic
Biology is the study of living systems.
blast germ, embryo - blastula, blastocoel, blastocyst, cytoblast, erythroblast
The blastula is an early stage of embryonic development.
bol clod - bolus, anabolism, catabolism, metabolism
A bolus is a clod of food in the digestive tract.
brachi arm - biceps brachii, brachial artery, brachial plexus, triceps brachii
The biceps brachii is a two-headed muscle of the arm.
calor heat - calorie, caloric, calorimeter, kilocalorie
A calorie is a unit of heat energy.
cap, cep head - triceps, cephalopod decapitate, capital, cap, captain
The triceps is a muscle with three heads.
cardi heart - pericardium, tachycardia, cardiac arrest, bradycardia, electrocardiogram
The pericardium is the sac around the heart.
carp wrist - carpal bones, carpus, metacarpal, carpal tunnel syndrome
The wrist is made of carpal bones.
cep, cept take - receptor, intercept, forceps, except, accept
Receptors take and transmit information on the environment.
cephal head, brain - electroencephalogram, Cephalopoda, hydrocephaly, cephalothorax, encephalitis
An electroencephalogram is a record of brain wave activity.
chlor green - chlorophyll, chloroplast, chlorine, chlorella, chlorosis
Chlorophyll is the green pigment in plant cells.
chond cartilage, granular - mitochondria, chondroblast, chondrocyte, chondrichthyes
Mitochondria appear as granular objects in the cell.
chord a chord, string - Chordata, Hemichordata, notochord, chordae tendineae
Chordata is the phylum of animals with dorsal nerve chords.
chrom color - chromosome, chromatic, monochrome, chromatophore, chromatography
Chromosomes appear as colorful bodies when stained appropriately.
cide, cis to kill, to cut pesticide, herbicide, fungicide, incision, excision, germicide
Pesticides are used to kill agricultural pests.
cili a small hair ciliary muscle, cilia, Ciliophora, aciliate
Ciliary muscles are small hair-like muscles in the eye.
circ ring, around - circulatory system, circa, circulation, circumflex artery
The circulatory system conducts blood around the body.
co, com together - community, commensalism, conjugal, communicate, conjugation
A community is a group of organisms that live together in the same environment.
coel hollow - coelenterate, coelenteron, blastocoel, pseudocoelomate, Coelenterata
Coelenterates have hollow bodies.
cogn know, think - prognosis, diagnosis, recognize, cognitive
Physicians make prognoses about what they think will happen to a patient.
corp body - corpus callosum, corpse, corpulent, corpus luteum, blood corpuscle, Pacinian corpuscle
The corpus callosum is the body that unites the two cerebral hemispheres.
crani skull - craniotomy, cranium, cranial nerve, epicranium, cranial artery
Craniotomy surgery involves opening the skull.
crypt hidden - cryptic, encrypted, cryptic coloration, cryptozoa, cryptogrammic
Cryptically colored animals are easily hidden in the environment.
cyan dark blue - anthocyanin, hemocyanin, cyan, cyanosis, cyanide
Anthocyanin is the dark blue pigment found in blue and purple flowers.
cyst bladder, sac - cyst, sporocyst, blastocyst, cystic fibrosis, nematocyst, oocyst
A cyst is a membranous sac in the body.
cyt cell - cytology, erythrocyte, chondrocyte, cytokinin, phagocyte, cytoplasm
Erythrocytes are red blood cells.
de without - denature, decomposition, dehydrate, deciduous, defibrillate, deforestation, DNA
Denatured proteins are without the structure necessary to function.
dem people - demography, epidemic, pandemic, epidemiology
An epidemic is a widespread disease among people.
dendr tree, bush - dendrites, dendritic, dendrology, rhododendron, dendrochronology
Dendrites are tree-shaped extensions on a neuron.
dent, dont tooth - dentin, dentist, dentifrice, orthodontist, periodontal, dentate
Dentin is the hard part of the tooth beneath the enamel.
derm skin - dermatology, epidermis, hypodermic, ectoderm, endoderm
Dermatology is the study of the skin.
dis, dys away, not - dystrophy, disease, dysfunction, distemper, disinfect, dyslexia, dislocation
Muscular dystrophy results in a wasting away of muscles.
dors back - latissimus dorsi, dorsal fin, dorsal lip, dorsiflexor, dorisfleixon
The latissimus dorsi is a large, lateral muscle of the back.
dura hard, lasting - dura matter, durable, duration, endure
The dura matter is a hard, tough membrane protecting the brain.
e, ex, ef out, without, from - exocytosis, efferent, exchange, exoskeleton, exogenous
During exocytosis, contents of vacuoles go out of a cell.
echino spiny – echinoderm, Echinodermata, echinate, echinoid
Echinoderms have spiny skin.
eco house, environment - ecology, ecosystem, ecophysiology, ecocline
Ecologists study the interaction of organisms with their environments.
ecto outside, external - ectoparasite, ectoderm, ectoplasm, ectopic, ectothermal
A flea is an ectoparasite because it lives outside its host.
ectomy cut out - appendectomy, tonsillectomy, lumpectomy, hysterectomy, mastectomy
During appendectomy surgery, the physician cuts out the patient's appendix.
endo, en within - endoskeleton, endosperm, endocrine, endometrium, endothermic, endemic, endoparasite
Vertebrates have endoskeletons which support their bodies from within.
epi upon - epidermis, epithelial, epicotyl, epicondyle, epiglottis, epiphyte
The epidermis is the top layer of the skin and rests upon the dermis.
eryth reddish - erythrocyte, erythroblastosis fetalis, erythropoiesis, erythroblast
Erythrocytes, or red blood cells, have a reddish color due to their iron content.
eu good, true - eukaryote, eugenics, eubacteria, euphoria
Eukaryotes are organisms with true nuclei.
ex, exo outside of - exoskeleton, exocrine, exotic, extraterrestrial, extinct
Crustaceans, like crabs and lobsters, have exoskeltons on the outside of their bodies.
fer to carry, bear - conifer, porifera, transfer, infer, refer
Conifers, such as pines and firs, are cone-bearing trees.
flex, flect bend - flexor, flex, reflex, flexible, inflexibility, circumflex, dorsiflex
Flexor muscles, such as the biceps, bend limbs at the joints.
foramen hole, perforation - foramen magnum, Foraminifera, optic foramen
The foramen magnum is the largest hole in the cranium.
form form, shape - fusiform, coliform, form, uniform, conform, formal
Fusiform cells are spindle-shaped, while coliform bacteria are rod-shaped.
gam marriage, sex cell - gametes, monogamy, gametogenesis, gametocyte, gametophyte
Gametes are the sex cells that combine in fertilization to yield a zygote.
gastr stomach - gastritis, gastric, gastronomic, gastropod, gastrointestinal system
Gastritis is the inflammation of the stomach.
gen origin - genetics, gene, generate, antigen, pathogen
Genetics gives us an understanding of the origin of phenotypic traits.
germ sprout - germination, germ, germ cell, germ layer, germicide
During germination, the seed sprouts and the plant grows.
gest carry, bear - gestation, congest, digest, indigestion
Gestation is the period during which a mother carries the developing offspring.
gloss, glot tongue - glossopharyngeal nerve, glossary, polyglot, epiglottis
The glossopharyngeal nerve innervates the tongue and pharynx.
glu, glo lump, bond - glomerulus, glue, agglutinate, conglomerate
Glomeruli contain lumps of vessels.
glyc sugar - hypoglycemia, glycogen, glycolysis, glycolipid, glycerin, glycerides
People with hypoglycemia have too low of blood sugar.
gnath jaw - Agnatha, gnathostomata, gnaw, orthognathous, gnathic
Members of Agnatha, such as the lamprey, have no jaws.
gram writing, picture - electrocardiogram, radiogram, thermogram, mammogram, electroencephalogram
An electrocardiogram gives a picture of the electrical activity of the heart.
gyn woman - gynecologist, gynecology, gynarchy, monogynous, epigynous
Gynecologists specialize in medical issues specific to women.
hal breathe - inhalation, exhalation, inhale, exhale, halitosis, inhalant
Inhalation is the process of breathing air in, while exhalation is the process of breathing out.
hem blood - hematology, hemorrhage, hemoglobin, hemophilia, hematocrit, heme, hemocyte
Hematology is the study of the physiology of the blood.
hemi half - hemiplegia, hemisphere, Hemichordata, hemicellulose, hemiparasite
Hemiplegia is paralysis of either the right or left half of the body.
hepat liver - hepatitis, hepatic artery, hepatocyte, hepatoma
Hepatitis is a disease characterized by an inflammation of the liver.
herb plants - herbivore, herbaceous, herbs, herbarium
Herbivores feed on plants.
hetero other, different - heterotroph, heterogeneous, heterosexual, heterozygous
Heterotrophs get their energy from other organisms.
histo tissue - histology, histochemical, histogenic, histologist
Histology is the study of tissues.
hom same, alike - homologous, homeostasis, homogeneous, homogenize, homeostatic, homeotherm
Homologous chromosomes have the same structural features and patterns of genes.
hyper over, above - hypertensive, hypersensitive, hyperventilate, hyperextension, hyperglycemia
Hypertensive patients exhibit above normal blood pressure.
hypo below, beneath - hypodermic, hypotension, hypoglycemia, hypoallergenic, hypothermia, hypoxia
Hypodermic needles are used to inject medicine beneath the skin.
ichth fish - Chondrichthyes, ichthyology, Osteichthyes, ichthyosaurus, ichthyologist
The Chondricthyes are bony fish.
-ile quality, state - juvenile hormones, mobile, contractile, fertile, flexible
Juvenile hormones maintain the larval state.
im, in not - independent variable, immiscible, immobile, innocuous, invalid, insane
The independent variable does not depend on dependent variables.
immun safe - immunization, immunology, immunoglobulin, immunosupressor, immunity
Immunizations are administered to keep patients safe from diseases.
inter between - intercostals, internal, interface, intercellular, interbreed, interneurons, interact, interbreed
Intercostal muscles are found between the ribs.
intra within, into - intracellular, intracranial, intravenous, intravascular, intramuscular
Intravenous injections go directly into veins.
-ion process - respiration, reproduction, decomposition, abscission, addiction
Respiration, reproduction, and decomposition are important biological processes.
-ist one who studies - biologist, biochemist, ecologist, geneticist, radiologist, cardiologist
A biologist is one who studies living systems.
-itis inflammation - tendonitis, hepatitis, appendicitis, bursitis, arthritis
Bursitis is inflammation of the bursa in the knee, elbow, or shoulder.
junct join - conjunctive tissue, nondisjunction, conjunctiva, disjunction, gap junction
Conjunctive tissue joins tissues together.
juven young - juvenile diabetes, juvenile, rejuvenate, juvenile hormones
Juvenile diabetes is expressed when one is young.
kilo thousand - kilocalorie, kilogram, kilojoule, kilometer, kilobase
A kilocalorie is one thousand calories.
kine motion - kinesiology, kinetochore, cytokinesis, kinesthetic, kinetic energy
Kinesiology is the study of human motion.
lact milk - lactase, lactic acid, lactose, lactate, lactobacillus, lactoglobulin
Lactase is an enzyme that breaks down milk sugar (lactose).
lip fat - lipoprotein, lipid, lipase, liposuction, lipoid, liposphere
Lipoproteins are proteins that combine with fat in the blood.
loc place, position - dislocate, locale, allocate, locomotion, location
Dislocated limbs are not in the correct position.
lys loose, break - lysosome, plasmolysis, lyse, paralysis, analysis
Lysosomes are organelles that contain enzymes that break down materials.
macro large - macromolecule, macronutrient, macroscopic, macromere, macrophage, macrostructure
Macromolecules are large molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
mal bad, badly - malignant, malformation, malady, malodorous, malaise, malaria, malfunction
Malignant tumors are bad because they are metastatic and invasive.
mamm breast - mammary gland, mammal, mammogram, Mammalia
Mammary glands, or breasts, are found in mammals and provide milk to the young.
man hand - manipulate, manual, manage, manufacture, maneuver
We can manipulate tools with our hands.
medi middle, between - mediastinum, medial, medial artery, gluteus medius, mediate, median nerve
The mediastinum is the membrane between the lungs.
medic physician - medical doctor, medicine, medic, medicate, medicinal
Medical doctors are physicians.
mes middle, between - mesoderm, mesencephelon, mesoglea, mesophyll, mesoplankton, mesenteron
Mesoderm is located between the endoderm and ectoderm.
meta change, between - metamorphosis, metabolism, metathorax, metacognition, metacarpal, metastasis
Metamorphosis is the change in insects or amphibians from an immature form to an adult form.
meter measure - metric system, thermometer, millimeter, multimeter, calorimeter, sphygmomanometer
The metric system is a standardized system of measurement.
micro small - microvilli, microscope, micrometer, microbiology, microbe, microclimate, microtubule
Microvilli are small, finger-like projections that increase cell surface area.
migra wander - migratory, migrate, emigrate, immigrate, immigrant
Migratory mammals wander from one habitat to another.
mis bad, wrong - misidentify, miscarriage, misnomer, mistake, misalign, misdiagnose, mislabel
Misidentification of symptoms can lead to a wrong diagnosis.
moll soft - mollusk, Mollusca, emolliate, emollient, mollify
Mollusks, such as snails and slugs, have soft bodies.
mono single - monocot, monotremes, monocotyledon, monecious, monogamy
Monocots, such as grasses and palms, have only a single cotyledon.
morph form - morphogen, metamorphosis, morphology, isomorphic, morphogenesis
Morphogens are chemicals that stimulate a change in form or shape.
mort mortal, death - postmortem, mortality, mortal, mortician, mortuary
Postmortem exams are used to determine the cause of death.
mut change - mutagen, mutant, mutability, mutate, mutation
Mutagens cause changes in genetic composition.
myo muscle - myocardium, myofibril, myositis, myoglobin, myology, myopathic
The myocardium is the muscular tissue of the heart.
nas, nos nose - nasal, nostril, nasopharynx, nasal cavity, nasal concha
The nasal bone provides structure for the nose.
nat born, birth - innate, natal, native, prenatal, postnatal, nature, natural
Innate reflexes, such as grasping or rooting reflexes, are present at birth.
neo new, recent - neoplasm, neotropics, neophyte, neonate, neonatology, neolith
Neoplams are new, abnormal growths associated with cancer.
nephr kidney - nephritis, epinephrine, nephrectomy, nephron, nephridia
Nephritis is an inflammation of the kidney.
neur nerve - neuritis, neuropathology, neurologist, neural, neurula, neuron, neuroma, neurosis, neurobiology
Neuritis is an inflammation of peripheral nerves.
nom name, order - taxonomy, binomial nomenclature, autonomic, autonomy
Taxonomy is the branch of science concerned with classification and naming.
nuc center - nucleus, nuclear, nucleic acid, nucleotide, enucleate, nucleolus
The nucleus is the control-center of the cell.
ocu eye - ocular lens, binocular, ocular nerve, interocular
The ocular lens of a microscope is the one closest to the eye.
-oid resemble, like - amoeboid, haploid, diploid, steroid, deltoid, thyroid, thylakoid, trapezoid
Organisms that resemble amoeba are said to be amoeboid.
olfact to smell - olfactory nerve, olfactory, olfaction, olfactory cell
The olfactory nerve is involved in the sense of smell.
ology study of - biology, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, ecology, embryology, zoology, ecology
Biology is the study of living systems.
oo egg - oocyte, oogonium, oocyst, oogenesis, oospore
An oocyte is an egg cell.
oper work - operon, operate, cooperate, operator, operation, operant conditioning
An operon controls the work of genes responsible for protein synthesis.
ortho straight, correct - Orthoptera, orthodontist, orthopedic, orthoptics, orthotic
Orthoptera, including grasshoppers and crickets, have straight wings.
-osis process, condition - metamorphosis, neurosis, thrombosis, mitosis, halitosis
Metamorphosis is the process of changing shape.
oss, osteo bone - osteoblast, osteocyte, ossify, osteology, osteoporosis, osteoclast
Osteoblasts secrete the matrix for bone formation.
oto ear - otolith, otology, otoscope, otopathology, ototoxic, otologist
Otoliths in the inner ear are used in the detection of gravity.
ov egg - ovum, oviduct, ovary, ovulate, ova, ovulation, oviparous
The ovum, or egg, passes through the oviduct during ovulation.
para alongside - parasympathetic, paramedic, paraphrase, parallel, parapodia, parasite
The parasympathetic nervous system works alongside the sympathetic nervous system
pariet wall - parietal lobe, parietal bone, parietal cell, parietal
The parietal bones comprise the side walls of the skull.
pater, pat father - sympatry, paternal, paternity, allopatry, patriarch, sympatric
Sympatric species are from the same "fatherland".
path disease - pathology, pathologist, allelopathy, sympathetic nervous system, allopathy
Pathologists study the causes and effects of diseases.
ped, pod foot - arthropod, cephalopod, gastropod, millipede, centipede, podiatry, bipedal, tripod, orthopedics
Arthropods, such as insects, spiders and crustaceans, have jointed feet.
phag eat - phagocytosis, macrophage, bacteriophage, esophagus, phagocyte
Phagocytosis occurs when amoeboid protozoans eat bacteria and other material.
phob fear - arachnophobia, hydrophobic, phobia, claustrophobia, acrophobia, aquaphobia
Arachnophobia is an irrational fear of spiders.
photo light - photoperiodism, photosynthesis, photomicrograph, photon, photoreceptor
Photoperiodism is the response of plants to seasonal changes in the amount of daylight.
phyll leaf - phylloquinone, mesophyll, chlorophyll, xanthophyll, phyllopod
Phylloquione is one of the K vitamins found in leafy green vegetables.
phys body, nature - physiology, biophysics, physical medicine, physician, physique
Physiology is the study of the body.
phyt plant - epiphyte, phytochemistry, phytoplankton, sporophyte, gametophyte, phytonutrient, phytotoxin
Epiphytes, such as orchids, are nonparasitic plants that live on other plants.
pneum lung - pneumococcus, pneumatic, pneumonia, pneumocystis, pneumothorax
Pneumococcus is a spherical-shaped bacteria found in some lung infections.
pole, polar end of axis - vegetal pole, animal pole, polar bear, polarize, depolarize
The vegetal pole is at the end of one axis of an embryo.
poly many - polysaccharide, polyploid, polymerize, polymerase, polydactyl, polymer
Polymerization is the binding together of many subunits.
pop people, inhabitants - population, populous, populace, depopulate, populate, repopulate
A population is a group of interbreeding organisms that inhabit the same region.
port carry - transport, portable, export, import, report
Electron transport chains carry electrons across membranes during phosphorylation.
post after - postpartum, posterior, posthumous, posterity, postnasal, postsurgery
The postpartum period is the period after birth.
pre before - prefix, prefrontal, precede, preborn, predict, presynaptic
Prefixes appear before root words and modify meanings.
prim first - primary succession, primitive, primal, primary consumer, primordial
Primary succession occurs first following retreating glaciers or volcanic eruptions.
pseudo not true, false - pseudopodia, pseudocoel, Pseudotsuga, pseudoscience
Pseudopodia are not true feet, but have foot-like characteristics.
psych mind - neuropsychiatry, psychology, psychiatry, psychobiology, psychosis
Neuropsychiatry is concerned with the organic aspects of disorders of the mind.
pter wing – Orthoptera, Archaeopteryx, Pterodactyl
The Pterodactyl had “winged fingers.”
pulmo lung - pulmonary, cardiopulmonary system, pulmonary cavity, pulmonary artery
The pulmonary cavity contains the lungs.
re back, again - retract, reforest, repopulate, regrow, return, react
Reforestation is necessary to bring back forests following logging and erosion.
rhiz root - rhizome, rhizoid, rhizobium, mycorrhizae
Rhizomes are root-like underground stems.
sacchar sugar - monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharide, Saccharomyces
Monosaccharides, such as glucose and fructose, are sugars.
saur lizard - dinosaur, brontosaurus, ichthyosaurus, stegosaurus, tyrannosaurus
Dinosaurs had some lizard-like characteristics.
sci know - science, conscious, unconscious, scientific
Science is one way of knowing things.
scop see, monitor - arthroscope, stethoscope, microscope, endoscope, bronchoscope
Physicians use arthroscopes to see inside joints.
script to write - transcription, prescription, reverse transcriptase, description, superscript, subscript
Transcription is the process in which DNA code is written as RNA code.
sect cut - section, dissect, transect, intersect, vivisection, bisect
A longitudinal section requires a cut from the top to bottom of a structure.
sed, sess seated, fixed - sedentary, sessile, residue, sedate, sedative
Kelp are sessile because holdfasts keep them fixed to the rocks on the ocean floor.
semi half - semitendinosus, semipermeable, semilunar valve, semimembranosus, semicircular canal
The semitendinosus muscle is half muscle and half tendon.
sens feel - sensory, sense, sensation, sensitive, sensor, sensorimotor
Without sensory neurons, you would not be able to feel anything.
serv save - conservationist, preserve, conserve, reservation, conservation, preservation
Conservationists work to save resources for the future.
sperm seed - angiosperm, sperm, gymnosperm, endosperm, spermatozoa
In angiosperms (flowering plants) seeds are found within fruits.
sphere ball, sphere - biosphere, cerebral hemisphere, troposphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere
The biosphere is the spherical zone around the Earth in which life exists.
spir breathe - spiracles, inspire, respiration, perspiration, respirometer
Insects breathe through pores known as spiracles.
stom mouth, pore - stomata, stoma, stomach, protostome, deuterostome
Stomata are tiny pores which regulate the flow of gases in and out of leaves.
sub under, below - subclavian, subalpine, subarctic, subcortical, subcutaneous, subgenus, subspecies
The subclavian artery is located below the clavicle.
super above, over - superior vena cava, superior, superior oblique muscle, superior rectus muscle
The superior vena cava is located above the heart.
syn together, with - synapse, photosynthesis, synchronize, syndrome, chemosynthesis
The synapse is where two neurons come together.
tact, tag touch - contagious, tactile, contact, intact, geotactic
Many contagious diseases spread by touch.
taxis movement response - phototactic, geotaxis, phototaxis, chemotaxis, barotaxis
Phototactic bacteria move in response to light.
tele, telo far, end - telophase, telomere, telodendrion, telescope
During telophase, the chromosomes are far apart.
ten, tin hold - tendon, extension, retention, abstention, contents, tension, tentacle
Tendons hold muscles to bones.
therm heat - homeotherm, thermometer, thermistor, ectotherm, poikilotherm, thermophilic, thermoregulation
Homeotherms regulate internal heat to maintain constant body temperature.
tom cut - microtome, atom, appendectomy, tonsillectomy, dichotomy, anatomy, tomography
Microtomes are used to cut extremely thin tissue sections for examination under microscopes.
tox poison - toxemia, toxic, intoxicate, antitoxin, cytotoxic, detoxification
Toxemia is blood poisoning by toxins from a local bacterial infection.
trans across - neurotransmitter, transfusion, tranferase, translation, transcription, transect, transpiration
Neurotransmitters carry signals across synapses.
trop turning, change - tropomysosin, geotropism, phototropism, troposphere, troponin, tropics
Tropomyosin is a muscle protein that changes direction, causing muscles to contract.
trich hair - trichome, trichocyst, Trichoptera, trichotomy
Trichomes are small hairs in the epidermis of plants.
troph nutrition, food - autotroph, atrophy, hypertrophy, heterotroph, trophic layers, chemotroph
Autotrophs produce their own food through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.
ultra beyond - ultrasound, ultracentrifuge, ultrafiltrate, ultraviolet, ultrastructure
Ultrasound is a frequency beyond the range of human hearing.
ur urine - urea, urologist, urinary, ureter, urethra, urinalysis
Urea is a nitrogenous waste product found in urine.
vas vessel – cardiovascular, vascular bundle, vascularity, vasoconstrictor, vasodilator, vas deferns
The cardiovascular system is the system of the heart and blood vessels.
ven vein - venule, vena cava, venous, intravenous, vein
Venules are tiny veins that collect blood from capillaries.
vid, vis see - visible, video, evident, evidence, revise, vision
We see visible light, while other organisms see ultra-violet or infrared light.
viv, vita alive, life - vitamin, vital, revitalize, survive, revive, vivisection
Vitamins are essential for normal life functions.
vor eat - herbivorous, voracious, carnivorous, omnivorous, devour
Herbivorous animals eat plant material.
zoo, zoa animal - zoo, zoology, protozoan, spermatozoa, zooplankton
Zoology is the study of the anatomy, physiology, classification and behavior of animals.