Biology Roots

Table 1.3 Roots, prefixes and suffixes in biology - From the Sourcebook for Teaching Science

a, an not, without - asymptomatic, aphasia, anemia, aseptic, amorphous, asexual, anhydrous, anaerobic

A patient is asymptomatic if they do not have symptoms.

ab away from - abductor, absent, aberrant, abstain, abnormal, abscission, abscissic acid

An abductor is a muscle that moves a limb away from the body.

acu sharp - acute, acupuncture, accurate, acumen

Acute pains are sharp pains.

ad towards - adductor, addiction, adhesion, additive, adhere

Adductor muscles brings limbs toward the body.

ag, act do, move, cause - agent, reaction, reagent, agitate, action

Disease agents cause diseases.

-al relating to, at - nocturnal, diurnal, arboreal, terrestrial, biological

Nocturnal animals are active at night.

alb white - albino, albacore, albedo, albumin, linea alba

Albinos appear white due to an absence of pigmentation.

ambul to walk - ambulatory, amble, ambulance, somnambulist

Ambulatory patients can walk.

amph double, both - amphibian, amphoteric, amphibious, Amphipoda

Amphibians live both on land and in the water.

amyl starch - amylase, amylose, amylopectin, amyloplast

Amylase is an enzyme that converts starch to simple sugars.

an upwards, apart - anaphase, anode, analysis, anabolism

During anaphase, chromosomes are pulled apart.

andr, anth male, man - androgen, anthropology, anther, antheridia, anthropomorphic

Androgens are male hormones.

ann, enni circle, year - perennial, annelid, annular rings, annual, biennial

Perennial plants stay alive through all seasons of the year.

ante before - antenna, anterior, antedate, antebrachium

The antenna are located on the front of the organism.

anti against, opposite - antiseptic, antibiotic, antigen, antibody, antibacterial, antioxidant, anticodon

Antibodies protect against antigens.

arbor tree - arboreal, arboretum, arborvitae, arborist

Arboreal species live in trees.

-arium place - aquarium, terrarium, planetarium, vivarium

Aquariums are places for aquatic organisms.

arth joint - arthritis, arthropod, arthroscope, arthrogram, Arthropoda

Arthritis is an inflammation of the joints.

aud sound - auditory meatus, audible, audiologist, audiogram, audience

Sound waves travel through the auditory meatus to the ear drum.

auto self - autotrophic, autoimmune, autocatalytic, autonomic nervous system, automatic, autonomous

Autotrophic organisms are considered self-feeders because they produce their own food.

av, avi bird - Aves, aviary, aviation, avian flu, aviculture

Aves is the class of animals composed of birds.

bio life - biology, biochemistry, biometrics, biome, biosphere, antibiotic

Biology is the study of living systems.

blast germ, embryo - blastula, blastocoel, blastocyst, cytoblast, erythroblast

The blastula is an early stage of embryonic development.

bol clod - bolus, anabolism, catabolism, metabolism

A bolus is a clod of food in the digestive tract.

brachi arm - biceps brachii, brachial artery, brachial plexus, triceps brachii

The biceps brachii is a two-headed muscle of the arm.

calor heat - calorie, caloric, calorimeter, kilocalorie

A calorie is a unit of heat energy.

cap, cep head - triceps, cephalopod decapitate, capital, cap, captain

The triceps is a muscle with three heads.

cardi heart - pericardium, tachycardia, cardiac arrest, bradycardia, electrocardiogram

The pericardium is the sac around the heart.

carp wrist - carpal bones, carpus, metacarpal, carpal tunnel syndrome

The wrist is made of carpal bones.

cep, cept take - receptor, intercept, forceps, except, accept

Receptors take and transmit information on the environment.

cephal head, brain - electroencephalogram, Cephalopoda, hydrocephaly, cephalothorax, encephalitis

An electroencephalogram is a record of brain wave activity.

chlor green - chlorophyll, chloroplast, chlorine, chlorella, chlorosis

Chlorophyll is the green pigment in plant cells.

chond cartilage, granular - mitochondria, chondroblast, chondrocyte, chondrichthyes

Mitochondria appear as granular objects in the cell.

chord a chord, string - Chordata, Hemichordata, notochord, chordae tendineae

Chordata is the phylum of animals with dorsal nerve chords.

chrom color - chromosome, chromatic, monochrome, chromatophore, chromatography

Chromosomes appear as colorful bodies when stained appropriately.

cide, cis to kill, to cut pesticide, herbicide, fungicide, incision, excision, germicide

Pesticides are used to kill agricultural pests.

cili a small hair ciliary muscle, cilia, Ciliophora, aciliate

Ciliary muscles are small hair-like muscles in the eye.

circ ring, around - circulatory system, circa, circulation, circumflex artery

The circulatory system conducts blood around the body.

co, com together - community, commensalism, conjugal, communicate, conjugation

A community is a group of organisms that live together in the same environment.

coel hollow - coelenterate, coelenteron, blastocoel, pseudocoelomate, Coelenterata

Coelenterates have hollow bodies.

cogn know, think - prognosis, diagnosis, recognize, cognitive

Physicians make prognoses about what they think will happen to a patient.

corp body - corpus callosum, corpse, corpulent, corpus luteum, blood corpuscle, Pacinian corpuscle

The corpus callosum is the body that unites the two cerebral hemispheres.

crani skull - craniotomy, cranium, cranial nerve, epicranium, cranial artery

Craniotomy surgery involves opening the skull.

crypt hidden - cryptic, encrypted, cryptic coloration, cryptozoa, cryptogrammic

Cryptically colored animals are easily hidden in the environment.

cyan dark blue - anthocyanin, hemocyanin, cyan, cyanosis, cyanide

Anthocyanin is the dark blue pigment found in blue and purple flowers.

cyst bladder, sac - cyst, sporocyst, blastocyst, cystic fibrosis, nematocyst, oocyst

A cyst is a membranous sac in the body.

cyt cell - cytology, erythrocyte, chondrocyte, cytokinin, phagocyte, cytoplasm

Erythrocytes are red blood cells.

de without - denature, decomposition, dehydrate, deciduous, defibrillate, deforestation, DNA

Denatured proteins are without the structure necessary to function.

dem people - demography, epidemic, pandemic, epidemiology

An epidemic is a widespread disease among people.

dendr tree, bush - dendrites, dendritic, dendrology, rhododendron, dendrochronology

Dendrites are tree-shaped extensions on a neuron.

dent, dont tooth - dentin, dentist, dentifrice, orthodontist, periodontal, dentate

Dentin is the hard part of the tooth beneath the enamel.

derm skin - dermatology, epidermis, hypodermic, ectoderm, endoderm

Dermatology is the study of the skin.

dis, dys away, not - dystrophy, disease, dysfunction, distemper, disinfect, dyslexia, dislocation

Muscular dystrophy results in a wasting away of muscles.

dors back - latissimus dorsi, dorsal fin, dorsal lip, dorsiflexor, dorisfleixon

The latissimus dorsi is a large, lateral muscle of the back.

dura hard, lasting - dura matter, durable, duration, endure

The dura matter is a hard, tough membrane protecting the brain.

e, ex, ef out, without, from - exocytosis, efferent, exchange, exoskeleton, exogenous

During exocytosis, contents of vacuoles go out of a cell.

echino spiny – echinoderm, Echinodermata, echinate, echinoid

Echinoderms have spiny skin.

eco house, environment - ecology, ecosystem, ecophysiology, ecocline

Ecologists study the interaction of organisms with their environments.

ecto outside, external - ectoparasite, ectoderm, ectoplasm, ectopic, ectothermal

A flea is an ectoparasite because it lives outside its host.

ectomy cut out - appendectomy, tonsillectomy, lumpectomy, hysterectomy, mastectomy

During appendectomy surgery, the physician cuts out the patient's appendix.

endo, en within - endoskeleton, endosperm, endocrine, endometrium, endothermic, endemic, endoparasite

Vertebrates have endoskeletons which support their bodies from within.

epi upon - epidermis, epithelial, epicotyl, epicondyle, epiglottis, epiphyte

The epidermis is the top layer of the skin and rests upon the dermis.

eryth reddish - erythrocyte, erythroblastosis fetalis, erythropoiesis, erythroblast

Erythrocytes, or red blood cells, have a reddish color due to their iron content.

eu good, true - eukaryote, eugenics, eubacteria, euphoria

Eukaryotes are organisms with true nuclei.

ex, exo outside of - exoskeleton, exocrine, exotic, extraterrestrial, extinct

Crustaceans, like crabs and lobsters, have exoskeltons on the outside of their bodies.

fer to carry, bear - conifer, porifera, transfer, infer, refer

Conifers, such as pines and firs, are cone-bearing trees.

flex, flect bend - flexor, flex, reflex, flexible, inflexibility, circumflex, dorsiflex

Flexor muscles, such as the biceps, bend limbs at the joints.

foramen hole, perforation - foramen magnum, Foraminifera, optic foramen

The foramen magnum is the largest hole in the cranium.

form form, shape - fusiform, coliform, form, uniform, conform, formal

Fusiform cells are spindle-shaped, while coliform bacteria are rod-shaped.

gam marriage, sex cell - gametes, monogamy, gametogenesis, gametocyte, gametophyte

Gametes are the sex cells that combine in fertilization to yield a zygote.

gastr stomach - gastritis, gastric, gastronomic, gastropod, gastrointestinal system

Gastritis is the inflammation of the stomach.

gen origin - genetics, gene, generate, antigen, pathogen

Genetics gives us an understanding of the origin of phenotypic traits.

germ sprout - germination, germ, germ cell, germ layer, germicide

During germination, the seed sprouts and the plant grows.

gest carry, bear - gestation, congest, digest, indigestion

Gestation is the period during which a mother carries the developing offspring.

gloss, glot tongue - glossopharyngeal nerve, glossary, polyglot, epiglottis

The glossopharyngeal nerve innervates the tongue and pharynx.

glu, glo lump, bond - glomerulus, glue, agglutinate, conglomerate

Glomeruli contain lumps of vessels.

glyc sugar - hypoglycemia, glycogen, glycolysis, glycolipid, glycerin, glycerides

People with hypoglycemia have too low of blood sugar.

gnath jaw - Agnatha, gnathostomata, gnaw, orthognathous, gnathic

Members of Agnatha, such as the lamprey, have no jaws.

gram writing, picture - electrocardiogram, radiogram, thermogram, mammogram, electroencephalogram

An electrocardiogram gives a picture of the electrical activity of the heart.

gyn woman - gynecologist, gynecology, gynarchy, monogynous, epigynous

Gynecologists specialize in medical issues specific to women.

hal breathe - inhalation, exhalation, inhale, exhale, halitosis, inhalant

Inhalation is the process of breathing air in, while exhalation is the process of breathing out.

hem blood - hematology, hemorrhage, hemoglobin, hemophilia, hematocrit, heme, hemocyte

Hematology is the study of the physiology of the blood.

hemi half - hemiplegia, hemisphere, Hemichordata, hemicellulose, hemiparasite

Hemiplegia is paralysis of either the right or left half of the body.

hepat liver - hepatitis, hepatic artery, hepatocyte, hepatoma

Hepatitis is a disease characterized by an inflammation of the liver.

herb plants - herbivore, herbaceous, herbs, herbarium

Herbivores feed on plants.

hetero other, different - heterotroph, heterogeneous, heterosexual, heterozygous

Heterotrophs get their energy from other organisms.

histo tissue - histology, histochemical, histogenic, histologist

Histology is the study of tissues.

hom same, alike - homologous, homeostasis, homogeneous, homogenize, homeostatic, homeotherm

Homologous chromosomes have the same structural features and patterns of genes.

hyper over, above - hypertensive, hypersensitive, hyperventilate, hyperextension, hyperglycemia

Hypertensive patients exhibit above normal blood pressure.

hypo below, beneath - hypodermic, hypotension, hypoglycemia, hypoallergenic, hypothermia, hypoxia

Hypodermic needles are used to inject medicine beneath the skin.

ichth fish - Chondrichthyes, ichthyology, Osteichthyes, ichthyosaurus, ichthyologist

The Chondricthyes are bony fish.

-ile quality, state - juvenile hormones, mobile, contractile, fertile, flexible

Juvenile hormones maintain the larval state.

im, in not - independent variable, immiscible, immobile, innocuous, invalid, insane

The independent variable does not depend on dependent variables.

immun safe - immunization, immunology, immunoglobulin, immunosupressor, immunity

Immunizations are administered to keep patients safe from diseases.

inter between - intercostals, internal, interface, intercellular, interbreed, interneurons, interact, interbreed

Intercostal muscles are found between the ribs.

intra within, into - intracellular, intracranial, intravenous, intravascular, intramuscular

Intravenous injections go directly into veins.

-ion process - respiration, reproduction, decomposition, abscission, addiction

Respiration, reproduction, and decomposition are important biological processes.

-ist one who studies - biologist, biochemist, ecologist, geneticist, radiologist, cardiologist

A biologist is one who studies living systems.

-itis inflammation - tendonitis, hepatitis, appendicitis, bursitis, arthritis

Bursitis is inflammation of the bursa in the knee, elbow, or shoulder.

junct join - conjunctive tissue, nondisjunction, conjunctiva, disjunction, gap junction

Conjunctive tissue joins tissues together.

juven young - juvenile diabetes, juvenile, rejuvenate, juvenile hormones

Juvenile diabetes is expressed when one is young.

kilo thousand - kilocalorie, kilogram, kilojoule, kilometer, kilobase

A kilocalorie is one thousand calories.

kine motion - kinesiology, kinetochore, cytokinesis, kinesthetic, kinetic energy

Kinesiology is the study of human motion.

lact milk - lactase, lactic acid, lactose, lactate, lactobacillus, lactoglobulin

Lactase is an enzyme that breaks down milk sugar (lactose).

lip fat - lipoprotein, lipid, lipase, liposuction, lipoid, liposphere

Lipoproteins are proteins that combine with fat in the blood.

loc place, position - dislocate, locale, allocate, locomotion, location

Dislocated limbs are not in the correct position.

lys loose, break - lysosome, plasmolysis, lyse, paralysis, analysis

Lysosomes are organelles that contain enzymes that break down materials.

macro large - macromolecule, macronutrient, macroscopic, macromere, macrophage, macrostructure

Macromolecules are large molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids.

mal bad, badly - malignant, malformation, malady, malodorous, malaise, malaria, malfunction

Malignant tumors are bad because they are metastatic and invasive.

mamm breast - mammary gland, mammal, mammogram, Mammalia

Mammary glands, or breasts, are found in mammals and provide milk to the young.

man hand - manipulate, manual, manage, manufacture, maneuver

We can manipulate tools with our hands.

medi middle, between - mediastinum, medial, medial artery, gluteus medius, mediate, median nerve

The mediastinum is the membrane between the lungs.

medic physician - medical doctor, medicine, medic, medicate, medicinal

Medical doctors are physicians.

mes middle, between - mesoderm, mesencephelon, mesoglea, mesophyll, mesoplankton, mesenteron

Mesoderm is located between the endoderm and ectoderm.

meta change, between - metamorphosis, metabolism, metathorax, metacognition, metacarpal, metastasis

Metamorphosis is the change in insects or amphibians from an immature form to an adult form.

meter measure - metric system, thermometer, millimeter, multimeter, calorimeter, sphygmomanometer

The metric system is a standardized system of measurement.

micro small - microvilli, microscope, micrometer, microbiology, microbe, microclimate, microtubule

Microvilli are small, finger-like projections that increase cell surface area.

migra wander - migratory, migrate, emigrate, immigrate, immigrant

Migratory mammals wander from one habitat to another.

mis bad, wrong - misidentify, miscarriage, misnomer, mistake, misalign, misdiagnose, mislabel

Misidentification of symptoms can lead to a wrong diagnosis.

moll soft - mollusk, Mollusca, emolliate, emollient, mollify

Mollusks, such as snails and slugs, have soft bodies.

mono single - monocot, monotremes, monocotyledon, monecious, monogamy

Monocots, such as grasses and palms, have only a single cotyledon.

morph form - morphogen, metamorphosis, morphology, isomorphic, morphogenesis

Morphogens are chemicals that stimulate a change in form or shape.

mort mortal, death - postmortem, mortality, mortal, mortician, mortuary

Postmortem exams are used to determine the cause of death.

mut change - mutagen, mutant, mutability, mutate, mutation

Mutagens cause changes in genetic composition.

myo muscle - myocardium, myofibril, myositis, myoglobin, myology, myopathic

The myocardium is the muscular tissue of the heart.

nas, nos nose - nasal, nostril, nasopharynx, nasal cavity, nasal concha

The nasal bone provides structure for the nose.

nat born, birth - innate, natal, native, prenatal, postnatal, nature, natural

Innate reflexes, such as grasping or rooting reflexes, are present at birth.

neo new, recent - neoplasm, neotropics, neophyte, neonate, neonatology, neolith

Neoplams are new, abnormal growths associated with cancer.

nephr kidney - nephritis, epinephrine, nephrectomy, nephron, nephridia

Nephritis is an inflammation of the kidney.

neur nerve - neuritis, neuropathology, neurologist, neural, neurula, neuron, neuroma, neurosis, neurobiology

Neuritis is an inflammation of peripheral nerves.

nom name, order - taxonomy, binomial nomenclature, autonomic, autonomy

Taxonomy is the branch of science concerned with classification and naming.

nuc center - nucleus, nuclear, nucleic acid, nucleotide, enucleate, nucleolus

The nucleus is the control-center of the cell.

ocu eye - ocular lens, binocular, ocular nerve, interocular

The ocular lens of a microscope is the one closest to the eye.

-oid resemble, like - amoeboid, haploid, diploid, steroid, deltoid, thyroid, thylakoid, trapezoid

Organisms that resemble amoeba are said to be amoeboid.

olfact to smell - olfactory nerve, olfactory, olfaction, olfactory cell

The olfactory nerve is involved in the sense of smell.

ology study of - biology, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, ecology, embryology, zoology, ecology

Biology is the study of living systems.

oo egg - oocyte, oogonium, oocyst, oogenesis, oospore

An oocyte is an egg cell.

oper work - operon, operate, cooperate, operator, operation, operant conditioning

An operon controls the work of genes responsible for protein synthesis.

ortho straight, correct - Orthoptera, orthodontist, orthopedic, orthoptics, orthotic

Orthoptera, including grasshoppers and crickets, have straight wings.

-osis process, condition - metamorphosis, neurosis, thrombosis, mitosis, halitosis

Metamorphosis is the process of changing shape.

oss, osteo bone - osteoblast, osteocyte, ossify, osteology, osteoporosis, osteoclast

Osteoblasts secrete the matrix for bone formation.

oto ear - otolith, otology, otoscope, otopathology, ototoxic, otologist

Otoliths in the inner ear are used in the detection of gravity.

ov egg - ovum, oviduct, ovary, ovulate, ova, ovulation, oviparous

The ovum, or egg, passes through the oviduct during ovulation.

para alongside - parasympathetic, paramedic, paraphrase, parallel, parapodia, parasite

The parasympathetic nervous system works alongside the sympathetic nervous system

pariet wall - parietal lobe, parietal bone, parietal cell, parietal

The parietal bones comprise the side walls of the skull.

pater, pat father - sympatry, paternal, paternity, allopatry, patriarch, sympatric

Sympatric species are from the same "fatherland".

path disease - pathology, pathologist, allelopathy, sympathetic nervous system, allopathy

Pathologists study the causes and effects of diseases.

ped, pod foot - arthropod, cephalopod, gastropod, millipede, centipede, podiatry, bipedal, tripod, orthopedics

Arthropods, such as insects, spiders and crustaceans, have jointed feet.

phag eat - phagocytosis, macrophage, bacteriophage, esophagus, phagocyte

Phagocytosis occurs when amoeboid protozoans eat bacteria and other material.

phob fear - arachnophobia, hydrophobic, phobia, claustrophobia, acrophobia, aquaphobia

Arachnophobia is an irrational fear of spiders.

photo light - photoperiodism, photosynthesis, photomicrograph, photon, photoreceptor

Photoperiodism is the response of plants to seasonal changes in the amount of daylight.

phyll leaf - phylloquinone, mesophyll, chlorophyll, xanthophyll, phyllopod

Phylloquione is one of the K vitamins found in leafy green vegetables.

phys body, nature - physiology, biophysics, physical medicine, physician, physique

Physiology is the study of the body.

phyt plant - epiphyte, phytochemistry, phytoplankton, sporophyte, gametophyte, phytonutrient, phytotoxin

Epiphytes, such as orchids, are nonparasitic plants that live on other plants.

pneum lung - pneumococcus, pneumatic, pneumonia, pneumocystis, pneumothorax

Pneumococcus is a spherical-shaped bacteria found in some lung infections.

pole, polar end of axis - vegetal pole, animal pole, polar bear, polarize, depolarize

The vegetal pole is at the end of one axis of an embryo.

poly many - polysaccharide, polyploid, polymerize, polymerase, polydactyl, polymer

Polymerization is the binding together of many subunits.

pop people, inhabitants - population, populous, populace, depopulate, populate, repopulate

A population is a group of interbreeding organisms that inhabit the same region.

port carry - transport, portable, export, import, report

Electron transport chains carry electrons across membranes during phosphorylation.

post after - postpartum, posterior, posthumous, posterity, postnasal, postsurgery

The postpartum period is the period after birth.

pre before - prefix, prefrontal, precede, preborn, predict, presynaptic

Prefixes appear before root words and modify meanings.

prim first - primary succession, primitive, primal, primary consumer, primordial

Primary succession occurs first following retreating glaciers or volcanic eruptions.

pseudo not true, false - pseudopodia, pseudocoel, Pseudotsuga, pseudoscience

Pseudopodia are not true feet, but have foot-like characteristics.

psych mind - neuropsychiatry, psychology, psychiatry, psychobiology, psychosis

Neuropsychiatry is concerned with the organic aspects of disorders of the mind.

pter wing – Orthoptera, Archaeopteryx, Pterodactyl

The Pterodactyl had “winged fingers.”

pulmo lung - pulmonary, cardiopulmonary system, pulmonary cavity, pulmonary artery

The pulmonary cavity contains the lungs.

re back, again - retract, reforest, repopulate, regrow, return, react

Reforestation is necessary to bring back forests following logging and erosion.

rhiz root - rhizome, rhizoid, rhizobium, mycorrhizae

Rhizomes are root-like underground stems.

sacchar sugar - monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharide, Saccharomyces

Monosaccharides, such as glucose and fructose, are sugars.

saur lizard - dinosaur, brontosaurus, ichthyosaurus, stegosaurus, tyrannosaurus

Dinosaurs had some lizard-like characteristics.

sci know - science, conscious, unconscious, scientific

Science is one way of knowing things.

scop see, monitor - arthroscope, stethoscope, microscope, endoscope, bronchoscope

Physicians use arthroscopes to see inside joints.

script to write - transcription, prescription, reverse transcriptase, description, superscript, subscript

Transcription is the process in which DNA code is written as RNA code.

sect cut - section, dissect, transect, intersect, vivisection, bisect

A longitudinal section requires a cut from the top to bottom of a structure.

sed, sess seated, fixed - sedentary, sessile, residue, sedate, sedative

Kelp are sessile because holdfasts keep them fixed to the rocks on the ocean floor.

semi half - semitendinosus, semipermeable, semilunar valve, semimembranosus, semicircular canal

The semitendinosus muscle is half muscle and half tendon.

sens feel - sensory, sense, sensation, sensitive, sensor, sensorimotor

Without sensory neurons, you would not be able to feel anything.

serv save - conservationist, preserve, conserve, reservation, conservation, preservation

Conservationists work to save resources for the future.

sperm seed - angiosperm, sperm, gymnosperm, endosperm, spermatozoa

In angiosperms (flowering plants) seeds are found within fruits.

sphere ball, sphere - biosphere, cerebral hemisphere, troposphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere

The biosphere is the spherical zone around the Earth in which life exists.

spir breathe - spiracles, inspire, respiration, perspiration, respirometer

Insects breathe through pores known as spiracles.

stom mouth, pore - stomata, stoma, stomach, protostome, deuterostome

Stomata are tiny pores which regulate the flow of gases in and out of leaves.

sub under, below - subclavian, subalpine, subarctic, subcortical, subcutaneous, subgenus, subspecies

The subclavian artery is located below the clavicle.

super above, over - superior vena cava, superior, superior oblique muscle, superior rectus muscle

The superior vena cava is located above the heart.

syn together, with - synapse, photosynthesis, synchronize, syndrome, chemosynthesis

The synapse is where two neurons come together.

tact, tag touch - contagious, tactile, contact, intact, geotactic

Many contagious diseases spread by touch.

taxis movement response - phototactic, geotaxis, phototaxis, chemotaxis, barotaxis

Phototactic bacteria move in response to light.

tele, telo far, end - telophase, telomere, telodendrion, telescope

During telophase, the chromosomes are far apart.

ten, tin hold - tendon, extension, retention, abstention, contents, tension, tentacle

Tendons hold muscles to bones.

therm heat - homeotherm, thermometer, thermistor, ectotherm, poikilotherm, thermophilic, thermoregulation

Homeotherms regulate internal heat to maintain constant body temperature.

tom cut - microtome, atom, appendectomy, tonsillectomy, dichotomy, anatomy, tomography

Microtomes are used to cut extremely thin tissue sections for examination under microscopes.

tox poison - toxemia, toxic, intoxicate, antitoxin, cytotoxic, detoxification

Toxemia is blood poisoning by toxins from a local bacterial infection.

trans across - neurotransmitter, transfusion, tranferase, translation, transcription, transect, transpiration

Neurotransmitters carry signals across synapses.

trop turning, change - tropomysosin, geotropism, phototropism, troposphere, troponin, tropics

Tropomyosin is a muscle protein that changes direction, causing muscles to contract.

trich hair - trichome, trichocyst, Trichoptera, trichotomy

Trichomes are small hairs in the epidermis of plants.

troph nutrition, food - autotroph, atrophy, hypertrophy, heterotroph, trophic layers, chemotroph

Autotrophs produce their own food through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

ultra beyond - ultrasound, ultracentrifuge, ultrafiltrate, ultraviolet, ultrastructure

Ultrasound is a frequency beyond the range of human hearing.

ur urine - urea, urologist, urinary, ureter, urethra, urinalysis

Urea is a nitrogenous waste product found in urine.

vas vessel – cardiovascular, vascular bundle, vascularity, vasoconstrictor, vasodilator, vas deferns

The cardiovascular system is the system of the heart and blood vessels.

ven vein - venule, vena cava, venous, intravenous, vein

Venules are tiny veins that collect blood from capillaries.

vid, vis see - visible, video, evident, evidence, revise, vision

We see visible light, while other organisms see ultra-violet or infrared light.

viv, vita alive, life - vitamin, vital, revitalize, survive, revive, vivisection

Vitamins are essential for normal life functions.

vor eat - herbivorous, voracious, carnivorous, omnivorous, devour

Herbivorous animals eat plant material.

zoo, zoa animal - zoo, zoology, protozoan, spermatozoa, zooplankton

Zoology is the study of the anatomy, physiology, classification and behavior of animals.