IS. To wish

Отправлено 19 июл. 2016 г., 23:21 пользователем Vyacheslav Kazakov   [ обновлено 4 авг. 2016 г., 09:50 ]


We use past tense forms to talk about wishes:

1. We use past tense modals would and could to talk about wishes for the future:
I don’t like my work. I wish I could get a better job.
That’s a dreadful noise. I wish it would stop.
I always have to get home early. I wish my parents would let me stay out later.

2. We use past tense forms to talk about wishes for the present:
I don’t like this place. I wish I lived in somewhere more interesting.
These seats are very uncomfortable. I wish we were travelling first class.
Everyone wishes they had more free time.
John wishes he wasn’t so busy.
I wish it wasn’t so cold.

3. We use the past perfect to talk about wishes for the past:
I wish I had worked harder when I was at school.
Mary wishes she had listened to what her mother told her.
I wish I hadn’t spent so much money last month.


Hypotheses (things that we imagine)
When we are talking about hypotheses:

1. We use present tense forms after phrases like what if, in case and suppose to talk about the future if we think it is likely to happen:
Those steps are dangerous. Suppose someone has an accident.
We should leave home early in case we are late.

2. We use a past tense form to talk about the future after suppose and what if to suggest something is not likely to happen:
It might be dangerous. Suppose they got lost.
What if he lost his job. What would happen then?

3. We use modals would, could for a hypothesis about the future:
We can’t all stay in a hotel. It would be very expensive.
Drive carefully. You could have an accident.

4. We use would in the main clause and the past in a subordinate clause to talk about the imagined future:
I would always help someone who really needed help.
I would always help someone if they really needed it.

5. We use modals with have to talk about something that did not happen in the past:
I did not see Mary, or I might have spoken to her.
It’s a pity Jack wasn’t at the party. He would have enjoyed this party.
Why didn’t you ask me. I could have told you the answer.


I wish / if only

The expressions 'I wish' and 'If only' are used in English to express wishes and regrets about things that may happen in the future or may have happened in the past.
They should be studied in relation with the three types of conditional sentences:

Type 1: If + present simple / will
E.g. If I have enough money, I will travel to New York. (That is, I will check how much money I have and see if it possible for me to go)

Type 2: If + past simple / would + infinitive
E.g.: If I had enough money, I would travel to New York. (That is, I  don't really have the money to afford the voyage, so I won't go)

Type 3: If + past perfect / would + perfect infinitive
E.g.: If I had had enough money, I would have gone to New York. (I wanted to go, but I didn't have enough money, so I couldn't)

When I wish and if only are used, they follow the structure of one of these conditionals, depending on what we want to express. If we talk about a regret about a present or future event, then we will use the structure of the second type of conditional and the expressions I wish/if only are followed by past simple:

I wish I had enough money to travel to New York. 
If only I had enough money to travel to New York.
(That is, I don't have enough money, and I am sorry for it because I can't go)

If the event we regret happened (or failed to happen) in the past and is, therefore, impossible to change, then we use the third type of conditional structure. This time the expressions I wish/if only are followed by past perfect.

I wish I had had enough money to travel to New York. 
If only I had had enough money to travel to New York.
(That is, I didn't have enough money to travel, so I couldn't go and now I regret it)





He wished he could get home as soon as possible. 


Translate into English

1. Как жаль, что идет дождь. Я бы хотел, чтобы была хорошая погода, тогда мы могли бы поехать за город. 
It's a pity it is raining. I wish it would be a nice weather than we could go to the country.

2. Я слышал, что вы очень хорошо играете на рояле. Я бы хотел, чтобы вы поиграли мне. 
I heard that you play the piano very well. I wish you would play for me.

3. Мне жаль, что он не приехал в Ленинград на каникулы. Ему давно пора посмотреть этот прекрасный город. 
It's a pity he had not visited Leningrad on his holidays. He should see this beautiful city.

4. Погода была такая плохая, что я пожалел, что вышел из дому. 
The weather had been so terrible that I wished I wouldn't have gone outdoors.
went out

5. Хотелось бы мне, чтобы вы не были таким рассеянным и не задавали один и тот же вопрос несколько раз. 
I wish you wouldn't be so absent-minded and wouldn't ask one and the same question several times. 

6. У ребенка очень хороший слух (to have a good ear for music). Жаль, что его не учат музыке. Его давно пора отдать в музыкальную школу. 
The child has a good ear for music.
It's a pity he wouldn't be tought music. (or I wish he would be tought music)
It's high time for him to be taken to a musical school.

7. Хотелось бы мне, чтобы вы не перебивали меня каждую минуту. 
I wish you wouldn't interrupt me every minute.

8. Мне очень жаль, что я это сказал; мне кажется, что он обиделся на мое замечание. 
I'm sorry I has said that. It seems that he was upset about my remark.
I wish I hadn't said that he seems to have been upset about my remark.

9. Я пожалел, что у меня не было времени, и я не мог пойти с ними в Эрмитаж. 
I wish I had had enough time to go to the Hermitage with them

10. Я бы хотел, чтобы вы побыли со мной.
I wish you would be with me.
I wish you would stay with me.

11. Как жаль, что я не принял участия в этой экскурсии; говорят, она была очень интересна. 
I wish I had taken part in that excursion. They say it was interesting.

12. Я бы хотел, чтобы вы держали свои вещи в порядке. 
I wish you would keep your stuff in order.

13. Я чувствую себя очень плохо. Боюсь, как бы мне не заболеть. 
I feel so sick. I wish I couldn't get sick
catch a cold

14. Было очень поздно, и мы боялись, как бы нам не опоздать на поезд. 
It was very late and we were affraid of not being late for the train.
It was very late and we wished we couldn't be late for the train.

15. Погода была очень хорошая, и я предложил поехать за город и провести день на свежем воздухе. 
The weather was very nice and I offered to go to the country and spend that day in the open air.
The weather was very nice and I suggested that we would go to the country and spend the day in the open air.

16. Проследите за тем, чтобы студентов известили о перемене расписания. 
Make sure that the students would be told about the changes of the schedule.

17. Нам очень хочется (to be anxious), чтобы вы приняли участие в концерте. 
We are anxious you would participate in the concert.

18. Он хотел сразу же уйти, но я настаивал, чтобы он снял пальто и выпил чашку чаю. 
He wanted to go at once but I wished he would put off his coat and drink a cup of tea.
I insisted that he would put off his coat and drink a cup of tea.
I insisted of his putting off the coat and ...

19. Уже поздно; нам пора идти (to be off).
It's late we should be off 
It's late we should go off 

20. Вам давно пора вернуть книгу в библиотеку.
I wish you would have returned the book to the library earlier (long ago)



Exercise 15. Comment on the Subjunctive Mood and modal verbs. Translate into Russian.

1. Erik carried the books silently down to his own office, picked up his hat and coat as though he were in a daze and left the building. It would be a lovely thing, he thought, if Haviland were to get killed in an accident tomorrow so that nobody would ever know what a fool Erik was going to make of himself in embarking upon an impossible job. (Wilson) 

2. He began to whistle to the snake, to see if the music would have any effect on its movements, if it would make the snake dance... but the snake would not dance. (Saroyan) 

3. If she [little Emily] should come home while I'm away... or if I should bring her back, my meaning is, that she and me shall live and die where no one can reproach her (Dickens) 

4. That she should have been there, to hear everything—it was the last thing he had wanted. (Cronin) 

5. Later that evening, he got still another confirmation that he must be on the right track no matter what anyone else might say. (Wilson) 

6. When he reached the top landing, he had to stop, not simply because he was out of breath, but because a swelling excitement inside threatened to suffocate him. (Priestley) 

7. She [Fleur] looked as if — as if she might do something to herself! She had no veronal, or anything of that sort, he hoped. And all the time he was wondering what had happened. If the issue were still doubtful — if she were still waiting, she might be restless, feverish, but surety she would not look like this. No! It was defeat. (Galsworthy) 

8. She never condemned him for not earning

money, or suggested that he do anything but paint. (Stone) 9. The assistant Commissioner stood

at the corner as if he had forgotten something... I wish I had spoken to that man, the Assistant

Commissioner thought, I wish I had asked him how he came to be unemployed; it might have

been possible to find him work; but what good after all would that have been?... he is only one; it

is impossible for me to help these men, only the state can do that... (Greene) 10. How good he

had always been to her. Incredible that he should die and take that goodness away, that she

should never hear his flat-toned voice again, or feel the touch of his moustache on her cheeks or

forehead. Incredible that he should never give her a chance to show that she had really loved

him. (Galsworthy) 11. Should I encounter the rascal in the street or a tavern... he would treat me

familiarly as though I were his dearest friend. (Lindsay) 12. Whatever else he might have been,

beyond question he was Lord Cranstoun's brother. When a few days later he left with his

kinsman Lord Mark for a stay in Bath, I began to hope that he might take this opportunity to slip

away from Henley. (Lindsay) 13. Mr. Lightwood would propose to me, if I would let him.

(Dickens) 14. What I want is that Tod should be made to see that his family mustn't quarrel with

his nearest neighbours. (Galsworthy) 15. But Bronwen must have seen me strain to move and

speak, for she left the chair quickly as though she had jumped. (Llewellyn) 16. She was a

business woman of high acumen, who saw to it that I should meet all people who might possibly

be of professional value to me in the future. (Hansford Johnson) 17. It was the kind of outcry no

little gentleman should ever permit himself, however deeply he may be aggrieved. (Wells) 18.

May your life together be as happy as mine and my old woman's has been. (Abrahams) 19. I did

not have to meet Ellen's eye, as she would not glance in my direction. (Hansford Johnson) 20. I

should value it if you would keep me in touch. (Snow) 21. "You should not have made me wait

so long," he said. "I don't know how I have been living; every hour seemed like years. You

should have decided sooner." (James) 22. It was important to him that she should be alone, that

she should be available to speak with him privately at any hour, that she should be able to

entertain his anonymous guests. (Murdoch) 23. Whatever Rose may have been, she is not now a

responsible scholar. (A. Wilson) 24. I'm in favour now. It may not last twelve months. Things

may begin to go the other way. You ought to know what to expect... For all we know, I'm at the

top of the hill tonight. I may start moving downwards tomorrow. Or perhaps I've already started.

We 've all got to remember that. (Snow) 25. And now the day arrived when Mr. Dorrit and his

family were to leave the prison for ever, and the stones of its much-trodden pavement were to

know them no more. (Dickens) 26. Nina stood stiffly for a moment, as if she were about to cry

out. (Murdoch) 27. After all, if he had any talent I should be the first to encourage it. If it weren't

for the children, I wouldn't mind anything. I could be just as happy in a -shabby studio in

Chelsea as in this flat. (Maugham) 28. You shall come, whether you like it or not. (Reade) 29. As

Dr. Thome is our hero... and as Mary 'Thorne is to be our heroine... it is necessary that she shall

be introduced and explained and described in a proper, formal manner. (Trollope) 30. The fact is,

sir, I have made up my mind that Mary Thorne shall be my wife — sooner or later, that is unless,

of course, she should utterly refuse. (Trollope) 31. When so much has been written about Charles

Strickland, it may seem unnecessary that I should write more. (Maugham) 32. There is no

flattery too gross for a male. However much you may be on your guard, however much you ma'y

think you dislike it, you will find yourself instinctively angling for female flattery and getting it.

(Aldington) 33. God may soften major Swindon's heart. (Shaw) 34. Notwithstanding he thought

it better that she should not remain in everyday contact with his father and one day he suggested

that they should go back to live in Florence. Laura and the Count were astonished that he should

propose such a thing and would not hear of it. (Maugham) 35. If I'd only waited, perhaps it

would have gone all right. I shouldn't have been so impatient. Oh, poor child, what have I driven

her to? (Maugham) 36. "She might have gone back home, you know." "She might, but I'll bet

anything she hasn't." (Priestley) 37. He twisted himself a little round that he might more easily

use the paper, pen and ink I had brought him. (Lindsay) 38. Of course, I told myself, he might

have been detained for some reason at the American Legation, but surely in that case he would

have telephoned to the restaurant — he was very meticulous about small courtesies. (Greene) 39.

She had to show herself half an hour later, and she was sustained at table by the immensity of her

desire that her father should not perceive that anything had happened. (James) 40. Aunt Juley

tried to say something pleasant: "And how will dear Irene like living in the country?" June gazed

at her intently, with a look in her eyes as if her conscience had suddenly leaped up into them; it

passed; and an even more intent look took its place, as if she had stared that conscience out of

countenance. She replied imperiously: "Of course she'll like it; why shouldn't she?" Mrs. Small

grew nervous. "I didn't know," she said, "I thought she mightn't like to leave her friends. Your

Uncle James says she doesn't take enough interest in life. We think. — I mean Timothy thinks —

she ought to go out more. I expect you'll miss her very much!" June clasped her hands behind her

neck. "I do wish," she cried, "Uncle Timothy wouldn't talk about what doesn't concern him"

(Galsworthy)




Exercise 16. Translate into English, using the Subjunctive Mood and modal verbs where required.

(A)

Based on an episode from In Chancery by J. Galsworthy.

1. Соме пригласил Аннет и ее мать в свой загородный дом (country house), чтобы они

видели, как он богат. 2. Возвращаясь домой, Соме думал об Ирэн. Двенадцать лет прошло

с тех пор, как они расстались. «Она, должно быть, очень изменилась с тех пор. Ей, должно

быть, теперь около сорока». 3. Он думал о том, что Ирэн всегда была несправедлива к

нему. «Она могла бы относиться ко мне иначе. Разве я не давал ей все, что она только

пожелает?» 4. «Странно, что она никогда не чувствовала себя счастливой со мной, —

подумал он с горечью. — Странно, что она ушла от меня. Если бы она не сделала этого,

мне не пришлось бы сейчас думать о разводе». 5. Мысль о разводе показалась ему

нелепой после стольких лет полной разлуки (after all these years of utter separation). «Я уже

давно должен был развестись с нею. Жаль, что я этого не сделал. Я был бы теперь

свободен и мог бы жениться на Аннет». 6. «Как жаль, что у меня нет ребенка», — думал

Соме: его угнетала мысль, что ему некому оставить свое состояние. 7. Аннет с матерью

должны были приехать поездом, и он поехал на вокзал встретить их. 8. Была осень, и

всюду видны были (можно было видеть) желтые листья. 9. Анкет была такая

хорошенькая, что Соме не мог не залюбоваться ею. Ее лицо казалось таким свежим,

словно его только что спрыснули (to be sprayed) росой. 10. За чаем они говорили о бурах.

«С какой стати англичане вмешиваются в их дела (to interfere with somebody)? — сказала

мадам Ламотт. — Они могли бы оставить их в покое». 11. Соме улыбнулся: ее слова

показались ему нелепыми. «Неужели вы не понимаете, что Англии не следует

отказываться от своих законных прав (to abandon one's legitimate interest)?» — сказал он.

12. После чая Соме предложил посмотреть его картинную галерею. Ему очень хотелось (to

be anxious), чтобы Аннет увидела все его сокровища. Он был уверен, что как бы молода и

красива она ни была, она выйдет за него замуж, когда увидит, как он богат.


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