ျမန္မာ႔စီးပြါးေရး

ျမန္မာ႔စီးပြါးေရး ဟာ ကမၻာမွာ ဖြံျဖိဳးမွဳအေနာက္က်ဆံုး ထဲမွာပါ၀င္ေနသည္။ မဲေခါင္ေဒသ စီးပြါးေရးတိုးတက္မွဳ၏ နိမ္႔လြန္းေသာ ႏူံးထားျဖင္႔ ျမန္မာႏိူင္ငံ၏ စီးပြါးေရးသည္ GDP ပ်ွမ္းမွ်ႏူံးထား ၂.၉ ရာခိုင္ႏူံးသာရွိေလသည္။

သမိုင္းေႀကာင္း


ျဗိတိသွ် ကိုလိုနီအျဖစ္က်ေရာက္စဥ္တုန္းက ကမၻာအႏွံ.ကို ဆန္မ်ားတင္ပို.ေရာင္းခ်ျခင္းအားျဖင္.အေရွ.ေတာင္အာရွ မွာ အခ်မ္းသာဆံုးႏိူင္ငံတစ္ခု ျဖစ္ခဲ႔တယ္။ ကမၻာမွာ ဆန္ပို႔ေဆာင္မွဳအမ်ားဆံုးႏိူင္ငံအျဖစ္ တစ္ႀကိမ္သတ္မွတ္ခံခဲ.ရသည္။ ျမန္မာႏိူင္ငံဟာဆိုရင္ သဘာ၀ အရင္းအျမစ္မ်ားႏွင္႔ လုပ္အားအရင္းအျမစ္မ်ား ခ်မ္းသာေသာႏိူင္ငံ ျဖစ္သည္။ ကမၻာမွာ ထြက္ရွိတဲ.ကြ်န္းသစ္ရဲ. ၇၅ ရာခုိင္ႏူံးကို ပိုင္ဆိုင္ထားတဲ႔ ျမန္မာႏိူင္ငံ ဟာ လွ်င္ျမန္စြာ တိုးတက္လာေစမယ္လို.လည္း ယံုႀကည္မိပါတယ္။

၁၉၄၈ ခုႏွစ္မွာ ပါလီမာန္ အစိုးရ ကိုဖြဲ႔စည္းခဲ႔ျပီး ၀န္ႀကီးခ်ဳပ္ ဦးႏု က လူမွဳဖူလံုေရး ႏွင္.သက္သာေခ်ာင္ခ်ိေရး ကို ဦးတည္ေဆာင္ရႊက္ခဲ႔သည္။ေငြေဖာင္းပြလာမွဳေႀကာင္႔ ႏိူင္ငံျခားဆန္ပို႔ေဆာင္မွဳ သံုးပံုႏွစ္ပံု စတင္ေလ်ာ.က်လာခဲ႔သည္။တပ္မေတာ္မွ အာဏာသိမ္းျပီးေနာက္ပိုင္း ဦးေန၀င္း အစိုးရ ကအုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ခဲ႔ျပီး စက္ရုံ အလုပ္ရုံအမ်ားအျပားကိုျပည္သူပိုင္ အျဖစ္ သိမ္းယူခဲ႔ျပီးေနာက္ပိုင္း ႏွင္႔ လက္ရွိသံုးစြဲေနေသာေငြေႀကးကိုတရားမ၀င္ ေငြစကၠဴ အျဖစ္ ေႀကျငာခဲ႔ျပီးေနာက္ပိုင္း ျမန္မာႏိူင္ငံ၏ စီးပြါးေရးမွာသိသိသာသာ က်ဆင္းလာခဲ႔ရသည္။

၁၉၈၈ ျပီးေနာက္ အႀကႊင္းမဲ႔အာဏာရွင္စနစ္ျဖစ္အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ခဲ႔သည္။ႏိူင္ငံျခားေငြလဲလွယ္မွဳမ်ားအတြက္ ေတာ္ရုံသင္႔ရုံရွိေသာ စီးပြါးေရးလုပ္ငန္းမ်ားကို ခြင္႔ျပဳခဲ႔ျပီး ႏိူင္ငံျခားမွ ရင္းႏွီးျမွဳပ္ႏွံမွဳ အခ်ိဳ.ကိုျပန္လည္ခြင္႕ျပဳခဲ.သည္။ 

ျမန္မာႏိူင္ငံရဲ႔ေငြလဲလွယ္ႏူံးထား ဟာ က်ဴဘားနဲ႔ ပံုစံတူျပီး ႏိူင္ငံအတြင္း က်ပ္ျဖင္႔သံုးစြဲႀကသည္။

၂၀၀၅ခုႏွစ္ႏွင္႔၂၀၀၇ခုႏွစ္ကာလအတြင္း ေငြေႀကးေဖာင္းပြမွဳ ရာခုိင္ႏူံးမွာ ၃၀.၁ ရွိသည္။ေငြေႀကးေဖာင္းပြမွဳဟာ ျမန္မာ႔စီးပြါးေရးအတြက္ အျပင္းထန္ဆံုး ျပသနာ ျဖစ္သည္။ စစ္ဘက္ဆိုင္ရာအုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ေရးစနစ္ ၏ ၂၀၀၆ ခုႏွစ္ ဧပရယ္လ အစိုးရ အလုပ္သမားမ်ားကို လစာတိုးျမွင္႔ ကတည္းက အေျခခံလူသံုးကုန္ေစ်းႏူံးမ်ားမွာ ၃၀ ရာခုိင္းႏူံးမွ ၆၀ ရာခိုင္းႏူံးအထိျမင္႔မားခဲ႔ သည္။

လြန္ခဲ႔ေသာႏွစ္ အနည္းငယ္က တရုတ္ ႏိူင္ငံ ႏွင္႔ အႏၵိယ ႏိူင္ငံ တို႔ကသူတို႔၏ စီးပြါးေရးအက်ိဳးအျမတ္အတြက္ ျမန္မာႏိူင္ငံ၏ အစိုးရကို ေထာက္ခံေပးခဲ႔သည္။အေမရိကန္ ျပည္ေထာင္စု ၊ကေနဒါ ၊ဥေရာပ ႏိူင္ငံမ်ားကေတာ႔ ျမန္မာႏိူင္ငံ၏ ရင္းႏွီးျမွဳပ္ႏွံမွဳႏွင္.ကုန္သြယ္ေရး ကို စီးပြါးေရး ပိတ္ဆို႔ ထားခဲ႔သည္။ျမန္မာႏိူင္ငံကို ႏိူင္ငံျခား ရင္းႏွီးျမွဳပ္ႏွံမွဳျပဳေသာႏိူင္ငံမ်ားကေတာ႔ တရုတ္ျပည္ေထာင္စု သမၼတ ႏိူင္ငံ ၊စင္ကာပူ ၊ေတာင္ကိုးရီးယား ၊အိႏၵိယ ႏွင္႔ ထိုင္း ႏိူင္ငံ တို.ျဖစ္ႀကသည္။

စက္မွဳလုပ္ငန္းမ်ား

ျမန္မာႏိူင္ငံဟာ စိုက္ပ်ိဳးေရးႏိူင္ငံျဖစ္ျပီး ဆန္ကို အဓိက စိုက္ပ်ိဳးပါတယ္။စိုက္ပ်ိဳးႏိူင္ေသာ ဧရိယာက ႏိူင္ငံ ရဲ. ၆၀ ရာခုိင္ႏူံး ထိရွိျပီး စားသံုးတဲ. အစားအစာမ်ားရဲ. ၉၇ ရာခိုင္ႏူံးက ဆန္ဘဲျဖစ္ပါတယ္။International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) ရဲ.စာရင္းျပဳစုမွဳအရ ျမန္မာႏိူင္ငံမွာ ၁၉၉၆-၉၇ ဆန္ထြက္ႏူံး တန္ခ်ိန္(၁၉)သန္းရွိခဲ႔ျပီး ၁၉၈၇ တုန္းကေတာ. တန္ခ်ိန္(၁၄)သန္းသာ ရွိတယ္လို႔ စာရင္းျပဳထားတာေတြ.ရွိရသည္။

ျမန္မာႏိူင္ငံ၏ စီးပြါးေရးကို ေခာတ္မီနည္းပညာမ်ား ျဖန္႔ျဖဴးျခင္းမရွိ ၊ လုပ္သားကြ်မ္းက်င္သူ မရွိျခင္းတို.ေႀကာင္႔ စီးပြါးေရး ေအာင္ျမင္လာဖို.အခက္အခဲတစ္ခုျဖစ္တယ္ လို.ပညာရွင္ မ်ားက ေ၀ဖန္ထားပါသည္။ယေန႔ ျမန္မာႏိူင္ငံတြင္ စီးပြါးေရး အဖြဲ႔အစည္းမ်ား လံုေလာက္ေအာင္မရွိေသးပါ။ ထိုင္းနယ္စပ္မ်ဥ္းတေလ်ာက္ကုန္သြယ္မွဳ ျပဳႀကျပီး တရားမ၀င္ေဆး၀ါးမ်ားလည္း တင္ပို႔ေရာင္းခ်ျခင္း ျပဳႀကသည္။

ျမန္မာႏိူင္ငံ ဟာ ကမၻာမွာ ဘိန္း(opium)ထုတ္လုပ္မွဳ ဒုတိယအမ်ားဆံုးႏိူင္ငံလည္းျဖစ္သည္။

အျခားေသာစက္မွဳလုပ္ငန္းမ်ားအေနနဲ႔ကေတာ႔  စိုက္ပ်ိဳးေရး ၊သစ္လုပ္ငန္း ၊ေဆာက္လုပ္ေရး ၊တြင္းထြက္ ၊သတၱဳ ႏွင္႔ ေလာင္စာဆီ လုပ္ငန္း မ်ား ကိုလုပ္ကိုင္ ႀကသည္။

ျမန္မာႏိူင္ငံတြင္ပုဂၢလိက လုပ္ငန္းမ်ားကေတာ႕ စိုက္ပ်ိဳးေရး ၊စက္မွဳလုပ္ငန္းငယ္မ်ားႏွင္႔သယ္ယူပို.ေဆာင္ေရးလုပ္ငန္းစသည္တို႔ျဖစ္ျပီးဆန္ကုန္သြယ္ေရး ၊

စက္မွဳလုပ္ငန္းႀကီးမ်ားႏွင္႔ ေလာင္စာ ဆီ ႏွင္႔ စြမ္းအင္ ဆိုင္ရာမ်ားကို အစိုးရမွ လုပ္ေဆာင္ပါသည္။

ဓါတ္ဆီႏွင္႔သဘာ၀ဓါတ္ေငြ႔

  • ျမန္မာ႔ ဓါတ္ဆီႏွင္႔သဘာ၀ဓါတ္ေငြ႔လုပ္ငန္း (MOGE) ဟာ ျမန္မာႏိူင္ငံ၏ ကုမၸဏီတစ္ခုျဖစ္ျပီး သဘာ၀ဓါတ္ေငြ႔ ႏွင္႔ေလာင္စာဆီ မ်ားကို ထုတ္လုပ္ေရာင္းခ်ျခင္း ကိုျပဳလုပ္သည္။
  • အက္ဒမာန္ ပင္လယ္ ရတနာ စီမံကိန္းမွ ေလာင္စာဆီ မ်ားထုတ္လုပ္ျပီး ျမန္မာမွ ထုိင္းႏိူင္ငံသို.တင္ပို.ေရာင္းခ်ပါသည္။

ေက်ာက္မ်က္အရိုင္းတံုးမ်ား

ျမန္မာႏိူင္ငံမွ စီးပြါးေရး ဟာ ပုလဲ ၊ေက်ာက္စိမ္း တို႔ကဲ႔သို႔ အဖိုးတန္ေက်ာက္မ်က္ရတနာ မ်ားကို ေရာင္းခ်ျခင္းကို မွီခိုေနရပါတယ္။ ပတၱျမားေရာင္းရေငြ ဟာ ျမန္မာႏိူင္ငံရဲ. အႀကီးမားဆံုး ၀င္ေငြ တစ္ခုျဖစ္ျပီးကမၻာေစ်းကြက္မွ  ၉၀ ရာခိုင္ႏူံးေသာ ပတၱျမားေတြကို ျမန္မာႏိူင္ငံ မွ လာတယ္လို႔ ဆိုထားပါတယ္။ ထိုင္းႏိူင္ငံဟာ ျမန္မာႏိူင္ငံ မွ ေက်ာက္မ်က္ရတနာမ်ားကို အဓိက ၀ယ္ယူသူလည္းျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ Burma's "Valley of Rubies", the mountainous Mogok area, 200 km (125 miles) north of Mandalay, is noted for its rare pigeon's blood rubies and blue sapphires.[24]

ခရီးသြားလုပ္ငန္း

Main article: Tourism in Burma

၁၉၉၂ ခုႏွစ္ မတိုင္မီ ျမန္မာႏိူင္ငံသို႔ ခရီးသြား၀င္ေရာက္မွဳ မွာ  ၇၅၀၀၀၀ ရွိခဲ႔ရာမွ ႏွစ္စဥ္ ေလ်ာ႔ က်လ်က္ရွိသည္။

Tourism remains nevertheless a growing sector of the economy of Burma. Burma has diverse and varied tourist attractions and is served internationally by numerous airlines via direct flights. Domestic and foreign airlines also operate flights within the country. Cruise ships also dock at Yangon. Overland entry with a border pass is permitted at several border checkpoints. The government requires a valid passport with an entry visa for all tourists and business people. As of May 2010, foreign visitors from any country can apply for a visa on arrival when passing through Yangon and Mandalay international airports without having to make any prior arrangements with travel agencies.[29] Both the tourist visa and business visa are valid for 28 days, renewable for an additional 14 days for tourism and 3 months for business. Seeing Burma through a personal tour guide is popular. Travelers can hire guides through travel agencies.

Since 1992, the government has encouraged tourism in the country. However, fewer than 750,000 tourists enter the country annually.[30] Aung San Suu Kyi has requested that international tourists not visit Burma. The junta's forced labour programmes were focused around tourist destinations which have been heavily criticised for their human rights records. Even disregarding the obviously governmental fees, Burma’s Minister of Hotels and Tourism Major-General Saw Lwin recently admitted that the government receives a significant percentage of the income of private sector tourism services. Not to mention the fact that only a very small minority of impoverished ordinary people in Burma ever see any money with any relation to tourism.[31] Much of the country is completely off-limits to tourists, and the military very tightly controls interactions between foreigners and the people of Burma. They are not to discuss politics with foreigners, under penalty of imprisonment, and in 2001, the Myanmar Tourism Promotion Board issued an order for local officials to protect tourists and limit "unnecessary contact" between foreigners and ordinary Burmese people.[32]

ပို.ကုန္တိုင္းတာျခင္း

Burmese exports in 2006







2006-2007 Financial Year Trade volume (in US$ 000,000)
Sr. No. Description 2006–2007 Budget Trade Volume 2006–2007 Real Trade Volume
Export Import Trade Volume Export Import Trade Volume
1 Normal Trade 4233.60 2468.40 6702.00 4585.47 2491.33 7076.80
2 Border Trade 814.00 466.00 1280.00 647.21 445.40 1092.61

Total 5047.60 2934.40 7982.00 5232.68 2936.73 8169.41







Total Trade Value for Financial year 2006-2007 to Financial year 2009-2010
No Financial Year Export Value Import Value Trade Value (US$, 000,000)
1 2006–2007 5222.92 2928.39 8151.31
2 2007–2008 6413.29 3346.64 9759.93
3 2008–2009 6792.85 4563.16 11356.01
4 2009–2010 7568.62 4186.28 11754.90

ႀကီးမားေသာစီးပြါးေရးသို.ဦးတည္ျခင္း

This is a chart of trend of gross domestic product of Burma at market prices estimated by the International Monetary Fund and EconStats with figures in millions of Myanma kyats.

Year Gross Domestic Product US dollar exchange Inflation index (2000=100)
1965 7,627

1970 10,437

1975 23,477

1980 38,608

1985 55,988

1990 151,941

1995 604,728

Though foreign investment has been encouraged, it has so far met with only moderate success. This is because foreign investors have been adversely affected by the junta government policies and because of international pressure to boycott the junta government.[citation needed] The United States has placed trade sanctions on Burma. The European Union has placed embargoes on arms, non-humanitarian aid, visa bans on military regime leaders, and limited investment bans. Both the European Union and the U.S. have placed sanctions on grounds of human rights violations in the country. However, many nations in Asia, particularly India, Thailand and China have actively traded with Burma.

The public sector enterprises remain highly inefficient and also privatization efforts have stalled.[citation needed] The estimates of Burmese foreign trade are highly ambiguous because of the great volume of black market trading. A major ongoing problem is the failure to achieve monetary and fiscal stability. Due to this, Burma remains a poor country with no improvement of living standards for the majority of the population over the past decade. The main causes for continued sluggish growth are poor government planning, internal unrest, minimal foreign investment and the large trade deficit. One of the recent government initiatives is to utilize Burma's large natural gas deposits. Currently, Burma has attracted investment from Thai, Malaysian, Russian, Australian, Indian, and Singaporean companies.[34]

According to the CIA World Factbook,[35]

Burma, a resource-rich country, suffers from pervasive government controls, inefficient economic policies, and rural poverty. The junta took steps in the early 1990s to liberalize the economy after decades of failure under the "Burmese Way to Socialism," but those efforts stalled, and some of the liberalization measures were rescinded. Burma does not have monetary or fiscal stability, so the economy suffers from serious macroeconomic imbalances - including inflation, multiple official exchange rates that overvalue the Burmese kyat, and a distorted interest rate regime. Most overseas development assistance ceased after the junta began to suppress the democracy movement in 1988 and subsequently refused to honor the results of the 1990 legislative elections. In response to the government of Burma's attack in May 2003 on Aung San Suu Kyi and her convoy, the US imposed new economic sanctions against Burma - including a ban on imports of Burmese products and a ban on provision of financial services by US persons. A poor investment climate further slowed the inflow of foreign exchange. The most productive sectors will continue to be in extractive industries, especially oil and gas, mining, and timber. Other areas, such as manufacturing and services, are struggling with inadequate infrastructure, unpredictable import/export policies, deteriorating health and education systems, and corruption. A major banking crisis in 2003 shuttered the country's 20 private banks and disrupted the economy. As of December 2005, the largest private banks operate under tight restrictions limiting the private sector's access to formal credit. Official statistics are inaccurate. Published statistics on foreign trade are greatly understated because of the size of the black market and unofficial border trade - often estimated to be as large as the official economy. Burma's trade with Thailand, China, and India is rising. Though the Burmese government has good economic relations with its neighbors, better investment and business climates and an improved political situation are needed to promote foreign investment, exports, and tourism.

Humanitarian aid

In April 2007, the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) identified the financial and other restrictions that the military government places on international humanitarian assistance in the Southeast Asian country.

The GAO report, entitled "Assistance Programs Constrained in Burma," outlines the specific efforts of the Burmese government to hinder the humanitarian work of international organizations, including by restricting the free movement of international staff within the country. The report notes that the regime has tightened its control over assistance work since former Prime Minister Khin Nyunt was purged in October 2004. Furthermore, the reports states that the military government passed guidelines in February 2006, which formalized Burma's restrictive policies. According to the report, the guidelines require that programs run by humanitarian groups "enhance and safeguard the national interest" and that international organizations coordinate with state agents and select their Burmese staff from government-prepared lists of individuals. United Nations officials have declared these restrictions unacceptable.

"The shameful behavior of Burma's military regime in tying the hand of humanitarian organizations is laid out in these pages for all to see, and it must come to an end," said U.S. Representative Tom Lantos (D-CA). "In eastern Burma, where the military regime has burned or otherwise destroyed over 3,000 villages, humanitarian relief has been decimated. At least one million people have fled their homes and many are simply being left to die in the jungle."

U.S. Representative Ileana Ros-Lehtinen (R-FL) said that the report "underscores the need for democratic change in Burma, whose military regime arbitrarily arrests, tortures, rapes and executes its own people, ruthlessly persecutes ethnic minorities, and bizarrely builds itself a new capital city while failing to address the increasingly urgent challenges of refugee flows, illicit narcotics and human trafficking, and the spread of HIV/AIDS and other communicable diseases." [36]

Other statistics

Electricity - production: 5.961 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Electricity - consumption: 4.298 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2007)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2007)

Agriculture - products: rice, pulses, beans, sesame, groundnuts, sugarcane; hardwood; fish and fish products

Currency: 1 kyat (K) = 100 pyas

Exchange rates: kyats per US dollar - 1,205 (2008 est.), 1,296 (2007), 1,280 (2006), 5.82 (2005), 5.7459 (2004), 6.0764 (2003) note: unofficial exchange rates ranged in 2004 from 815 kyat/US dollar to nearly 970 kyat/US dollar, and by year end 2005, the unofficial exchange rate was 1,075 kyat/US dollar; data shown for 2003-05 are official exchange rates

See also

  • List of countries by GDP (PPP)
  • List of countries by GDP (nominal)
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