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Tobacco ringspot virus

Credit: R.J. Reynolds



La plaga es de dificil visualización en la(s) fase(s) del ciclo de vida asociado a la parte vegetal importada



La plaga es pasible de ser transportada en materiales como ropas, zapatos, artesanias y otros objetos de uso personal



La plaga tiene alta capacidad de dispersión activa de larga distancia



La plaga puede ser dispersada pasivamente (ríos, viento, etc)




S. Sirca, B. Geric Stare, I. Mavric Plesko, M. Virscek Marn, G. Urek, and B. Javornik (2007)

Plant Disease, 91 (6), p.770


Xiphinema rivesi from Slovania transmit Tobacco ringspot virus and Tomato ringspot virus to cucumber bait plants

 The dagger nematode, Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso, a member of the X. americanum group, was detected in 2002 for the first time in Slovenia and for the fourth time in Europe (4). X. rivesi is a vector of at least four North American nepoviruses including Cherry rasp leaf virus (CRLV), Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV), and Peach rosette mosaic virus (PRMV) (1,2). All of these viruses are included on the EPPO and EU lists of quarantine organisms, but none of the Xiphinema species found in Europe have been reported to transmit these nepoviruses. Three virus isolates, including TRSV (from Lobelia spp.; virus collection of the Plant Protection Service, Wageningen, The Netherlands), ToRSV (grapevine isolate PV-0381; DSMZ, Braunschweig, Germany), and Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) (from Vinca spp.; virus collection of the Plant Protection Service), were used in transmission tests with a population of X. rivesi found in Slovenia. X. rivesi is not known to transmit ArMV and this virus was included as a check. The nematodes were extracted from peach orchard soil collected near the village of Dornberk, and transmission tests fulfilled the set of criteria proposed by Trudgill et al. (3). Cucumis sativus cv. Eva, grown in a growth chamber at 25°C, was used as acquisition hosts and transmission bait plants. The acquisition hosts were mechanically inoculated and showing systemic symptoms before the introduction of nematodes. Noninoculated acquisition plants were included as controls. After a 10-day acquisition feeding period, the nematodes were transferred to healthy bait plants and allowed a 14-day inoculation feeding period. X. rivesi transmitted TRSV and ToRSV but not ArMV. TRSV and ToRSV bait plants developed systemic symptoms 4 to 6 weeks after the nematodes were transferred. Transmission of TRSV and ToRSV was confirmed by testing leaf and root sap of bait plants in a double antibody sandwich (DAS)-ELISA. High virus concentrations were detected in the roots and leaves of TRSV and ToRSV symptomatic plants. DAS-ELISA on bait plants from nematodes that had been allowed to feed on ArMV-infected or the virus-free control acquisition plants gave negative results. No symptoms appeared on bait plants used for ArMV transmission or the control bait plants. To our knowledge, this is the first report of transmission of TRSV and ToRSV with a Xiphinema population from Europe.

Vasilia A. Fasoula, Donna K. Harris, Matthew A. Bailey, Daniel V. Phillips, and H. Roger Boerma (2003) Crop Science, 43 (5), 1754-1759

Identification, mapping, and confirmation of a soybean gene for bud blight resistance


Bud blight, caused by Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV; Genus: Nepovirus; Family: Comoviridae), can significantly reduce the seed yield and seed quality of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. The identification of resistance genes and the development of resistant cultivars constitute an effective strategy for preventing yield loss. The objectives of this study were to identify and map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conditioning resistance to bud blight and validate their genomic location with two populations derived from the cross of 'Young' (resistant) x PI 416937 (susceptible). One population consisted of 116 F4:7 lines and was used to map restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers associated with resistance to bud blight. The lines were grown in one-row plots in a randomized complete block design with two replications. The plots were naturally infected with TRSV. At maturity, soybean plots were visually scored according to the number of plants that exhibited terminal bud death. A major QTL was identified and mapped on linkage group (LG) F by the RFLP marker K644_1. It accounted for 82% of the variation in bud blight score. To verify the genomic location of the major bud blight QTL, a second population of Young x PI 416937 that consisted of 180 F2:3 lines was evaluated. In this population, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers on LG F near the putative genomic location of the bud blight QTL were utilized. The major QTL conditioning bud blight resistance was confirmed and found to be closely linked to the Satt510 marker.

D.S. Mayunga, and R.G. Kapooria (2003)

EPPO Bulletin, 33 (2), 355-359


Incidence and identification of virus diseases of tobacco in three provinces of Zambia


Nine tobacco fields of small- and large-scale farmers in Central, Lusaka and Southern provinces of Zambia with an experimental area in the range of 4-52 ha were surveyed for the incidence, prevalence and identification of virus diseases during the growing season of 1997. Samples were collected from three tobacco fields in each of the three provinces, and a total of 72 samples was analysed. Virus identification was based on field disease syndrome, host range studies, DAS-ELISA and electron microscopy of virus particles in some cases. The study demonstrated the occurrence of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Potato virus Y (PVY), Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV). TMV and PVY occurred widely and were common in all three provinces, while AMV and TRSV were relatively less common. The prevalence of the four viruses was TMV 78%, PVY 67%, AMV 33% and TRSV 22%. Serological tests for Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) showed that these viruses were not present in the tobacco samples analysed.

A.J. Clark, and K.L. Perry (2002)

Plant Disease, 86 (11), 1219-1222


Transmissibility of field isolates of soybean viruses by Aphis glycines


During the 2001 growing season, 191 symptomatic soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) plants were dug from production plots in Indiana, Wisconsin, and Kentucky. Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV), Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), Peanut stunt virus (PSV), Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), and Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) were identified. No mixed infections were observed. The ability of the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsamura) to transmit field isolates of these viruses was tested. Using naturally infected field- or greenhouse-grown soybean plants as sources, six isolates of SMV and two isolates of AMV were transmitted using a short feeding assay. One of two isolates of TRSV was transmitted by A. glycines in one of four experiments using an extended feeding transmission assay. BPMV was not transmitted by A. glycines in assays involving 11 field isolates and over 840 aphids. One field isolate each of BYMV and PSV were tested and no transmission by A. glycines was observed.

Shouhua Wang, Rose C. Gergerich, Sandra L. Wickizer, and Kyung S. Kim (2002)

Phytopathology, 92 (6), 646-653


Localization of transmissible and nontransmissible viruses in the vector nematode Xiphinema americanum


The inner lining of the food canal of nematodes that transmit plant-infecting viruses is regarded as the retention region of viruses. To characterize the location of transmissible and nontransmissible viruses in the vector nematode Xiphinema americanum, three nepoviruses, Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), Tomato ringspot virus (TomRSV), and Cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV), and one non-nematode-transmissible virus, Squash mosaic virus (SqMV), were evaluated for transmission efficiency and localization sites in the nematode. Transmission trials showed highest transmission efficiency for TomRSV (38% with 1 and 100% with 10 nematodes, respectively), intermediate efficiency for TRSV (27% with 1 and 65% with 10 nematodes, respectively), and no transmission for CLRV and SqMV. Electron microscopy and immunofluorescent labeling revealed that TRSV was primarily localized to the lining of the lumen of the stylet extension and the anterior esophagus, but only rarely in the triradiate lumen. Within a nematode population, particles of TRSV were no longer observed in these three regions 10 weeks after acquisition, and it is assumed that there was gradual and random loss of the virus from these areas. The percentage of nematodes that were labeled by virus-specific immunofluorescent labeling in a population of viruliferous nematodes decreased gradually after TRSV acquisition when the nematodes were placed on a nonhost of the virus, and the loss of immunofluorescent labeling paralleled the decrease in the ability of the nematode population to transmit the virus. TomRSV was localized only in the triradiate lumen based on thin-section electron microscopy. No virus-like particles were observed in any part of the food canal of nematodes that had fed on CLRV-infected plants. Virus-like particles that appeared to be partially degraded were observed only in the triradiate lumen of nematodes that had fed on SqMV-infected plants. These results clarified the status of localization of two nontransmissible viruses in X. americanum and presented evidence that two nematode-transmissible viruses, TRSV and TomRSV, are localized in different regions of the food canal of X. americanum.

G.L. Hartman, and J.M. Lee (1996)

Phytopathology, Abstracts of APS/MSA Joint Annual Meeting - Indianapolis, 27-31 July 1996 - 86 (11), S59


Reactions of soybean plant introductions and other plant species to tobacco ringspot virus


Jürgen Kranz, Heinz Schmutterer, and Werner Koch (1977)

Paul Parey, Berlin & Hamburg


Diseases, Pests and Weeds in Tropical Crops


W. Carter (1973)

2nd ed. New York, Wiley-Interscience, 759 pp.


Insects in relation to plant disease


The buccal fluid of grasshoppers, consisting of saliva and regurgitated crop contents, has been cited as a vehicle for the transmission of plant viruses. In this way Melanoplus differentialis is a vector of tobacco mosaic virus, potato ringspot virus, tobacco ringspot virus, potato virus X and pumpkin mosaic virus, and Leptophyes punctatissima and Chorthippus bicolor transmit turnip yellow mosaic virus. The transmission of potato spindle tuber virus is also attributed to grasshoppers. Insect saliva may have an inhibiting effect on plant viruses: that of Tettigonia viridissima was found to inactivate tobacco mosaic virus on the mouthparts within one hour, although transmission usually takes place before inactivation occurs. Oecanthus niveus and O. angustipennis transmit tree cricket canker in apple by plugging oviposition wounds with infected faecal matter.

(copied with permission from Acridological Abstracts)


K.M. Smith (1958)

Annual Review of Entomology, 3, 469,482


Transmission of plant viruses by arthropods


Reference is made to the mechanical transmission of tobacco mosaic, tobacco ring-spot and potato X viruses by Melanoplus differentialis and transmission by regurgitation of turnip yellow mosaic by Leptophyes sp. and Stauroderus [Chorthippus] sp..

(copied from Acridological Abstracts with permission by Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich)

(abstract copied with permission, © 1958 Annual Reviews Inc.,