H. Ringmodulator

A ring modulator multiplies two sound waves to create a complex new wave with more overtones. In the basic version a carrier wave is multiplied with a modulator wave according to the formula:

                Wave = Sin(f1) * Cos(f2) = ½ * (Sin(f1+f2) + Sin(f1-f2))

If f1 and f2 are multiple integers of a fundamental frequency f0 then all new overtones are harmonic, otherwise ugly inharmonious sounds will arise. It does not matter, when f1-f2 is negative, because the ear doesn't hear the sign.

If complex waves (= sum of overtones) are used, two new overtones are generated for each overtone in the original. The results very often sounds like bells.

With different algorithms the modulation depth during the tone lifetime can be modulated to create very dynamic sound spectra.