Polianthus tuberosa / Agave amica

Polianthes is een knolachtig gewas. Met behulp van DNA-analyse is vastgesteld dat de soort familie is van de Agavoideae-subfamilie van de Asparagaceae. Oorspronkelijk komt ze uit Mexico en Midden-Amerika, waar ze door de Aztec indianen werd geteeld. De Azteken noemden het Omixochitl, beenbloem of zeepbloem. Spaanse ontdekkingsreizigers exporteerden de bloemen al in 1590 naar Europa (waar ze “Hyacinth of Indies” heette) en vanaf daar verspreidde Polianthes zich snel over de hele wereld. 

Linneaus gaf Polianthes in 1737 haar naam in zijn Genera Plantarum. In een ander werk schreef hij de naam echter als Polyanthes. Sommige schrijvers gebruikten de naam Polyanthes in de veronderstelling dat Linnaeus polys: veel, en anthos: bloemen, veelbloemig in gedachten had. Anderen namen aan dat het van polis: een stad, afstamde naar het gebruik van bloemen in stadsversiering. Waarschijnlijk had Linnaeus polios: glimmend wit en anthos: een bloem, bedoeld dat voor de tuberoos meer waarschijnlijk lijkt. De naam tuberoos is ontleend van tuberosa, deze plant is de tuber, de knoldragende hyacint om die te onderscheiden van de bol dragende hyacint. De naam is daarom tuber-ose en niet tube-rose. De meest bekende is de Polianthes tuberosa die al sinds 1594 wordt gekweekt. Ze wordt gebruikt in de parfumindustrie.

De poet Thomas Moore schreef vele aardige botanische versjes, een van de mooiste is:
‘The tuberose, with her silvery light
That in the gardens of Malay
Is call’d the Mistress of the Night”.

Gebruik

De Polianthes tuberosa wordt in grote arealen geteeld voor de parfumindustrie, zoals in Grasse, Zuid-Frankrijk, het centrum van de parfum. De bloemen worden voornamelijk gekweekt in Marokko en India en worden voor zonsopgang met de hand geplukt en daarna meteen verwerkt. De olie kan door extractie maar ook door enfleurage (methode om de geur van planten te extraheren) verkregen worden. Deze laatste methode wordt niet veel meer gebruikt omdat die zeer arbeidsintensief is. Voor 200 gram tuberose-absolute zijn 1200 kilogram bloemknoppen nodig. Het is dan ook een kostbaar ingrediënt. 
Van de geur wordt gezegd dat ze jasmijnachtig, heel sensueel is en in India staat de essentie bekend als “Meesteres van de nacht”. Lees meer over het gebruik van tuberose in parfums op https://www.perfumelounge.nl/collections/tuberose. Vanwege de hoge concentratie van sapogenine in hun rizomen en knolvormige wortels, zijn veel soorten gebruikt als substituten van zeep, waaronder: P. geminiflora, P. gramini-folia Rose en P. tuberosa. Voor dit gebruik zijn deze soorten bekend onder de naam Nahuatl ‘amole’ wat zeep betekent of omolixochitl of omilixochitl wat ‘zeepbloem’ (in Nahuatl) betekent.

Taxonomie 
De soort werd voor het eerst beschreven door Carl Linnaeus in 1753, als Polianthes tuberosa . In 1790 verplaatste Friedrich Kasimir Medikus de soort naar het geslacht Tuberosa als Tuberosa amica . Zowel morfologische als moleculaire fylogenetische studies hebben aangetoond dat Polianthes behoort tot de Agavefamilie. In 1999 publiceerden Joachim Thiede en Urs Eggli de nieuwe naam " Agave tuberosa ". Echter, Philip Miller had deze naam in 1768 beschreven, voor de soort Furcraea tuberosa , zodat het niet opnieuw kan worden gebruikt. De juiste naam voor de soort binnen de Agaves is Agave amica.



Iran J Med Sci. 2016 May;41(3 Suppl):S13.
The Effect of Inhalation of Essential Oils of Polianthes Tuberosa on Test Anxiety in Students: A Clinical Trial
Fereshteh Ghorat 1, Shamim Shahrestani 1, Zahra Tagabadi 1, Monir Bazghandi 2

Background: Based on Iranian traditional medicine, the root cause of anxiety is due to the heart and brain diseases. The use of aromatic substances is one of the basic treatments for the heart and brain diseases in Iranian traditional medicine. Concerning the prevalence of test anxiety among students, this study was conducted to determine the effect of inhalation of essential oils of Polianthes tuberosa on test anxiety among students of Farzanegan high school in Sabzevar during 2015.

Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial, in which 54 students with eligibility criteria were randomly divided into the intervention and control groups. In the pre-test stage, demographic data and Sarason anxiety questionnaires were filled by all students (7th grade). Then, in the intervention stage, students of the intervention group inhaled Tuberose oil using handkerchiefs smeared with Tuberose oil for 15-20 minutes during the exam. The control group received placebo with the same method. At the end of the exam, test anxiety questionnaire was filled by the two groups again. The collected data were analyzed by the statistical tests (i.e. χ2, paired t-test and independent sample t-test) using SPSS 18.

Results: Independent t-test showed a significant difference in the mean scores of test anxiety after intervention between the two groups of study and control (P<0.05), but this difference was not significant before the intervention (P=0.58). Additionally, in the study group, there was a significant difference in the mean scores of test anxiety before and after intervention (P<0.05), but this difference was not significant in the control group (P=0.073).

Conclusion: The result showed that aromatherapy with essential oil of Polianthes tuberosa was effective in reducing test anxiety among students. It is recommended to conduct educational programs concerning this method in schools to decrease the test anxiety of students.



J Nat Prod. 2004 Jan;67(1):5-9. doi: 10.1021/np034028a.
Spirostanol and furostanol glycosides from the fresh tubers of Polianthes tuberosa
Jian-Ming Jin 1, Ying-Jun Zhang, Chong-Ren Yang
Six new steroid glycosides--two spirostanols, polianthosides B and C (1, 2), and four furostanols, polianthosides D-G (3-6)--were isolated from the fresh tubers of Polianthes tuberosa, together with seven known spirostanols (7-13) and a known furostanol (14) saponins. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and the results of acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis. The cytotoxic activities of 1-14 against HeLa cells are reported.



Phytother Res. 2005 May;19(5):447-9. doi: 10.1002/ptr.1630.
Antifungal activity of tuberose absolute and some of its constituents
Eugene Sebastian J Nidiry 1, C S Bujji Babu
The antifungal activity of the absolute of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa ) and some of its constituents were evaluated against the mycelial growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on potato-dextrose-agar medium. Tuberose absolute showed only mild activity at a concentration of 500 mg/L. However, three constituents present in the absolute, namely geraniol, indole and methyl anthranilate exhibited significant activity showing total inhibition of the mycelial growth at this concentration.



A short review of Polianthes tuberosa L. considered a medicinal plant in Bangladesh
Roshni Nahar Rahmatullah, Khoshnur Jannat, Maidul Islam, Taufiq
Rahman, Rownak Jahan and Mohammed Rahmatullah

Abstract
Polianthes tuberosa L. is a flowering plant belonging t the Agavaceae (also Asparagaceae and Amaryllidaceae according to some botanists) family, which is planted in Bangladesh in home gardens.
The plant is also cultivated commercially for its fragrant flowers. Various folk medicinal uses of the plant include being used for tumor, cosmetic, laxative, cooling, placebo, sexual disorder, hair color, emetic, diuretic, and gonorrhea. The plant contains a number of flavonoids and other polyphenols, which can be of possible therapeutic use against a number of diseases resulting from or causing oxidative stress like
diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and cardiovascular disorders. Pharmacological studies indicate that the plant has anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, immunomodulatory, diabetic wound healing, antiinflammatory, anti-amebic, anti-ulcer, and neuropharmacological properties. The presence of bioactive principles combined with the traditional uses and reported pharmacological properties of the plant indicate that the plant can be considered an important source for lead compounds and new drugs.

Introduction
Polianthes tuberosa L. is a flowering plant belonging to the Agavaceae family (also Asparagaceae and Amaryllidaceae according to some botanists). In English, the plant is known as ‘Double Pearl Tuberose’, locally the plant is known as ‘Rojonigondha’. It is a grass-like plant with underground storage bulb. Leaves are green; the flowering stem rises taller than the leaves and bears white fragrant flowers. Ethnomedicinal uses in Bangladesh include use as or treatment for tumor, cosmetic, laxative, cooling, placebo, sexual disorder, hair color, emetic, diuretic, and gonorrhea [1]. As such, it was of interest to review the plant with the objective of finding out the plant’s potential as a therapeutic agent. For purposes of this review, appropriate searches were conducted in PubMed, SCOPUS and other indexing bodies without any limitation to year limits.

Taxonomic hierarchy of Polianthes tuberosa
  • Kingdom Plantae
  • Sub-kingdom Tracheobionta
  • Division Magnoliophyta
  • Class Liliospida
  • Sub-class Liliidae
  • Order Liliales
  • Family Agavaceae
  • Genus Polianthes
  • Species Polianthes tuberosa L.

Ethnomedicinal uses of the plant or plant parts
The various ethnomedicinal uses of the plant in Bangladesh are shown in Table 1 and partly compiled from sources as mentioned in the References section [1]. Other uses were obtained from data collected from folk medicinal practitioners of Bangladesh residing in different
districts but the data is yet to be published. The plant or parts of the plant also has medicinal uses in other countries apart from Bangladesh. The plant is used for gonorrhea, insomnia and low sex drive by people of Kollihills, Namakkal district, Tamil Nadu, India [2]. Flowers are
taken as tea in Dominican Republic for women’s health conditions [3]
Since a major traditional use of the plant is against gonorrhea,and since the causative organism Neisseria gonorrhea is developing antibiotic resistance [4], the plant may prove to be a new source for discovery of anti-gonorrheal drugs.

Reported phytochemicals and pharmacological activities 
From the aerial parts of the plant, a new bisdesmosidic cholestane glycoside has been isolated along with three new spirostanol saponins and a cholestane glycoside [5]. Three glycosides and a long chain alcohol has been isolated from the bulbs of the plant, which were identified as 3,29- dihydroxystigmast-5-ene-3-O--D-galactopyranoside, ethyl- -D-galactopyranoside, ethyl--D-galactopyranoside, and 1- tricosanol [6]. Phytochemical analysis of the underground parts of the plant resulted in isolation of four new spirostanol saponins with five monosaccharides [7]. Six new steroid glycosides – two spirostanols, polianthosides B and C, and four furostanols, polianthosides D-G has been isolated from fresh tubers of the plant together with seven known spirostanols and a known furostanol saponins [8]. The leaves have further been reported to contain a tuberolactone and three flavonoids (kaempferol, kaempferol-3-O-xyloside and kaempferol-3-4’-O-dixyloside), 9,10 dehydrohecogenin-3-Oglucose xylose galactoside, kaempferol-3-O-xyloside, alphaD-glucoside and polianthosides B and C [9] . Mild anti-fungal activity has been reported for whole plant extract; strong anti-fungal activity has been demonstrated by three phytochemicals constituents present – geraniol, indole, and methyl anthranilate against the mycelial growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on potato dextrose-agar medium [10]

Pharmacological activity studies 
Geraniol (trans-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol) has been shown to possess anti-tumor properties. It has been demonstrated to have multiple effects on mevalonate and lipid metabolism in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line, Hep G2. The growth rate and 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) activity of Hep G2 cells were also inhibited by geraniol concentrations up to100 micromol/L [11]. The compound has also shown promise against pancreatic cancer, which is generally refractory to chemotherapy. In a study conducted with MIA PaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cells, three naturally derived isoprenoids – perillyl alcohol, farnesol, and geraniol demonstrated additive anti-proliferative effects. All three compounds induced a G(0)/G(1) cell cycle arrest that coincided with an increase in the expression of the cyclin kinase inhibitor proteins p21 (Cip 1) and p27 (Kip 1) and a reduction in cyclin A, cyclin B1, and cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 2 protein levels [12] . Geraniol also has pharmacological potential in lung inflammatory diseases where oxidative stress is a critical factor. The compound has been shown to protect t-BHP (tertbutyl hydroxyl peroxide)-stressed rat alveolar macrophages [13] . 

Essential oil from Cymbopogon martinii containing geraniol as the active compound exhibited a broad inhibition spectrum against ten Escherichia coli serotypes: three enterotoxigenic, two enteropathogenic, three enteroinvasive and two shigatoxin producers [14]. The essential oil of Helichrysum italicum reportedly significantly reduced the multidrug resistance of Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Geraniol, a component of the oil was found to significantly increase the efficacy of -lactams, quinolones, and chloramphenicol [15] . The volatile oil from the leaves and flowers of the same plant, containing geraniol, showed anthelmintic activity by causing paralysis and death of the Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma [16]. The acaricidal activity of the compound (derived from oil of Pelargonium graveolens leaves) has also been demonstrated against the storage food mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae [17]. The compound also showed efficacy against fish parasites of the Anisakidae family (Contracaecum sp.), which can cause the parasitic disease anisakiasis, when fish is eaten without proper cooking [18]. Field trials conducted in two farms near Rabat (morocco) showed that 1% geraniol has a preventive effect against Hyalomma ticks, which affect cattle [19]. 

Geraniol also showed the longest protection time from mosquito bites when compared with other botanical natural repellents against three mosquito species – Psorophora ferox, Aedes atlanticus, and Aedes mitchellae [20] . Besides geraniol, kaempferol is another phytocomponent of the plant with a large number of attributed beneficial effects and as a consequence, possible therapeutic importance. This review will not attempt to discuss the various pharmacological activities of kaempferol. Briefly, the compound appears to be beneficial in various forms of cancer, Parkinson’s disease, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, arthritis, and erectile dysfunction and as an antioxidant and uterine relaxant [21-28] .

Conclusion 
Geraniol and kaempferol may prove to be important components of the plant with therapeutic potential, the first against cancer and the second against both cancer and inflammatory diseases [29, 30] . 

References 
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