Phyteuma sp. / Rapunzel soorten / Raiponce en epi

Witte rapunzel, Phyteuma spicatum, is in bloei goed te herkennen aan de dicht aarvormige bloeiwijze aan de top van de rechtopstaande stengel. De bloemvorm is heel speciaal. Aanvankelijk zijn de kroonbladen vergroeid als een smalle kromme buis, na enige tijd splijten de vijf kroonbladen in het onderste deel van de bloem en vormen een soort open lantaarntje. Het bovenste deel van de kroon blijft echter vergroeid en de stijl steekt met de twee stempels door de opening aan de top naar buiten. De kleur van de bloemen is wit tot lichtgeel.

De naam Phyteuma stamt uit het Grieks en is afgeleid van het werkwoord Phuteuó hetgeen Planten, telen betekent. Zodoende is Phyteuma zoveel als de Plant . De soortnaam spicatum wil zeggen 'met een aar'.

Duits: Rapunzel
Engels: Rampion
Frans: Raiponce

 Le nom générique (Phyteuma), Utilisé pour la première fois Dioscoride (Anazarbus, environ 40-90 environ) médecin, botaniste et pharmacien qui a pratiqué dans le grec ancien Rome à l'époque impériale Nerone, Il vient du mot grecque "Phyto" (= Plantes), et des moyens: « ce qui est planté », tandis que le nom spécifique (spicatum) Il a été donné en référence à la forme de 'floraison (Forme pointues).

la nom scientifique l'usine de ce point a été proposé par Carl von Linné (1707 - 1778) biologiste et écrivain suédois, considéré comme le père de moderne classification scientifique des organismes vivants, dans la publication "espèces plantarum - 1: 171. 1753 "[4] 1753]

Comprehensive analysis of Phyteuma orbiculare L., a wild Alpine food plant. Christian Abbet 1, Ivan Slacanin, Matthias Hamburger, Olivier Potterat
Plants which have been traditionally eaten by the alpine population may provide new opportunities for agricultural development in mountain regions. In this context we have investigated the chemical composition of Phyteuma orbiculare (Campanulaceae), a perennial herb whose leaves have been eaten as salad by rural populations in Valais (Switzerland). Extracts of different polarities were subjected to comprehensive metabolite profiling using a dereplication platform combining HPLC-PDA-MS, and offline NMR analysis. Twenty-three compounds, including various phenolic glycosides, a new dimeric phenylpropanoid glucoside, saponins, and fatty acids were identified online, or after targeted isolation. Selected phenolic constituents were quantitatively assessed by HPLC-PDA analysis. In addition, substances relevant for nutrition, such as β-carotene, fatty acids, ascorbic acid and minerals were quantified in leaves and flowers. The antioxidant capacity was determined with an ORAC assay, and total phenolic compounds were quantified. Finally, the phytochemical profile was compared to that of the related species P. spicatum, P. hemisphaericum and P. ovatum.

Despite a broad geographic distribution, no information was available on the chemical constituents of the entire genus Phyteuma when we began our investigations. In a first contribution, we reported the isolation and the structure elucidation of two triterpene saponins with structurally unique aglycons from the aerial parts of P. orbiculare (Abbet et al., 2011). In a continuation of our investigation, we now report a comprehensive phytochemical profiling of the aerial parts of this plant. ...
... HPLC–PDA-MS data of the methanolic extract revealed a complex pattern characterised by the presence of major peaks originating from UV-absorbing polyphenolic compounds (Fig. 1A) and compounds without chromophores which were only detected in the MS-trace (Fig. 1B). Two major peaks were assigned to the triterpene saponins phyteumosides A (15) and B (14) which we recently reported from this species (Abbet et al., 2011). In addition, several compounds, including flavonoid glycosides, various phenolics , a sterol glucoside and fatty acids were identified after targeted purification by a combination of Sephadex LH-20, silicagel CC, and semi-preparative HPLC . ...
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