Perilla sp. / Zwarte netel

Nom scientifique : Perilla frutescens
Noms communs : shiso, shiso vert, périlla, pérille, sésame sauvage, tiso japonais, herbe serpent à sonnettes
Noms anglais : wild red basil , purple mint , beefsteak plant , Chinese basil , rattlesnake weed , summer coleus

Classification botanique : famille des lamiacées ( Lamiaceae )

Formes et préparations : feuilles fraîches, poudres, gélules, huile essentielle, tisanes

Propriétés médicinales du shiso
Utilisation interne
Antiallergique ; antiasthmatique ; antibactérien ; antiseptique ; antispasmodique ; carminatif; expectorant; stomachique ; tonique ; minéralisant.

Utilisation externe
Réparateur ; apaisant ; revitalisant.

Indications thérapeutiques usuelles
Le shiso est utilisé pour lutter contre de nombreuses allergies. Il permet de soigner les personnes atteintes de troubles du foie. Il diminue l'agressivité, la violence, le stress, l'anxiété. Le shiso est efficace contre les rhumes, l'asthme, la toux et a un effet préventif contre la grippe.

Autres indications thérapeutiques démontrées
Le shiso agit contre les nausées, les vomissements, les douleurs abdominales et la constipation.

Principes actifs
Polyphénols ; flavonoïdes ; lutéoline ; acide rosmarinique ; chrysoériol ; apigénine ; huile essentielle ; limonène ; linalol ; L-menthol ; alpha-pinène ; élémicine.

Utilisation et posologie du shiso
Dosage
Il n'y a pas de dosage précis pour la consommation du shiso, en dehors des préparations standardisées.

En infusion : remplir 1/4 de tasse avec des feuilles séchées en poudre, recouvrir d'eau bouillante et laisser infuser de dix à quinze minutes. Boire cette préparation tout au long de la journée pour lutter contre la grippe ou les maux de gorge.

Pour diminuer les symptômes de l' asthme : utiliser l'huile de graines de shiso durant quatre semaines.

En inhalation, pour dégager les sinus : faire bouillir des feuilles de shiso et inhaler la vapeur.

Contre-indications
Le shiso est contre-indiqué aux femmes enceintes et à celles qui allaitent. L'huile de shiso est proscrite aux personnes atteintes d'un cancer.

Interactions avec des plantes médicinales ou des compléments
L'effet sédatif du shiso peut s'ajouter à celui d'autres plantes ou compléments.

Interactions avec des médicaments
L'effet sédatif du shiso peut s'ajouter à celui des médicaments. Il ne doit pas être consommé en même temps que des anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens ou des anticholestérolémiants.



Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. (PF) 
is an annual herbal medicinal, aromatic, functional food, and ornamental plant that belongs to the mint family, Lamiaceae. The origin of perilla traces back to East Asian countries (China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam, and India), where it has been used as a valuable source of culinary and traditional medicinal uses. The leaves, seeds, and stems of P. frutescens are used for various therapeutic applications in folk medicine. In the absence of a comprehensive review regarding all aspects of perilla, this review aims to present an overview pertaining to the botanical drug, ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and biological activity. It was found that the taxonomic classification of perilla species is quite confused, and the number of species is vague. Perilla has traditionally been prescribed to treat depression-related disease, anxiety, asthma, chest stuffiness, vomiting, coughs, colds, flus, phlegm, tumors, allergies, intoxication, fever, headache, stuffy nose, constipation, abdominal pain, and indigestion, and acts as an analgesic, anti-abortive agent, and a sedative. Until now, 271 natural molecules have been identified in perilla organs including phenolic acids, flavonoids, essential oils, triterpenes, carotenoids, phytosterols, fatty acids, tocopherols, and policosanols. In addition to solvent extracts, these individual compounds (rosmarinic acid, perillaldehyde, luteolin, apigenin, tormentic acid, and isoegomaketone) have attracted researchers’ interest for its pharmacological properties. Perilla showed various biological activities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-allergic, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and neuroprotection effects. Although the results are promising in preclinical studies (in vitro and in vivo), clinical studies are insufficient; therefore, further study needs to be done to validate its therapeutic effects and to ensure its safety and efficacy.

Pharmacological Properties of Perilla
As mentioned earlier, the biological activity of perilla is due to the presence of various biochemical compounds that are responsible for producing health benefits for humans. Because of this, many researchers have focused on the isolation and identification of these active ingredients as well as their biological evaluations.

7.1. Antioxidant Activity
Epidemiological, clinical, and nutritional studies show that consumption of so-called functional foods and nutraceuticals may be associated with a lowered risk of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic disorders [61]. These benefits are often attributed to the high antioxidant capacity of the drug, and especially to the content of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and carotenoids. It has been reported that extracts from perilla seeds and leaves exhibit concentration-dependent antioxidant activity, based on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) radical assay, and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6 sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation assay [1]. Isolated rosmarinic acid (RA) and luteolin from the fruit of P. frutescens var. acuta showed significant DPPH scavenging capacity with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 8.61 and 7.50 µM, respectively [32]. Similarly, among five phenolic compounds, RA and rosmarinic acid-3-O-glucoside were the dominant phenolic antioxidants with strong activity from cold-pressed perilla var. arguta seed flour studied by Zhou et al. [1]. RA isolated by these authors from perilla leaf exhibited DPPH radical scavenging activity of 88.3 ± 0.7% at a concentration of 10 μg/mL with a drug concentration eliciting 50% of the maximum stimulation (SC50) value of 5.5 ± 0.2 μg/mL. Tian et al. [41] proved that the antioxidant activity of perilla essential oil may depend on the location of cultivation. Extracts of drugs harvested from different regions exhibited varying degrees of scavenging ability at 10 mg/mL concentrations with an inhibition percentage of 94.80 ± 0.03%. The 80% methanol extract of perilla seeds exhibited a strong antioxidant property [62]. In vivo, the protective activity of RA from P. frutescens leaf (PFL) was demonstrated on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury of d-GalN-sensitized mice owing to the scavenging or reducing activities of superoxide or peroxynitrite rather than to inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production [63].

The roles of the flavonoid luteolin from the perilla seeds seems to provide significant antioxidant activity for drugs and extracts. This compound significantly reversed hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in primary cultured cortical neurons. Whereas, luteolin markedly attenuated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and prevented the decrease in activities of mitochondria, catalase, and glutathione in ROS-insulted primary neurons, for preventing neurodegenerative diseases [64]. In another study, luteolin inhibited the peroxidation of linoleic acid catalyzed using soybean lipoxygenase-1 with an IC50 of 5.0 M (1.43 μg/mL) noncompetitively [65].

The monoterpene perillaldehyde was shown to be a potent thioredoxin inducer as it activates the Nrf2-Keap1 system [66]. It seems that the antioxidant activity of perilla may vary among different accessions. As part of an in vitro study in a human subjects, purple perilla leaves showed a higher antioxidant activity, and prevented the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) than the green leaves [67]. Another study revealed that 2′,3′-dihydroxy-4′,6′-dimethoxychalcone (DDC) found in green perilla leaves enhanced cellular resistance to oxidative damage through activation of the Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway [68].

7.2. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity
Recently, the demand for natural compounds from plant extracts as effective antibacterial agents against a wide range of bacteria is definitely growing to control human infection and for the preservation of food [69]. Perilla seed extract rich in polyphenols was examined for its antibacterial activity against oral cariogenic Streptococci and periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis. The ethyl acetate extracts exhibit strong antibacterial activity against oral Streptococci and various strains of P. gingivalis. On the other hand, the ethanolic extract of defatted perilla seed weakly inhibited the growth of oral pathogenic bacterial strains. Among the polyphenols, luteolin showed marked antibacterial activity against the oral bacteria tested [70]. Additionally, the antibacterial activity of the essential oil from perilla leaves on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was studied, and the results showed the effectiveness of this essential oil to inhibit the growth of the tested bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were 500 μg/mL and 1250 μg/mL. respectively [71]. The most abundant terpene-type compound, perillaldehyde, moderately inhibits a broad range of both bacteria in the range of 125–1000 pg/mL. This compound was also particularly active against filament fungi, with MIC values for M. mucedo and P. chrysogenum already at a 62.5 pg/mL concentration [72]. Kim and Choi [69,73] determined the antibacterial activity of the leaf ethanol extracts of PF var. acuta against S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and detected that the population of P. aeruginosa decreased from 6.660 to 4.060 log CFU/mL, and that of S. aureus from 7.535 to 4.865 log CFU/mL, as well as to 2.600 log CFU/mL via extraction with ethyl acetate.

The fungicidal effects of perilla EO were described against Trichophyton mentagrophytes [74], and they dose-dependently decreased the production of α-toxin, enterotoxins A and B, and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) in both methicillin-sensitive S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus [75]. The antifungal activity of perilla EO distilled from aerial parts of the plant was also tested against phytopathogenic fungi and its activity was demonstrated in the cases of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae, and Alternaria alternate [41].

7.3. Anti-Allergic Effect
Studies show that water extracts of PF may inhibit allergic reactions in vivo and in vitro. PF extracts (0.05 to 1 g/kg) greatly inhibited systemic allergic reactions activated by anti-DNP IgE in rats in a dose-dependent manner [76]. Similarly, the water extract of PFL has been shown to have a positive result against atopic dermatitis in an animal model. The anti-allergic effects of PFL on 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced atopic dermatitis in C57BL/6 mice was evaluated by Heo et al. [77] and the results revealed that an aqueous extract (100 μg/mL) of PFL could significantly inhibit DNFB-induced atopic inflammation by alleviating the expression of MMP-9 and IL-31, as well as augmenting T-bet activity. In another experiment, water extract from PFL significantly suppressed the PCA-reaction, using mice ear-passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA)-reaction, and the authors concluded the role of rosmarinic acid [9]. Application of an ethanol extract from PF, rather than the aqueous extract, suppressed the allergen-specific Th2 responses. Furthermore, airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in an ovoalbumin-sensitized murine model of asthma were alleviated. Based on this, Chen et al. [78] suggested perilla as a potential phytotherapeutic tool for immunomodulation.

Besides using crude extracts, individual compounds as a potential biologically active agent against allergies have also been studied. A novel glycoprotein fraction from the hot water extract of perilla was used and it was found that it moderately inhibited mast cell degranulation and the activities of hyaluronidase (IC50 = 0.42 mg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner [79]. Furthermore, daily oral supplementation with RA (1.5 mg/mouse, orally) from perilla significantly prevented the increase in the numbers of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids and in those around murine airways. Likewise, the expression of IL-4 and IL-5, and eotaxin in the lungs of sensitized mice, together with allergen-specific IgG1, were also inhibited. Due to these findings, the authors revealed RA as an effective intervention against allergic asthma [80]. In other study, perilla extracts enriched with RA could inhibit seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in humans at least partly via inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) infiltration into the nostrils [81]. The use of a diet supplemented with perilla oil might be effective on asthmatic allergy via decreasing serum lipids and ovalbumin-specific IgG1 and IgA levels in mice [82].

7.4. Anti-Depressant Activity
Numerous studies focusing on the extracts and/or purified compounds of P. frutescens displayed antidepressant-like effects. Phenolic-type constituents of perilla leaf, such as apigenin, at intraperitoneal doses of 12.5 and 25 mg/kg [83], RA (2 mg/kg, i.p.) and caffeic acid (4 mg/kg, i.p.) each led to a considerable reduction of the duration of immobility in the forced swimming test. These compounds are also supposed to inhibit the emotional abnormality produced by stress [84,85], which is possibly mediated by the dopaminergic mechanisms in the mouse brain [83].

Essential oils and perillaldehyde from perilla leaves were also found to show an anti-depressant property in mice with CUMS-induced depression [86,87]. In another study, daily consumption of perillaldehyde (20 mg/kg, oral) demonstrated significant antidepressant-like effects in mice with LPS-induced depression and the authors concluded a potential benefit in inflammation-related depression [88]. Inhaling the same compound (perillaldehyde 0.0965 and 0.965 mg/mouse/day, 9 days) had antidepressant-like properties on a stress-induced, depression-like model in mice during the forced swim test (FST) through the olfactory nervous function [89].

The oil of PF seeds might have an anti-depressant activity too since a seed oil-rich diet during a forced swim test in adult male rats modulated the fatty acid profiles and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the brain [90]. Moreover, perilla seed oil rich in n-3 fatty acids improved cognitive function in rats by generating new hippocampal neural membrane structures as well as by inducing specific protein expression [91].

7.5. Anti-Inflammatory Activity
Luteolin has been isolated from PFL ethanol extracts and was demonstrated to exert beneficial effects on neuro-inflammatory diseases in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 6.9 μM) through suppressing the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in BV-2 microglial cells [43].

The ethanol extract of PFL was identified to display significant anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-induced Raw 264.7 mouse macrophages through the inhibition of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, and of nuclear factor-kappa (NF-κB) nuclear translocation in response to LPS [92]. The seed oil from PF showed a great protective effect against reflux esophagitis and this could be attributed to the antisecretory (anticholinergic, antihistaminic), antioxidant, and lipoxygenase inhibitory activities due to the presence of α-Linolenic acid (ALA) (18:3, n-3) [93]. Furthermore, RA isolated from PFL could inhibit the release of high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) and down-regulated HMGB1-dependent inflammatory responses in human endothelial cells, HMGB1-mediated hyperpermeability, and leukocyte migration in mice, as well as reduced cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced HMGB1 release and sepsis-related mortality. This could be a potential remediation for various vascular inflammatory diseases, such as sepsis and septic shock, via inhibition of the HMGB1 signaling pathway [94]. Lipophilic triterpene acids from ethanol extracts of red and green PFL were demonstrated to have remarkable anti-inflammatory activity on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation in mice (ID50: 0.09–0.3 mg per ear), and on the Epstein–Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation (91–93% inhibition at 1 × 103 mol ratio/TPA), [54]. A recent study in mice showed that PF extract ameliorated inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) via protection of dextran sulfate sodium-induced murine colitis, with NF-κB and signal transduction and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) as putative targets [95]. A perillaketone-type and alkaloid isolated from aerial parts of perilla showed the remarkable inhibitory effect on pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and/or IL-6) and inflammatory mediator (NO) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, indicating that these compounds might be active components for inflammatory disorders [96].

7.6. Antitumor Effect
A number of in vivo and in vitro studies have reported the potential anticancer activity of PF. Tormentic acid, a lipophilic triterpene acid from ethanol extracts of red and green PFL, remarkably blocked carcinogenenesis in an in vivo, two-stage mouse skin model [54]. Similarly, in an in vivo carcinogenesis model, topical application of perilla-derived fraction (2.0 mg/mouse) led to a significant reduction of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and TPA-promoted tumorgenesis. This is probably based on two independent effects: inhibition of oxidative DNA injury and inhibition of adhesion molecule, chemokine, and eicosanoid synthesis [97].

In addition, Lin et al. [98] evaluated the inhibitory effects of PFL and they found that it effectively induces apoptosis-related genes and could inhibit cell proliferation in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. They also observed that the inhibitory effect of PFL was much higher than the same dose of commercially available RA and luteolin compounds.

In another study, the application of ethanol extract of PFL resulted in induced apoptosis through the combinations of death receptor-mediated, mitochondrial, and endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced pathways, and substantially suppressed the cell proliferation via p21-mediated G1 phase arrest in human leukemia HL-60 cells [99]. Isoegomaketone (IK), an essential oil component of PF, was found to be another potential agent possessing anti-cancer activity. IK induces apoptosis through caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways in human colon adenocarcinoma DLD-1 cells [100].

7.7. Miscellaneous Effects
In addition to the pharmacological activities described above, different extracts, seed oil, and some individual phenolic compounds of perilla have been found to exhibit other special physiological activities indicating further therapeutic utilizations.

An aqueous extract of PF showed potent anti-HIV-1 activity via inhibition giant cell formation in co-culture of Molt-4 cells with and without HIV-1 infection showing inhibitory activity against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase [101]. A very recent study indicates the importance of PFL leaf extracts as a potential anti-aging agent for skin, as it showed effectiveness against UV-induced dermal matrix damage in vitro and in vivo [102]. The in vitro neuroprotection activity of unsaturated fatty acids of PF seed oil have been reported by Eckert et al. [103]. Perilla seed oil might be useful for other complaints too. Deng et al. [104] described in vitro and in vivo anti-asthmatic effects of perilla seed oil in the guinea pig and concluded that the oil may ameliorate lung function in asthma by regulating eicosanoid production and suppressing leukotriene (LT) generation. Zhao et al. [105] supposed a possible anti-ischemic activity of luteolin extracted from PFL, likely through a rebalancing of pro-oxidant/antioxidant status.

In vivo, the protective activity of RA from PFL was demonstrated on LPS-induced liver injury of d-GalN-sensitized mice. The treatments significantly reduced the elevation of plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, as well as anti-TNF and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) treatment, compared with controls [63]. In one investigation, the hepatoprotective effects of sucrose-treated perilla leaves, other than untreated leaves, exhibited the best result in vitro and in vivo [10].

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