Leonurus sibericus / Siberisch hartgespan / Marihuanilla

Marihuanilla, Sibirisches Herzgespann, Chinesischer Löwenschwanz, Marijuanillo (spanisch "kleiner Hanf"), Sibirischer Löwenschwanz, Sibirisches Mutterkraut
Botanisch: Leonurus sibiricus, Leonurus artemisia, Leonurus heterophyllus, Leonurus japonicus
English: Siberian Motherwort

Beschreibung
Der Marihuanilla ist eine zweijährige bis 2m hohePflanze mit verzweigten, im Querschnitt viereckigen Stielen und feingefiederten, dunkelgrünen Blättern von bis zu 10cm Länge.
Die Blütezeit ist im Juni bis Oktober wobei sich kleine, zweilippige, rosa- bis violette Blüten bilden. Daraus entwickeln sich die kleinen schwarzen Samen.

Vorkommen
Der Marihuanilla ist heimisch in Südsibirien, China, Korea,Japan, Vietnam und Taiwan. Und verwildert in Brasilien und Mexico anzutreffen.

Geschichte
Sehr alte Chinesische Heilpflanze. Marihuanilla wird im altchinesischen "Buch der Lieder" (ca. 1000-500 v.Chr.) als "t'uei" erwähnt.

Drogen und Inhaltsstoffe

Aus dem Sibirischen Herzgespann werden die folgenden Drogen gewonnen:
1. Die getrockneten Früchte. Sie werden als Chinesische Mutterkrautfrüchte bezeichnet. Wissentschaftlich als Leonuri fructus oder auch Leonuri heterophylli fructus.
Sie enthalten verschiedene Alkaloide (u.a. Leonurin), und Fette Öle.
2. Das getrocknete Kraut: Chinesisches Mutterkraut oder wissentschaftlich Leonuri herba.
Das Kraut enthält Flavonglykoside darunter mit ca. 0,1% Rutin und das Alkaloide darunter Leonurin (0,02-0,04 %) und die Diterpene Leosibiricin, Leosibirin und Isoleosibirin. Ausserdem Stachydrin, glykosidische Bitterstoffe, Syringasäure, Linolensäure und Rosmarinsäure.

Eigenschaften und Wirkungen

Marihuanilla ist schmekt bitter ist harntreibend, regt Kreislauf und Uterus an, und wirkt gegen Pilzinfektionen und ist entgiftend.
Als Rauschmittel wirkt es euphorisierend und schwach narkotisierend ähnlich wie Cannabis jedoch viel schwächer. Im Tierversuch wurden eindeutig narkotische Eigenschaften festgestellt.

Verwendung
Die Samen und das Kraut des Marihuanillas werden vielfältig in der Volksmedizin verwendet. In der traditionellen chinesischen Medizin bei Potenzstörungen, Menstruationsbeschwerden, Nierensteinen, Ekzemen, Abzessen, Nierenentzündungen, Halsentzündungen und bei der Geburtshilfe. In Südmexico wird ein Tee aus der Wurzel zur Behandlung von Frauenleiden eingesetzt. Es darf nicht in der Schwangerschaft verwendet werden!

Äußerlich bei Schwellungen nach Verletzungem und Rheuma.

Als Marihuanaersatzstoff in Mexico, Brasilien und in den Vereinigten Staaten.

Zubereitung
Als Marihuanaersatz werden ca. 1-2 g pur als Joint pur geraucht. Allerdings keine sehr deutliche Wirkung. Wird auch zusammen mit Cannabis geraucht.

Kultivierung
Leicht aus Samen zu vermehren. Wächst gut auf feuchten Boden mit guter Drainage in sonniger oder halbschattiger Lage. Marihuanilla verträgt keinen Frost


Motherwort
Motherwort, which may help your uterus contract after giving birth, is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat menopausal and menstrual symptoms, say Maureen Miller Pelletier and Deborah S. Romaine in "The Complete Idiot's Guide to Menopause." The uterotonic, or uterus stimulating, component in motherwort is called leonurine, which is present in the herb's leaves according to Y.C. Kong, lead author of a study published in the American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 

Other studies by H. Nagasawa et al. published in Anticancer Research indicate that motherwort may have an effect against mammary cancer as well. The studies were done on mice, however, so more research is needed to determine if motherwort is effective for humans suffering this cancer according to "The Clinician's Handbook of Natural Healing," by Gary Null. Avoid motherwort if you're pregnant because of its ability to cause uterine contractions.



Anticancer Res. 1990 Jul-Aug;10(4):1019-23.
Effects of motherwort (Leonurus sibiricus L) on preneoplastic and neoplastic mammary gland growth in multiparous GR/A mice.
Nagasawa H1, Onoyama T, Suzuki M, Hibino A, Segawa T, Inatomi H.
Chronic ingestion of methanol extract of the above-ground part of motherwort (Leonurus sibiricus L) in drinking water at the concentration of 0.5% enhanced the development of both pregnancy-dependent mammary tumours (PDMT) and mammary cancers originated from PDMT. By contrast, the treatment markedly suppressed the development of mammary cancers that originated from hyperplastic alveolar nodules (HAN) associated with the decreased formation of HAN. The incidence of uterine adenomyosis was also inhibited in mice given motherwort. The urinary excretion of allantoin, creatine and creatinine and glucose tolerance were stimulated by motherwort. The cause of discrepancy of the effects of motherwort on mammary cancers due to their origins is not clear at present. However, the stimulation by the agent of the excretion of any carcinogenic factors may at least partly contribute to its inhibition of mammary cancers originating from HAN.

Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2009 Jun;31(2):209-13. doi: 10.1080/08923970802135443.
Anti-inflammatory activity of Motherwort (Leonurus sibiricus L.).
Shin HY1, Kim SH, Kang SM, Chang IJ, Kim SY, Jeon H, Leem KH, Park WH, Lim JP, Shin TY.
Motherwort (MW), a Korean folk medicine, has been applied to treat inflammatory disease. However, its effect on inflammatory cytokine release from mast cells is not well known. We investigated the anti- inflammatory effect of MW on the secretion of inflammatory cytokine such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in human mast cell line (HMC-1). MW was treated in vitro before activation of HMC-1 cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus calcium ionophore A23187. MW had no cytotoxic effects on HMC-1 cell viability. MW (1 mg/ml) inhibited PMA plus A23187-stimulated gene expression and production of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8. Stimulation with PMA plus A23187 induced NF-kappaB activation in HMC-1 cells, which was inhibited by MW (1 mg/ml). MW inhibited secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8 possibly by inhibiting NF-kappaB activation. These results indicate that MW may be helpful in regulating inflammatory diseases.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Oct 28;150(1):85-94. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.08.013. Epub 2013 Aug 24.
Extracts from Leonurus sibiricus L. increase insulin secretion and proliferation of rat INS-1E insulinoma cells.
Schmidt S1, Jakab M, Jav S, Streif D, Pitschmann A, Zehl M, Purevsuren S, Glasl S, Ritter M.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:
Traditional Mongolian medicine (TMM) uses preparations from herbs as one form of medication for the treatment of a diversity of diseases including diabetes mellitus (DM). We evaluated the effect of extracts from the plant Leonurus sibiricus L. (LS), used in TMM to treat typical symptoms of type 2 DM, on insulin secretion, electrophysiological properties, intracellular calcium concentration and cell proliferation of INS-1E insulinoma cells under standard cell culture conditions (SCC; 11.1mM glucose).
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Insulin secretion was measured by ELISA, electrical properties were assessed by whole cell patch clamping, intracellular calcium concentration (Cai) by Fluo-4 time lapse imaging, insulin receptor expression was verified by RT-PCR and cell proliferation assessed by CellTiter-Glo® cell viability assay.
RESULTS:
Insulin released from INS-1E cells into the culture medium over 24h was significantly increased in presence of 500 mg/L aqueous LS extract (LS OWE) as well as methanolic LS extract (LS MeOH/H2O) but not in the presence of the butanol-soluble extract (LS MeOH/BuOH). Acute application of LS OWE resulted in a depolarization of the cell membrane potential paralleled by an initial increase and subsequent decline and silencing of action potential frequency, by KATP channel inhibition, persisting depolarization and an increase in Cai. The electrophysiological effects were comparable to those of 100 μM tolbutamide, which, however failed to elevate insulin secretion under SCC. Furthermore all LS extracts stimulated INS-1E cell proliferation.
CONCLUSIONS:
The finding that extracts from Leonurus sibiricus L. enhance insulin secretion and/or foster cell proliferation may provide possible explanations for the underlying therapeutic principles in the empirical use of LS-containing formulations in DM and DM-related disorders as applied in TMM.



Effects of motherwort (Leonurus sibiricus L) on preneoplastic and neoplastic mammary gland growth in multiparous GR/A mice. Nagasawa, H., Onoyama, T., Suzuki, M., Hibino, A., Segawa, T., Inatomi, H. Anticancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
Anticonvulsant activity of aqueous extract of Leonotis leonurus. Bienvenu, E., Amabeoku, G.J., Eagles, P.K., Scott, G., Springfield, E.P. Phytomedicine (2002) [Pubmed]
New bis-spirolabdane-type diterpenoids from Leonurus heterophyllus Sw. Giang, P.M., Son, P.T., Matsunami, K., Otsuka, H. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (2005) [Pubmed]
New labdane-type diterpenoids from Leonurus heterophyllus SW. Giang, P.M., Son, P.T., Matsunami, K., Otsuka, H. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (2005) [Pubmed]
Labdane diterpenes of Leonurus sibiricus. Boalino, D.M., McLean, S., Reynolds, W.F., Tinto, W.F. J. Nat. Prod. (2004) [Pubmed]
Endothelium-independent vasorelaxation by leonurine, a plant alkaloid purified from Chinese motherwort. Chen, C.X., Kwan, C.Y. Life Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
Iridoid glycosides of Leonurus persicus. Tasdemir, D., Scapozza, L., Zerbe, O., Linden, A., Calis, I., Sticher, O. J. Nat. Prod. (1999) [Pubmed]
Two phenylpropanoid glycosides from Leonurus glaucescens. Caliş, I., Ersöz, T., Taşdemir, D., Rüedi, P. Phytochemistry (1992) [Pubmed]
In vitro anticancer activities of Leonurus heterophyllus sweet (Chinese motherwort herb). Chinwala, M.G., Gao, M., Dai, J., Shao, J. Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.) (2003) [Pubmed]

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