Dipsacus sp. / Kaardebol soorten

Kaardebol, een plant die we kennen als mooie distel waarvan de zaadbollen vroeger gebruikt werden om de ruwe wol te kammen of te kaarden. Vandaar de naam. De wortels van deze plant zou het nieuwe middel zijn tegen Lyme disease. 

Grote kaardebol is een stevige tot 2 m hoog wordende plant die forse stengels heeft die gestekeld zijn, maar in het eerste jaar ontwikkelt zich eerst een bladrozet. Aan die stengel zitten tegenoverstaande bladeren die met een komvormige voet zonder steel zittend zijn ingeplant. In die komvormige, vergroeide bladvoeten verzamelt zich water. De langwerpige bladeren met een opvallend dikke middennerf lopen geleidelijk in een spitse punt uit. De rand van de bladeren is stekelig getand. Doordat zowel de bladeren als de stengels stekels hebben heeft de hele plant een stekelig aanzien. De beschermde Grote kaardebol is een tweejarige plant.

De stengels eindigen in een bloeiwijze die hoofdjesachtig is. Dat hoofdje is groot en voelt heel stijf en stekelig aan. Aan de voet van het hoofdje zit een stekelig omwindsel. De lijnvormige omwindselbladen, bezet met stekels, kunnen van grootte sterk verschillen en krommen voor een deel naar boven. Enkele kunnen zo lang zijn dat ze boven het hoofdje uitsteken. Op het hoge hoofdje staan veel kleine enigszins tweezijdig symmetrische bloemen. Opmerkelijk is dat de bloei begint met een ring van bloemen halverwege het hoofdje en zich van daar in twee ringen naar boven en naar onderen verbreidt. Ze hebben een onderstandig vruchtbeginsel waarop een vergroeidbladige lila viertallige kroon staat. Een kelk als zodanig ontbreekt, maar op het vruchtbeginsel staat wel een aantal stijve haarachtige tanden. Daaromheen zit nog een apart vergroeid omhulsel, de buitenkelk. In het bloemhoofdje staan stekelige schutbladen of stroschubben met stijve rechte punten om de bloemen.

Allerlei insecten bezoeken de bloemen van grote kaardebol vanwege de nectarproductie en zorgen en passant voor de bestuiving en bevruchting. De vier meeldraden steken ver buiten de kroon uit. Ze zijn niet vergroeid, zoals dat wel het geval is bij de composietenbloemen. Het vruchtbeginsel groeit na bevruchting uit tot een eenzadige, vierkante en geribde schijnvrucht.

De plant staat op vochtige en kalkhoudende, omgewerkte grond op dijkhellingen, in bermen en ruigten

Planta Med 2008; 74  Antibacterial activities of Dipsacus sylvestris Huds. against Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. in vitro
T Liebold 1, RK Straubinger 2, HW Rauwald 1
1 Department for Pharmacy, Chair of Pharmaceutical Biology, Leipzig University, Johannisallee 21-23, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
2 Institute for Immunology, College for Veterinary Medicine, Leipzig University, An den Tierkliniken 11, 04103 Leipzig, Germany

Lyme borreliosis seems to be a new widespread disease of epidemic extent, controlled by a controversial discussed antibiotic based pharmacotherapy [1]. In actual ethnobotanical approaches herbal medicines are involved, such as treatment with hydroethanolic extracts of teasel [2], obtained from the roots of Dipsacus sylvestris Huds., Dipsacaceae, although antibacterial effects of the european teasel have not been described before. In this context, solely grapefruit seed extract was tested in vitro against Borrelia burgdorferi without any relation to therapeutical use [3].

Fresh first year roots from Dipsacus sylvestris were extracted with 70% - ethanol, ethyl acetate as well as dichloromethane. The extracts were solubilized in water - the lipophilic extracts with addition of polysorbate 80- and tested in vitro on their activity against Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. over 8 days. The hydroethanolic extract showed no inhibition of growth whereas the two less polar fractions showed significant growth inhibiting activity. Strongest inhibition was found in the ethyl acetate extract (99.7±1.0% on day 4). The influence of polysorbate 80 on the bacterial growth was examined and found to be negligible (5.6±7.6% on day 4). All extracts were characterized by TLC and CZE (Capillary Zone Electrophoresis) as well as the crude drug itself, allowing the differentiation from the Traditional Chinese Medicine drug Dipsacus asperoides Cheng. Especially CZE (λ=234nm; borate buffer 45mmol/l; pH 9.6) yields a typical fingerprint electropherogram mainly consisting of iridoids and phenolic acids.

References: 1. Berghoff, W. (2007) Deutsche Borreliose Gesellschaft e.V. Jena
2. Storl, W.D. (2007) Borreliose natuerlich heilen. AT-Verlag. Baden
3. Brorson, Ø., Brorson, S.H. (2007) Infection 35:206-208.Life Sci. 2003 Sep 26;73(19):2443-54. 

The herbal medicine Dipsacus asper wall extract reduces the cognitive deficits and overexpression of beta-amyloid protein induced by aluminum exposure.Zhang ZJ, Qian YH, Hu HT, Yang J, Yang GD.
Department of Human Anatomy, College of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710061, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China. zzhang1@usuhs.mil

Excess aluminum (Al) exposure impairs neurocognitive function in humans and animals. Epidemiologic studies have shown a potential link between chronic Al exposure and Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the protective effects of the herbal medicine Dipsacus asper extract against the cognitive impairment and overexpression of hippocampal beta-amyloid protein (Abeta) induced by chronic Al exposure in rats. Vitamin E (VE) was used as a positive control. Following exposure to 0.3% aluminum chloride (AlCl(3)) solution for 90 days in their drinking water, animals displayed a striking decrease (>80%) in step-through latency in the passive avoidance task and a significant increase (123%) in the number of Abeta immunoreactive cells in the hippocampus compared to controls. Al-exposed animals were then randomly assigned to receive vehicle, Dipsacus asper extract (4 g/kg), or VE (40 mg/kg) treatment up to 5 months. Both Dipsacus asper extract and VE significantly ameliorated animal's performance impairment in the passive avoidance task and suppressed the overexpression of hippocampal Abeta immunoreactivity. The effects of Dipsacus asper extract, but not VE, increased with time of treatment. The present results suggest that Dipsacus asper extract may possess therapeutic effects against Alzheimer's disease.

Chem Biodivers. 2011 Mar;8(3):414-30. doi: 10.1002/cbdv.201000022. Phytochemicals and biological activities of Dipsacus species.
Zhao YM, Shi YP. State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, P R China.

The plants of genus Dipsacus, with a wide distribution in Europe, Asia, and Africa, have been used as medicinal agents to treat several diseases, including lime disease, fibromyalgia, bone fracture, and abortion, and especially the Alzheimer's disease and cancer. A large number of studies on plants of genus Dipsacus has revealed cytoprotective properties, inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, antinociceptive, and antimicrobial effects, etc. This review compiles all chemical constituents isolated, mainly triterpenoids, iridoids, phenolics, and alkaloids, from the genus Dipsacus over the past few decades together with their structural features, biological activities, and structure-activity relationships. 

J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Oct 20.Inhibitory effects of the root extract of Dipsacus asper W(ALL.) on collagen-induced arthritis in mice.Jung HW, Jung JK, Son KH, Lee DH, Kang TM, Kim YS, Park YK. Oriental Medicine R&D Center, Dongguk University, Gyeongju 740-814, Republic of Korea.

Dipsaci radix, the dried root of Dipsacus asper W(ALL.) is used as a medicinal plant in oriental clinics for the treatment of bone diseases and functions by strengthening bone and healing bone fractures. This study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of Dipsaci radix in treating rheumatoid arthritis using a type II collagen (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model.
Arthritis was induced in male DBA/1 mice by immunization with CII. Dipsaci radix water (DR-W) extract at 50mg/kg and 100mg/kg was orally administered from days 21 to 42 after the induction of arthritis. Arthritic score, serum levels of anti-CII IgG2a, the inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6), and histological changes in the ankle joint were analyzed in CIA mice.
Arthritic induction increased the arthritic score, as well as serum levels of anti-CII IgG2a antibody, PGE(2), TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in mice. However, administration of DR-W extract in CIA mice significantly reduced arthritic scores and serum levels of anti-CII IgG2a antibody, PGE(2), TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 compared with those in vehicle-treated CIA mice. Furthermore, histopathological improvement in joint architecture was also observed in DR-W extract-treated CIA mice.
DR-W extract has anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects in arthritic mice. This suggests that Dipsaci radix might be used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of human arthritis. 

Pharmazie. 2011 Aug;66(8):628-30. Growth inhibiting activity of lipophilic extracts from Dipsacus sylvestris Huds. roots against Borrelia burgdorferi s. s. in vitro.Liebold T, Straubinger RK, Rauwald HW.Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, College for Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, Germany.

Fresh first year roots from Dipsacus sylvestris HUDS. were extracted with 70% ethanol, ethyl acetate as well as dichloromethane. Extracts were solubilized in water (lipophilic extracts with addition of polysorbate 80) and tested for their activity against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in vitro during an eight-day period using amoxicillin as standard. The hydroethanolic extract showed no growth inhibition whereas significant growth inhibiting activity could be shown in the two less polar fractions for the first time. Strongest inhibition was found in the ethyl acetate extract. The effect of polysorbate 80 on bacterial growth was examined and found to be negligible. As the nature of bioactive constituents has not been clarified yet, a micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography fingerprint analysis for a methanolic extract was applied including loganin, chlorogenic acid, cantleyoside and caffeic acid as marker substances. 

Lyme borreliosis is a widespread tick-borne disease of the northern hemisphere (Stanek and Strle 2003). It is caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex (Burgdorfer et al. 1982; Barbour 1984). Affected individuals are treated with a controversially discussed antibiotic-based pharmacotherapy (von Baehr et al. 2008). Particularly with regard to chronic courses of borreliosis like arthritis (Steere et al. 1977), antibiotics are not always successful remedies (Clarissou et al. 2009). Novel ethnobotanical approaches are based on herbal medicines, such as treatment with hydroethanolic extracts of teasel, obtained from the roots of Dipsacus sylvestris HUDS. (Wood 1997; Storl 2007), Dipsacaceae, although antibacterial effects of the European teasel have not been described so far.

In this context, solely grapefruit seed extract without any relation to therapeutical use (Brorson and Brorson 2007), and due to patient’s reports Cistus creticus extracts by bioguided fractionation in our lab (Hutschenreuther et al. 2010) were tested against Borrelia burgdorferi in vitro.
The biennial Dipsacus sylvestris, introduced to Europe in antiquity, grows to a basal rosette with a strong tap root in its first year
of cultivation, followed by the flowering period in the second year. Analogous to the use of the traditional Chinese medicine drug Xu Duan from D. asperoides against symptoms similar to borreliosis, roots from Dipsacus sylvestris are used by the ethnobotanists - only in the first-year stage due to philosophic thoughts. But this usage is heavily disputed: up to now there is no proof of any antibacterial effect of Dipsacus sylvestris.

The growth inhibition rates achieved of growth by the apolar extracts (2 mg/ml) were comparable to those of amoxicillin (0.5g/ml) in contrast to the hydrophilic extract. The latter showed no inhibition, it even enhanced growth of Bbss in vitro.
The dichloromethane extract and the ethyl acetate extract caused decrease of individuals already on the first day. Highest inhibition was found in the ethyl acetate fraction (99.7 ± 1.0% on day 4). In this fraction all visible forms ofBbss were immobile within the first day, their number did not increase within eight days. Polysorbate 80 did not significantly influence the growth in the applied concentration of 0.25% (inhibition 5.6 ± 7.6%
on day 4). Thus growth inhibiting activity of lipophilic extracts has been shown in vitro, whereas by now there is no evidence for a therapeutic potential in vivo.

Am J Chin Med. 2009;37(6):1069-84.Effect of Dipsaci radix on hind limb muscle atrophy of sciatic nerve transected rats.Jung HS, Noh CK, Ma SH, Hong EK, Sohn NW, Kim YB, Kim SH, Sohn Y. Institute of Oriental Medicine, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea.

It was reported that Dipsaci radix (DR) has a reinforcement effect on the bone-muscle dysfunction in the oriental medical classics and the experimental animal studies. The muscle atrophy was induced by unilateral transection of the sciatic nerve of the rats. Water-extract of DR was used as treatment once a day for 12 days. The muscle weights of the hind limb, atrophic changes, glycogen contents, compositions and cross-section areas of muscle fiber types in soleus and medial gastrocnemius were investigated. Muscle fiber type was classified to type-I and type-II with MHCf immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, Bax and Bcl-2 expressions were observed with immunohistochemiatry. DR treatment significantly increased muscle weights of soleus, medial gastrocnemius, lateral gastrocnemius, and posterior tibialis of the damaged hind limb. DR treatment reduced apoptotic muscle nuclei and hyaline-degenerated muscle fibers in soleus and medial gastrocnemius of the damaged hind limb. DR treatment also significantly increased glycogen contents in medial gastrocnemius of the damaged hind limb. DR treatment significantly attenuated the slow-to-fast shift in soleus of the damaged hind limb but not in medial gastrocnemius. DR treatment significantly increased cross-section areas of type-I and type-II fibers in soleus and medial gastrocnemius of the damaged hind limb. In soleus and medial gastrocnemius, DR treatment significantly reduced Bax positive muscle nuclei in the damaged hind limb. These results suggest that DR treatment has an anti-atrophic effect and an anti-apoptotic effect against myonuclear apoptosis induced by the peripheral nerve damage. 

The prospect of using Teasel Root as a great ally for folks particularly with chronic Lyme Disease comes from Matthew Wood’s splendid book, “The Book of Herbal Wisdom” which I HIGHLY recommend to the class just in general, but he’s also got an entire chapter just on Teasel Root in it.

Matthew has a great sense of ALL the things that plants are - energetically, chemically, what they BRING OUT, what they have to SHOW us. He pulls from all KINDS of traditions and weaves things together with personal stories of how he’s used various plants to treat all kinds of things.
With Teasel, Dipsacus sylvestris, he first learns about the Chinese Dipsacus japonica whose Chinese name means “Restore What Is Broken”, although it appears that the wild Teasel, Dipsacus sylvestris is the MOST effective for Lyme.

He says “Teasel is excellent for chronic inflammation of the muscles, with limitation of movement and great pain....Teasel is well indicated in chronic cases where a person becomes arthritic, the muscles all over are stiff and sore and they are eventually incapacitated.”
The late William LeSassier, Matt’s friend and teacher said: “It is for people who had a use, but lost it. They stepped off the path.”
But why SPECIFICALLY for Lyme? Matt writes: “After entering the body through a tick bite, the spirochetes burrow into the muscles where they settle down to live. Here they produce chronic inflammation and pain, with destruction of muscles and joints. People become like the broken-down ‘tertiary syphilitics’ described in old medical text books”
Matt describes the progress of five clients, all somewhat different, who experience incredible healing from taking Teasel. One that got my attention described her symptoms as getting better ‘from the top down’. (mine went in reverse order, remember?) Some of the clients described from mild to fierce aggravation of symptoms as the healing took place.
This is where you need to listen to yourself. The doses Matt recommends are truly TINY, but if they aggravate your symptoms, do back down to a level you can deal with. My symptoms were merely ‘revisited’ over a few days’ time. As I worked my way up to the 9 DROPS a day, my body just didn’t want that much and I listened. I leveled off at 2 drops just 2x a day and STAYED there for 6 or 7 weeks. In hindsight, (which we KNOW is 20/20 with clean lenses) I now see that the 2 drops 2x a day kept me BELOW my Herx level. 


Tim Entwistle. What are the medicinal properties of Dipsacus fullonum, and what role does it play in the modern herbalists dispensary?

The rational behind this paper was to investigate whether the herbs Dipsacus fullonum and Dipsacus sylvestris provide beneficial medicinal properties and whether or not they could still occupy a role in the wider British herbalist’s dispensary. In order not to confuse the reader, both D. fullonum and D. sylvestris within this body of work unless otherwise stated, will be viewed medicinally as the same plant (Kartez, 2008) and referred to as Dipsacus spp or Teasel.

Teasel is a herb that over the centuries was invaluable within the British textile industry and to a lesser degree the herbal apothecary (Davison, 2001). The root was known medicinally as a bitter depurative, whilst water from its basal leaves was used to soothe and beautify the eyes (Hill, 1939). Today we find little more than anecdotal passages in our modern herbals concerning the use of teasel, and minimal information regarding the herbs uses, constituents and pharmacology, whilst medicinal research is largely devoid of the herbs mention.
Two distinct methods were used to investigate the therapeutic properties of teasel. Firstly a systematic literature review consulting historic and modern texts, whereby information gathered has been presented in a monograph format. Secondly a semi-structured interview was conducted with three herbal practitioners skilled in teasels use. The results were analysed using thematic analysis, a qualitative method, and the results or themes composed separately. Both forms of literature were then compared and contrasted to ascertain Dipsacus spp’s therapeutic properties.
Analysis of the interview and literature data appears to show that teasel still holds a place within the British herbalist’s dispensary and is suitable for treating chronic skin disorders and musculoskeletal inflammation and damage. With our over-reliance on importing herbs from all corners of the Earth, this easy to grow native herb may once again fulfill a role within our modern dispensary.

Uncaria has the ability to improve immune function, relieve some of the neurological symptoms associated with Lyme disease, positively affect joint and muscle pain and improve mental function. If you have experienced any of the potentially debilitating and scary mental liability of Lyme disease like: "Who are these people living in this house with me or am I just in the wrong house; man I wish I had those other kind of shoes so I wouldn't have to figure out what to do with these strings; I should know this street, should I be driving????", you will appreciate any help with cognitive function Enhance Glutathione also). Because of its traditional use for epilepsy and convulsions I must assume it relieves the affects of "wind" resulting from a possible liver yin deficiency.

Another bonus of this herb is its ability to increase the CD57 lymphocyte count (see Borrelia facts).

Andrographis has a direct killing affect on Bb as well as offering cardiac muscle protection, enhancing the immune system, and is anti-inflammatory. Studies show extracts have the ability to enhance DNA repair. Due to its ability to treat rashes and other skin disorders, by aiding in the reduction of heat and elimination of toxins the body is choosing to 'throw' to the skin, it can be very useful early on in an infection of Bb; specifically when one has a Lyme rash or 'bulls-eye'. Many late-stage Lyme patients I have seen have Lyme related rashes making this herb useful in their treatment. Rarely, people may get a skin reaction from taking this herb. If you do, stop until the rash clears and slowly begin again. Getting a rash may indicate the need to do more de-toxing, i.e. saunas.

Dipsacus seems to kill the Bb spirochete, as people often need to gradually increase the dosage of this herb to avoid Herxheimer reactions. I spoke with Dr. Josh Berry N.D. who reports good results in his Lyme patients using this herb as a single agent in a liquid preparation. He follows the work of Matthew Wood who, it seems, began using Dipsacus in the U.S. for Lyme disease. As Stephen Buhner states " outcomes, however have been mixed." I have added this herb for its ability to tonify the liver and kidneys as well as improve the movement of energy in the lower body. In this last regard, it helps improve the symptoms one may experience in the legs and low back due to the ability of Dipsacus to strengthen bones and tendons and invigorate the blood. If it helps kill Bb in your body, BONUS!!

Polygonum; although this plant is not a good one to have growing out of its native habitat, as it can be quite invasive, we are lucky to have it. Resveratrol, a major chemical constituent of Polygonum, has been the focus of recent articles in mainstream periodicals. This chemical, undoubtedly enhanced by the synergistic affect of other substances in the plant, has the ability to decrease the populations of pathogenic organisms including spirochetes, fungi and bacteria. The recent articles tout its antioxidative and longevity enhancing properties and the potential decreased tendency to develop neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. Other properties of this plant include its ability to decrease inflammation, regulate the immune system and move blood by relieving stagnation. The source I use provides 20% resveratrol, which is a highly concentrated product.


  • Healing Lyme Stephen Harrod Buhner 
  • Akeeson, C. et al. C-Med-100 a hot water extract of Uncaria tomentosa prolongs lymphocyte survival in vivo, Phytomedicine 2003; 10 (1): 23-33 
  • Wurm M, Kacani L, Laus G, Pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria tomentosa induce human endothelial cells to release a lymphocyte-proliferation-regulating factor, Planta Med. 1998 Dec; 64(8): 701-4. 
  • Miller M. et al. Dietary antioxidants protect gut epithelial cells from oxidant- induced apoptosis, BMC Complement Altern Med 2001; 1 (1): 11. 
  • Duke, James; Chemicals and Their Biological Activities in Andrographis paniculata NEES www.ars.grin.gov/cgi-bin/duke. 
  • MADAV S.; TANDAN S.K. Anti-inflammatory activity of andrographolides; Division of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Indian veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar INDE 
  • Sheng Y., Li L., Holgren K. Pero R.W., DNA repair enhancement of aqueous extracts of Uncaria tomentosa in a human volunteer study, Phytomedicine, V. 8, (4) 1: Aug. 2001, pp. 275-282(8) 
  • Philippe Marambaudl, Haitian Zhao, and Peter Davies, Resveratrol Promotes Clearance of Alzheimer's Disease Amyloid-B Peptides, J. Biol. Chem., Vol.280 Issue 45, 37377-37382, Nov. 11, 20 
  • Holmes, Peter, The Traditional Chinese Medicine Materia Medica Clinical Reference and Study Guide pg. 302-303 

Dodonaeus: Cruyde boeck,  1554,
Van Caerden.

Dit geslacht van distels wordt in Grieks Dipsacos genoemd. In Latijn Dipsacum en Labrum Veneris, door sommige ook Chamaelon, Crocodilion, Onocardion, Cneoron, Meleta, Calix cardiacos, Cinera rustica, Moraria, Statioros, Carduus Veneris, Veneris lavacrum en Sciara. In de apotheken Virga pastoris en Carduus fullonum. In Hoogduits kartendistel, Bubensteel en Weberkarten. Hier te lande kaarde en volders kaarde. In Frans verge a bergier, chardon a foullon of chardon a carder.
1 Het tamme geslacht wordt Dipsacum sativum en Dipsacum album genoemd.
2 De wilde wordt Dipsaca sylvestria of purperea genoemd.
De wortel van kaarde, zegt Galenus, is droog tot in de tweede graad en wat afjagend van naturen.
Kracht en Werking.
De wortel van kaarden die in wijn gekookt en daarna goed klein gestampt worden totdat het een zalfje is geneest de kloven en lopend gat in het fondament. En om dit zalfje goed te houden moet je het in een koperen bus bewaren.
De wormpjes die je in de bolletjes van de kaarde vindt zijn goed tegen de vierdedaagse malariakoorts als het aan de hals of arm gedragen wordt als Dioscorides schrijft.

H. Bock: Kreuterbuch, 1560,
Von Karten Distel.
Van de kracht en werking.
Kaarde distels zijn koude drogende kwaliteit, daarom ze ook steeds vochtigheid moeten hebben, worden alleen uiterlijk genuttigd. Die wortel echter is wat droge eigenschap.
Dioscorides schrijft dat de wormpjes zo wat in het merg van deze distel gevonden worden is goed voor de vierdaagse malariakoorts, ingewikkeld en aan hals gedragen, ik heb het niet ervaren, die wormpjes heb ik wel gevonden.
De bladeren op het hoofd gelegd zullen dat hersens woeden stillen.
Het sap van kruid in de oren gedaan doodt de wormen daarin.
Een water gedistilleerd van deze bladeren is goed voor dat eten in mond, daarmee gewassen.
De wortel in wijn gekookt, daarna gestoten en over de barsten, lopende gaten gelegd heelt ze, vooral aan achterste, zulke artsenij mag men over jaar behouden in urine bussen tot gemelde gebreken. De ouden hebben met gedachte artsenij de wratten verdreven. Dat water zo in de bladeren gevonden wordt is goed tot de troebele roden ogen, daarmee gewassen.
Gedacht water heelt en verdrijft ook alle gele en bruine vlekken onder de ogen, daarmee gewassen, de vrouwen weten dat voor een deel goed te gebruiken.