Artemisia vulgaris / Bijvoet / Mugwort

Mugwort is a perennial shrub that grows to 5 feet with small, reddish-brown or yellow flowers.1 It originated in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, and can be found today throughout Europe, Asia, North America, and England.2,3 Primarily, the leaves and the roots of mugwort are harvested.4

Mugwort has been used in traditional medicine as a food additive, a tonic, a tea, and a bath steep.1-3 The volatile oils have been used in aromatherapy for their pleasantly aromatic smell.1
Mugwort is said to have derived its name from its traditional use as a flavoring agent for beer before the regular use of hops.3 However, many believe that the name is not representative of the beverage but rather moughte which means moth or maggot, since this herb was used traditionally to repel moths. Another name for this herb is St. John’s plant (not to be confused with St. John’s wort) because it was believed that John the Baptist wore a mugwort wreath in the wilderness. Building upon this idea, many beliefs arose suggesting that travelers should wear mugwort to ward off wild beasts and evil spirits as well as to protect them from fatigue, sunstroke, and disease.3

In India, mugwort was traditionally used for the treatment of fever, as well as to stimulate and regulate menstruation.1 Other traditional uses for mugwort included treating diarrhea, constipation, cramps, and worm infestations.5 Tonics made from mugwort root were also thought to be beneficial in the treatment of various complaints including anxiety, irritability, and restlessness.5 Currently, mugwort is occasionally used in Germany for the treatment of intestinal gas, stimulation of digestion, and bloated distension of the stomach.1

Externally, mugwort essential oil has been employed as an insect repellant.1 An ancient but still used Chinese acupuncture technique involves rolling the crushed mugwort leaves into sticks, called moxa, which are ignited and applied either directly or indirectly as a heat source to improve circulation at specific acupuncture points.6

Future Outlook
Artemisia vulgaris is considered a noxious weed in many areas because it is extremely invasive and aggressive and is believed to inhibit the growth of nearby plants.7 Once established, it is difficult to eradicate and is, therefore, a concern in farming areas where it occurs. In Canada, mugwort is being studied for its potential as a commercially grown hydroponic crop.8

References
1 Wichtl M, Brinckmann J. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. 3rd ed. Stuttgart: Medpharm GmbH Scientific Publishers; 2004.
2 Chevallier A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. London: Dorling Kindersley Ltd.; 1996.
3 Grieve M. A Modern Herbal. Vol. 2. New York: Dover Publications Inc.; 1971.
4 Bown D. New Encyclopedia of Herbs and Their Uses. New York: DK Publishing Inc. 2001.
5 Blumenthal M, Busse WR, Goldberg A, Gruenwald J, Hall T, Riggins CW, Rister RS, eds. Klein S, Rister RS, trans. The Complete German Commission E Monographs¾Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Austin, TX: American Botanical Council; Boston: Integrative Medicine Communication; 1998.
6 Cardini F, Weixin H. Moxibustion for correction of breech presentation: a randomized controlled trial.JAMA. 1998;280(18):1580-1584.
7 Wormwood, Mugworts. Available at: http://www.ienica.net/crops/artemisia.htm. Accessed April 14, 2005.
8 Dorais M, Papadopoulos AP, Luo X, Leonhart S, Gosselin A, Pedneault K, et al. Soilless production of greenhouse plants in north eastern Canada. ISHS Acta Horticulturae 554: World Congress on Soilless Culture: Agriculture in the Coming Millennium. Available at:http://www.actahort.org/books/554/554_32.htm. Accessed April 14, 2005.


Mythologie van bijvoet
Artemisia vulgaris. Beifuss. Wer Beifuss im Hause hat, dem kann der Teufel nichts anhaben. Am Johannistage sind unter der Wurzel Kohlen zu finden, die zu Gold werden, so Einer Glück hat. Aus Beifuss wird der Johannisgürtel geflochten, den Leidende in's Johannisfeuer werfen, um ihre Gebreste zu verlieren. In Galizien und Mähren am 24. Juni geweiht und dann als Johannisgürtel um den Leib getragen, damit Kreuzweh, Verhexung u. s. w. gebannt bleiben. Schützt vor dem Müdewerden; das weiss schon Plinius 11): "Artemisiam adligatam qui habet viator, negatur lassitudinem sentire." Schon die deutschen Väter der Botanik wetterten gegen den Aberglauben, der mit Beifuss getrieben wurde. Beispielsweise Brunfels: "Also haben die alten Heyden gegauckelt, so haben wir wie die Affen nachgefolgt, und ist uff den heutigen tag solcher und dergleichen superstitionen weder mass noch end." Konrad von Megenberg wendet sich besonders gegen die Meinung, dass Beifuss nicht ermüden lasse: "ez sprechent die maister, wer peipoz an diu pain pind, ez benem den wegraisern ir müed. daz versouch, wan ich gelaub sein niht, ez wär dann bezaubert." Was die unter der Wurzel gesuchten "Narrenkohlen" oder "Thorellensteine" anlangt, so sind sie nichts anderes als abgefaulte, theilweise schon humisirte Wurzelstücke. Daher die Sagen vom Golde der Schatzgräber, das sich Morgens in schwarze Kohlen verwandelte.

K. Reiterer theilt in der Grazer "Tagespost" vom 13. Mai 1897 aus einem alten Buche mit: "Nimm den Stengel vom Beifuss, wenn dieser blüht, und schneide den Zweig möglichst nahe am Boden ab. Am dritten Tage hefte ihn mit einem Stückchen Stahldraht an den First des Hauses, so dass die Spitzen der Pflanze nach abwärts stehen; kein Blitzstrahl wird jemals auf dieses niederfahren, keine Seuche ins Haus einkehren".

11) 1. c. XXVI. 98. Nr. 119/98.


Armoise (Cazin 1868)
Cazin, Traité des plantes médicinales, 1868
Armoise (Cazin 1868)
Nom accepté : Artemisia vulgaris

ARMOISE. Artemisia vulgaris. L.
Artemisia vulgaris, major. Bauh., Tourn. — Artemisia latifolia. Fuchs. Herba regia. Brunf.
Armoise vulgaire, — armoise commune, — herbe de la Saint-Jean, — couronne de Saint-Jean, ceinture de la Saint-Jean, — herbe de feu.
Synanthérées, tribu des Corymbifères. — Syngénésie Polyg. Superf.
Cette plante vivace (Pl. V), herbacée, est très-commune dans tous les lieux incultes. On la rencontre partout, le long des chemins, sur les bords des champs, dans les lieux secs, arides, sur les masures.

Description. — Racine à peu près de la grosseur du doigt, longue, ligneuse, fibreuse, rampante. — Tiges de 1 mètre et plus, droites, fermes, cylindriques, cannelées, rameuses supérieurement, d'un vert blanchâtre, quelquefois rougeâtre, légèrement pubescentes. — Feuilles d'un vert sombre en dessus, blanches et cotonneuses en dessous, alternes, pinnatifides, à folioles lancéolées en haut de la tige, les florales linéaires, pointues. — Fleurs en capitules ovoïdes disposées en épis axillaires, formant une panicule terminale longue et étroite (juillet-septembre) ; chaque capitule se composant d'un involucre oblong à folioles ovales et lomenteuses, imbriquées, et de petits fleurons pâles ou rougeâtres, tubuleux, ceux du centre hermaphrodites, à cinq dents au limbe, ceux de la circonférence presque filiformes ; réceptacle nu. Le reste offrant les caractères de l'absinthe. Les fruits sont des akènes cylindriques, obovales, lisses, terminés par un disque très-étroit.

Parties usitées. — La racine, les feuilles et les sommités.

[Culture.— L'armoise est très-abondante à l'état sauvage, quoiqu'elle vienne partout ; elle préfère cependant les terres légères et les expositions découvertes ; on la multiplie par semis et par division des pieds que l'on pratique au commencement du printemps.]

Récolte. — Elle se fait au mois de juin ou au commencement de juillet, suivant 1 époque de la floraison. Après l'avoir mondée, on en fait des guirlandes et on la porte au séchoir. Les racines exigent des soins pour prévenir la moisissure. La plante récoltée dans les jardins et dans les terrains gras et humides est beaucoup moins active que celle qui se trouve dans les lieux secs, arides, sur les masures.

Propriétés physiques et chimiques. — L'odeur de l'armoise est aromatique; la saveur des feuilles et des tiges est un peu amère; celle de la racine est douce. L'infusion aqueuse de l'herbe récente est rougeâtre; elle noircit par l'addition du sulfate de fer. Sou suc rougit le papier bleu. Cette plante contient, d'après Braconnot, une matière azotée, amère, et de l'huile volatile. L'eau et l'alcool dissolvent ses principes actifs.

Substances incompatibles. — Les sulfates de fer et de zinc.

PRÉPARATIONS PHARMACEUTIQUES ET DOSES.

A L'INTÉRIEUR. — Infusion, de 10 à 30 gr. par kilogramme d'eau bouillante.
  • Infusion vineuse, même dose dans le vin blanc.
  • [82]
  • Eau distillée, de 50 à 100 gr. comme véhicule de potion
  • Huile essentielle, en potion.
  • Sirop simple ou sirop composé, 30 à 60 gr. en potion.
  • Extrait, 2 à 4 gr. en bols, pilules, potion.
  • Poudre (herbe sèche), 2 à 8 gr. en substance, bols, pilules, potion.
  • Poudre (racine), 2 à 4 gr. dans de la bière chaude (épilepsie). (Bresler.)
  • Suc exprimé, 15 à 80 gr.
A L'EXTÉRIEUR. — 60 à 100 gr. par kilogramme d'eau bouillante, pour fumigations, lavements, etc.

L'armoise entre dans la composition de l'eau hystérique ; son suc dans celle des trochisques de myrrhe.
L'armoise est tonique, stimulante, antispasmodique, emménagogue. On l'a employée dans l'hystérie, la chlorose, l'aménorrhée, la chorée, les vomissements spasmodiques, les convulsions des enfants, les névralgies, l'épilepsie, etc.

Les propriétés emménagogues de cette plante ont été préconisées par les médecins de l'antiquité et constatées depuis par tous les praticiens. Hippocrate (1) la regarde comme un remède propre à expulser l'arrière-faix. Dioscoride la prescrit pour provoquer les règles et accélérer l'accouchement. Zacatus Lusitanus a rétabli, au moyen de l'infusion d'armoise, un flux menstruel arrêté depuis dix ans. Demésa (2) a obtenu dans un cas semblable un égal succès.

La décoction d'armoise, dont on dirige la vapeur sur la vulve, est mise en usage pour rappeler les règles et favoriser l'écoulement des lochies. On lui associe quelquefois, dans ce mode d'application, l'absinthe, la matricaire, le souci, le cerfeuil. On administre aussi l'armoise en lavement pour remplir la même indication. J'ai vu des femmes de la campagne appliquer des cataplasmes de feuilles et sommités de cette plante sur le bas-ventre des nouvelles accouchées pour favoriser l'expulsion des caillots sanguins et de l'arrière-faix.

Fernel conseille comme emménagogue un pessaire composé de suc d'armoise et de myrrhe. Nous négligeons trop les pessaires médicamenteux; les anciens les employaient fréquemment et avec avantage.

J'ai employé le suc d'armoise avec succès dans l'aménorrhée ; j'en fais prendre 30 à 80 gram. à jeun pendant les dix jours qui précèdent le molimen utérin ou l'époque habituelle des règles. — Lorsque les malades répugnent à prendre le suc, je leur donne une forte décoction des sommités, tiède, le matin, pendant le même espace de temps. Je pourrais citer un grand nombre d'observations qui constatent l'effet emménagogue de l'armoise ainsi administrée : les limites qui me sont tracées par la nature de mon travail ne me permettent, le plus souvent, qu'une simple mention. — Lorsqu'il y a chlorose, je joins au suc d'armoise la teinture de Mars tartarisée, et je fais prendre ce mélange dans un verre de vin blanc. Ce moyen m'a surtout réussi lorsque la chlorose était accompagnée d'un état d'inertie de la matrice, ce qui a le plus ordinairement lieu. Il serait nuisible si cet organe, comme cela se rencontre quelquefois, était surexcité.

Lorsque par atonie les lochies languissent, je fais prendre l'infusion chaude d'armoise, surtout chez les femmes qui n'allaitent pas. J'ai remarqué que l'écoulement muqueux utérin est plus abondant par l'effet de l'armoise, et que cette dérivation contribue à la diminution de l'afflux du lait dans les mamelles. Une longue pratique comme médecin-accoucheur m'a mis à même de vérifier ce fait un grand nombre de fois. Il est d'ailleurs expliqué par les relations sympathiques qui existent entre deux appareils d'organes qui concourent au même but. C'est par un effet inverse, et en vertu de ces mêmes relations, que les ventouses appliquées aux mamelles font cesser
__________________
(1) De morb. mul.
(2) Mémoires de la Société de médecine de Copenhague.

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une hémorrhagie utérine, et que les lochies se suppriment momentanément pendant la fièvre de lait.
J'ai rappelé une leucorrhée habituelle et dont la suppression avait donné lieu à une toux inquiétante, en faisant prendre à la malade, pendant dix jours, 60 gram. de suc exprimé d'armoise.
Ces faits, ajoutés à tant d'autres, ne permettent point de révoquer en doute l'action spéciale de l'armoise sur l'utérus.
Home a obtenu des résultats avantageux de l'emploi de l'armoise contre l'hystérie ; il donnait des feuilles en poudre à la dose de 4 gram. répétée quatre fois par jour.
Biermann (1) administre contre les convulsions, pendant la première dentition, 2 centigr. et demi de poudre de racine d'armoise mêlée à 25 centigr. de sucre pulvérisé. Cette dose est donnée d'heure en heure. On l'augmente graduellement jusqu'à 10 centigrammes.
L'armoise a été mise en usage dans la chorée, les névralgies, les vomissements nerveux chroniques. A une certaine dose, le suc d'armoise peut lui-même provoquer le vomissement. Je l'ai vu produire cet effet à la dose de 60 gram. chez une femme délicate et nerveuse. Lorsqu'on veut le donner comme altérant, il est bon de commencer par une moindre dose, et de n'augmenter que graduellement.

Matthiole, Tragus, Fernel, Simon Pauli, Joel, Schroeder, Ettmuller, etc. ont recommandé la racine d'armoise comme un remède antiépileptique très- efficace.

Nous trouvons dans Joel :
« Experientia comprobatum est, pridie D. Johannis Baptistæ, sub radicibus artemisiæ evulsæ carbones reperiri, quorum 31. Si in pulvisculum redigatur, et cum aqua stillatitia florum tiliæ aut florum lilior. Convallium ebibenda offeratur, protinus ægrum ab epilepsia liberatum iri. »

Et dans Ettmuller :
« Notum est, quod circa festum santi Johannis Baptistæ sub radice hujus, carbones reperiantur multæ laudis in epilepsia. Hi carbones non sunt fabula uti Hoffmannus voluit, sed nihil aliud est quam radices artemisiæ annosæ demortuæ, quæ in epilepsia revera juvant. »
Burdach (2) cite cinq cas où ce médicament a produit les plus heureux effets ; il a remarqué que ce moyen s'était surtout montré efficace chez des sujets atteintsd'épilepsie pendant une élongation trop rapide. Schoenbeck(3), Graefe (4), Brocx(5), Lœvenhœck (6), Hufeland, Bresler et plusieurs médecins allemands ont publié plusieurs faits tendant à prouver l'utililé de son usage contre les accès épileptiques. Dans la plupart de ces cas, lorsque le remède agissait, il produisait une diaphorèse abondante.
Delwart a obtenu des résultats assez satisfaisants de l'administration de cette plante dans l'épilepsie des animaux domestiques.
Ainsi que l'absinthe, l'armoise a été vantée comme vermifuge. Je ne puis passer sous silence l'opinion de Parkinson qui assure que l'armoise fraîche ou son suc combat les effets de l'opium pris à trop forte dose ??
Wurtzer (7) a obtenu de très-bons effets de la racine d'armoise dans les fièvres intermittentes et les affections spasmodiques des enfants. Le Journal de médecine de la Gironde rapporte que le même moyen a réussi chez un individu qui était affecté à la fois d'épilepsie et de chorée.
______________
(1) Hufeland's Journ., 1804.
(2) Journal complémentaire des sciences médicales, t. XIX, p. 183.
(3) Gazette de santé, 25 juin 1827.
(4) Journal de chirurgie de Walter et Graefe.
(5) Bulletin de Férussac.
(6) Journal de Hufeland.
(7) Revue médicale, t. I, p. 114.

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Les Chinois et les Japonais préparent le moxa avec les sommités et les feuilles desséchées, battues et cardées de l'armoise. Le professeur Ansiaux, de Liège, employait quelquefois ce moxa. [Mais pour quelques auteurs ils emploient l'A. chinensis L., et d'après Lindley ce serait une espèce particu­lière que l'A. moxa.]



Review Molecules. 2020 Sep 25;25(19):4415. doi: 10.3390/molecules25194415.
Significance of Artemisia Vulgaris L. (Common Mugwort) in the History of Medicine and Its Possible Contemporary Applications Substantiated by Phytochemical and Pharmacological Studies
Artemisia vulgaris L. (common mugwort) is a species with great importance in the history of medicine and was called the "mother of herbs" in the Middle Ages. It is a common herbaceous plant that exhibits high morphological and phytochemical variability depending on the location where it occurs. This species is well known almost all over the world. Its herb-Artemisiae vulgaris herba-is used as a raw material due to the presence of essential oil, flavonoids, and sesquiterpenoids lactones and their associated biological activities. The European Pharmacopoeia has listed this species as a potential homeopathic raw material. Moreover, this species has been used in traditional Chinese, Hindu, and European medicine to regulate the functioning of the gastrointestinal system and treat various gynecological diseases. The general aim of this review was to analyze the progress of phytochemical and pharmacological as well as professional scientific studies focusing on A. vulgaris. Thus far, numerous authors have confirmed the beneficial properties of A. vulgaris herb extracts, including their antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antispasmolytic, antinociceptive, estrogenic, cytotoxic, antibacterial, and antifungal effects. In addition, several works have reviewed the use of this species in the production of cosmetics and its role as a valuable spice in the food industry. Furthermore, biotechnological micropropagation of A. vulgaris has been analyzed.



J BUON. Jan-Feb 2018;23(1):73-78.
Herbal extract of Artemisia vulgaris (mugwort) induces antitumor effects in HCT-15 human colon cancer cells via autophagy induction, cell migration suppression and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Guanghui Lian, Fujun Li, Yani Yin, Linlin Chen, Junwen Yang
Purpose: Artemisia vulgaris (A.vulgaris) belonging to family Compositae, commonly known as mugwort, has been used as a medicinal herb in Chinese traditional medicine for treatment of diseases. Studies have reported a diversity of activities for this plant which include antiseptic, antispasmodic, antigastric, anticancer and nervous system diseases. However, the anticancer activity of A.vulgaris in HCT-15 human colon cancer cells has not been scientifically validated. Therefore the present study aimed at evaluating the anticancer activity of methanolic extract of A.vulgaris against HCT-15 human colon cancer cell line.

Methods: Cell cytotoxicity effects of the extract were evaluated by MTT cell viability assay, while clonogenic assay assessed the effects on cancer cell colony formation. Effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were evaluated by flow cytometry. In vitro wound healing assay was used to evaluate the effects on cell migration. To confirm autophagy, we evaluated the expression of several autophagy-associated proteins using Western blot assay.

Results: Results indicated that the methanolic extract of A.vulgaris exhibited an IC50 value of 50 μg/ml and exerted its cytotoxic effects in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, it was observed that the extract inhibits colony formation and induces autophagy dose-dependently. The underlying mechanism for the induction of autophagy was found to be ROS-mediated MMP and significant inhibition of cell migration potential of colon cancer cells at the IC50 was observed.

Conclusion: These results strongly stress that the methanolic extract may prove a source for the isolation of novel anticancer lead molecules for the management of colon cancer. 

Fumigant toxicity of essential oil of Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) against three major stored product beetles Iman Sharifian ,Seyed Mehdi Hashemi &Ali Darvishzade. Application of plants essential oil for the evaluation of their fumigant toxicity and insecticidal properties is the goal of many researches. In this study, aerial parts of Artemisia vulgaris L. were subjected to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus, and the chemical composition of the volatile oils was studied by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Alpha-Pinene (23.56) was the main component of the essential oil. Insecticidal activity of the oil was evaluated against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Rhizopertha dominica (F.) after 24, 48 and 72 h. After 24-h exposure time, C. maculatus was more susceptible (LC50 = 52.47 μl/l air) and T. castaneum was more tolerant (LC50 = 279.86 μl/l air) than other species. LT50 values were indicated using highest concentration of LC50 tests for three species. In general, mortality increased as the doses of essential oil and exposure time increased. These results proposed that A. vulgaris oil might have potential as a control agent against T. castaneum, R. dominica and especially C. maculates in storages.


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