Carbohydrates / Koolhydraten indeling

a. Monosaccharides
i. glucose: human blood sugar, first product of photosynthesis
ii. fructose: fruit sugar; does not trigger insulin release, but is metabolized into fat in th e body & disrupts the function of satiety hormones
iii. arabinose, xylose, galactose, mannose, & rhamnose: generally found as part ofheteropolysaccharides or as sugar units on glycosides
b. Disaccharides
i. sucrose: universal transport sugar in plants; made of glucose + fructose
ii. maltose: comes from the degradation of starch
iii. lactose: milk sugar; not a plant product; important because some people are
c. Oligosaccharides
i. inulins: fructose polymers, part of soluble dietary fiber
ii. inulins are found in Chicory, Dandelion, Burdock, Sunflower (Jerusalem Artichoke) roots; Onions & Garlic6
iii. FOS (fructooligosaccharides) contain various inulins
iv. inulins are prebiotics: food for probiotic organisms; help balance blood sugar & blood lipids; help prevent colon cancer
d. Polysaccharides
i. starch: major dietary energy source; metabolized into glucose; triggers insulin release, raises blood sugar levels
ii. cellulose: indigestible; serves as insoluble dietary fiber (roughage)
iii. gums, pectins, mucilages are water-soluble heteropolysaccharides; emollient, soothing, cooling, healing to skin & mucous membranes
iv. mucilaginous herbs: Marshmallow, Comfrey, Flaxseed, Borage
v. immunomodulating polysaccharides
1. arabinogalactans found in Echinacea spp.
2. beta-1,3-glucans found in tonic mushrooms (Reishi, Maitake, Shiitake) & brewer’s yeast
3. many adaptogens contain immunomodulating polysaccharides: Eleuthero, Ginseng, Baptisia, Calendula
e. Organic acids
i. the organic acids are derived directly from carbohydrates & include such compounds as the fruit acids (e.g., citric acid, malic acid) & other acids including formic acid, oxalic acid, & ascorbic acid (vitamin C) …

The Chemistry of Medicinal Plants Lisa Ganora