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Lyme disease

Kruiden tegen Lyme: kort overzicht

In de verschillende protocollen wordt gebruik gemaakt van in elk geval een aantal van de volgende kruiden: 
  • Kattenklauw (Uncaria tomentosa) vanwege algemene effecten op het afweersysteem 
  • Japanse duizendknoop (Reynoutria japonica) ook vanwege algemene effecten op het afweersysteem 
  • Zomeralsem (Artemisia annua) vanwege antibiotische werking 
  • Bitterkoning (Andrographis paniculata) ook vanwege antibiotische werking 
  • Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) vanwege specifieke anti-Borrelia-werking (vastgesteld in laboratorium; nog niet onderzocht op werking in de praktijk bij Lyme-patiënten) 
  • Grote kaardebol (Dipsacus fullonum) ook vanwege specifieke anti-Borrelia-werking 
Belangrijk is om in overleg te gaan met een behandelaar met kennis van zaken en ervaring met Lyme. Hou er ook rekening mee dat een protocol minstens drie maanden gevolgd moet worden voordat je enig resultaat kan verwachten. Vervolgens moet er zeker acht tot twaalf maanden doorbehandeld worden. Doordat de behandeling zo lang duurt, haken veel patiënten voortijdig af. Doorzetten blijkt hier toch het beste devies. Pilotstudies en vele casestudies laten zien dat een langdurig behandelplan in de meeste gevallen tot verbetering leidt. 

Lees meer over de protocollen en kruiden tegen Lyme in het Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Fytotherapie. 

Herbs for Lyme.
Herbs used in the treatment of Lyme disease fall into three general categories:
  • Herbs to Support the Immune System: These herbs help the body’s natural response in its battle against Lyme disease spirochetes. 
  • Herbs With Antimicrobial Actions: In both Western and Eastern medicinal practice, these herbs have been found to have antibiotic as well as antibacterial qualities.
  • Herbs to Support Lymphatic Drainage and the Liver:  In essence, herbs that support lymphatic drainage and the liver help to clean the house (the body), by eliminating waste toxic matter.
Astragalus (Astragalus membranaceous)
Traditional Chinese herbal medicine practitioners have used Astragalus for thousands of years to increase energy and strengthen resistance to disease. Astragalus not only stimulates the immune system to work more efficiently but it has been shown to have an “adaptogenic” quality; that is, it demonstrates a nonspecific enhancement of the body’s ability to resist a stressor. Astragalus works by balancing an individualʼs immune response: it can stimulate the immune system when needed, but it can also calm an over-reactive immune response, a quality that is critical in the case of an autoimmune disease. Astragalus is one of my favorite herbs; I use it to help prevent disease as well as to muster a strong response against bacterial or viral invasions.
Astragalus is safe enough for infants and to take during pregnancy.Of course, if you are pregnant, always consult a health care practitioner first. In vitro studies, largely conducted in China, indicate that astragalus increases natural killer-cell activity and can enhance the functions of the spleen and the thymus, both producers of immune cells. (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Web site. Astragalus. June 7, 2010. – mskcc.org.) In treating Lyme disease, astragalus additionally supports digestion and mental functioning, helping to resolve typical Lyme disease symptoms such as “brain fog,” memory impairment, and fatigue.

Japanese Knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum)
Japanese knotweed has been in the armament of Chinese and Japanese herbal traditions for thousands of years. Traditional Chinese Medicine has used it as a blood­moving herb, to resolve inflammation, stagnation, and poor circulation and also as a supportive herb to counter debility and immune fatigue. It is also considered to be an herb that slows down the aging process (together with its relative Polygonum multiflorum, also known as Fo Ti and Shou Wu).
Western medicine learned of and began using many of Japanese knotweedʼs features. It is typically the source in the U.S. of resveratrol, which, unlike any other sources of resveratrol, contains both cis­resveratrol and trans­resveratrol. Preliminary findings in vitro have indicated that resveratrol has beneficial actions in reducing the incidence of cardiovascular disease and elevated LDL­cholesterol, and the risk of cancer. (Resveratrol – powerful and natural anti-oxidant helps to combat heart disease, cancer whilst providing excellent anti-aging properties. – health-report.co.uk.)
Japanese knotweed like astragalus has an adaptogenic or immune-balancing quality, which makes this an effective ally in balancing the body’s immune responses; it can stimulate immune cells, as in Lyme disease, or modulate them, as in an autoimmune disease. This herb is particularly helpful for Lyme disease because of its ability to effectively cross the blood-brain barrier, and address the myriad central nervous system symptoms associated with chronic Lyme disease. By supporting the blood flow to difficult-to-reach regions of the body, Japanese knotweedʼs antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory actions can reach the eyes, joints, and brain. The whole plant, except for the root, is used for the treatment of Lyme disease.
Japanese knotweed is considered to be a safe herb, but it should be avoided during pregnancy. In large doses it can cause gastrointestinal symptoms, such as diarrhea or abdominal pain. The concentrated roots contain emodin, which is used as a laxative.

Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica)
To me, nettle is the most nourishing tonic herb in the Western world. It is so rich in nutrients, particularly iron and Vitamin C, that it could be considered a complete food. Growing as an invasive weed, it seems to suck the nutrients from the soil to itself, thereby benefiting those who use it. A general tonic and immune-enhancing herb, nettle has been used to support the kidney function and has been shown to improve symptoms of prostate enlargement. (Lopatkin NA, Sivkov AV, Medvedev AA. [Combined extract of Sabal palm and nettle in the treatment of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms in double blind, placebo-controlled trial]. Urologiia. 2006;2:12,14-19.)
For hundreds of years, in numerous countries and cultures, nettle has been used to treat arthritis and gout, as well as skin conditions, including rashes, eczema, and psoriasis. In the tenth century, nettle was one of Wodenʼs nine sacred herbs included in the Anglo Saxon Nine Herbs Charm against nine venoms.
Recent research in Germany and England supports nettleʼs reputation as a premier anti­ inflammatory herbal medicine by determining that nettle reduces inflammatory cytokines. Nettleʼs use as an ally in the treatment of arthritis has been bolstered by studies showing nettleʼs ability to deal with inflammation in the joints,as well as to help repair and rebuild the joint structures. (Schulze-Tanzil G, de SP, Behnke B, Klingelhoefer S, Scheid A, Shakibaei M. Effects of the antirheumatic remedy hox alpha–a new stinging nettle leaf extract–on matrix metalloproteinases in human chondrocytes in vitro. Histol Histopathol. 2002;17:477-85.)
Today, likely because of its anti-inflammatory properties, nettle is mainly used for countering allergic reactions, particularly hay fever. One in vitro study concluded that “bioactives have been identified in nettle that contribute to the inhibition of pro-inflammatory pathways related to allergic rhinitis. These results provide for the first time, a mechanistic understanding of the role of nettle extracts in reducing allergic and other inflammatory responses in vitro.” (Roschek B Jr, Fink RC, McMichael M, Alberte RS; HerbalScience Group LLC. Stinging nettle extract urtica dioica affects key receptors and enzymes associated with allergic rhinitis. 
Phytother Res. 2009;23:920-926.)
For Lyme disease, nettle plays an important role in nourishing our constitution and immune system, and also for its broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory qualities.

Rosavin (Siberian rhodiola rosea), also called golden root, Aaron’s rod, and arctic root
Rhodiola rosea is mostly known as a mood stabilizer and for its adaptogenic property. It seems to be equally effective in the treatment of anxiety and depression, believed to result from its action in balancing the neurotransmitters.
Rhodiola rosea has been used for centuries in Russia and Scandinavia for its stress-reducing qualities. Like Siberian ginseng, it has a balancing effect on the adrenal gland. As I have observed in my clinical practice, when taken regularly, Rosavin is very effective in overcoming fatigue and reinstating mental clarity, helping individuals to mentally focus and resolve the “brain fog” so often associated with Lyme disease.

Cat’s Claw (Uncaria tomentosa), also known as Uña de Gato
Cat’s claw, a woody vine that grows wild in the Amazon rainforest, has been used for centuries in South America to treat and prevent disease. Its use dates back to the Inca civilization for treatment of a variety of debilitating diseases including inflammatory conditions such as arthritis, infections of the genitourinary tract and skin, digestive complaints, gastric ulcers, and asthma. The Asháninka Indian priests in Perú used Catʼs claw to regulate disturbances between a personʼs body and spirit.
As an immune­protective agent, Catʼs claw may be useful for arthritic and joint pain, inflammation, and hypersensitivity associated with Lyme disease. Cat’s Claw has been also shown to have multiple anti­microbial qualities making it a valuable ally in dealing with Lyme disease.
Laboratory research with animals suggests that Catʼs claw stimulates part of the immune system and has anti-inflammatory actions; has antitumor properties; greatly stimulates interleukin 1 (IL-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6); and pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids (as opposed to tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids) from Catʼs claw induce cells to regulate lymphocyte proliferation. (Wurm M, Kacani L, Laus G, Keplinger K, Dierich MP. Pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria tomentosa induce human endothelial cells to release a lymphocyte-proliferation-regulating factor. Planta Med. 1998;64:701-704; Sandoval Chacón M, Thompson JH, Zhang XJ, et al. Antiinflammatory actions of catʼs claw: the role of NF kappaB. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1998;12:1279-1289; Sheng Y, Pero RW, Amiri A, Bryngelsson C. Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in human tumor cells treated with extracts of Uncaria tomentosa. Anticancer Res. 1998;18:3363-3368; Lemaire I. Assinewe V, Cano P, Awang DV, Arnason JT. Stimulation of interleukin-1 and -6 production in alveolar macrophages by the neotropical liana, Uncaria tomentosa (uña de gato). J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;64:109-115.)
The side effects of Samento can include digestive upset. This herb is contraindicated for pregnant or lactating women and for individuals taking blood-thinning medications.

Siberian Ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus)
Siberian ginseng has been possibly the most studied herb in the world. Developed by Soviet researchers, most of the trials of Siberian ginseng took place in the former Soviet Union on military personnel, athletes, even towns, factory workers, schools, and hospitals, with the aim of improving work output and reducing absences because of illnesses. In 1947, a Russian scientist, N.V. Lazarev,  coined the word “adaptogen.” He was interested in looking for drugs that helped the body adapt to physical and emotional stress. It was found that groups taking this herb demonstrated a balancing effect on the adrenal glands in an idiosyncratic way: if the adrenals were depleted, this herbal preparation increased the adrenal functions, whereas if the adrenals were overstimulated and pumping out adrenal uncontrollably, the herb seemed to slow them down. This balancing action came thereafter to be called “adaptogenic”; since then, we have discovered a number of additional adaptogenic herbs, such as hawthorn for cardiac functions, and chaste berry for gynecological functions.
Siberian ginseng, from the Eleuthero root, is, in essence, not ginseng; ginseng refers properly only to the American and Panax species. Eleuthero has been used as a tonic and immune- enhancing herb for thousands of years in China and Russia. It has also been used to improve mental functioning and enhance both mental and physical performance, and may be effective in improving certain viral infections and the common cold.
In my practice, I find this herb very beneficial for Lyme disease, not only for its immune support, but just as importantly for its stress-balancing qualities and its ability to resolve many of the mental and cognitive symptoms associated with Lyme disease—“mental fog,” inability to focus, insomnia, and generalized anxiety. By supporting the adrenals, Siberian ginseng may be the best herb to help us deal effectively with stress.

Teasel Root (Dipsacus sylvestris)
Teasel root has been used for centuries in Traditional Chinese Medicine. It has been considered a superior herb to support and nourish the Kidney and Liver, promote circulation, and resolve obstructions. Consequently, dipsacus has been used specifically for low back pain and joint problems (low back, knee pain and swelling indicate a depleted Kidney energy).
Because Lyme disease spirochetes attack and penetrate into collagen tissue, affecting the joints and tendons throughout the body, teasel root seems to fit right in. Matthew Wood, a Registered Herbalist and well-known lecturer, is the first herbalist I know of who recommended Teasel for Lyme disease, and the buzz has spread. According to Wood, teasel, rather than killing the bacteria, changes the bodyʼs environment, so that the body itself can kill off the Lyme bacteria by bringing the bacteria into the bloodstream, where it can detoxify.  (Lyme Disease Research Database Web site. March 6, 2010.- lyme-disease-research-database.com.) Other Lyme disease blogs are filled with testimonials about teasel and how it brings relief from Lymeʼs painful symptoms.
As Teasel root tincture is exceptionally powerful, many people with Lyme disease have reported experiencing what is called a “Herxheimer Reaction” after taking it. In fact, only a few drops of the tincture can cause a reaction. The Herxheimer phenomenon, first described by two European dermatologists, Adolf Jarisch and Karl Herxheimer, is the immune systemʼs reaction to the toxins released when the pathogens are killed off and are not eliminated from the body quickly enough. In other words, the “Herx” reaction occurs when the body is detoxifying and killing the spirochetes. Although it may be distressing, the Herx Reaction is a sign that the spirochetes are dying off and healing is taking place.
In my practice I follow Matthew Woodʼs protocol of using very small doses of teasel at the start and gradually increasing the dosage. Begin with 1 drop, twice daily, and gradually increase the dosage to about 15 drops, twice daily.

Precaution: All of the antimicrobial herbs listed here are contraindicated in pregnancy, unless used under the supervision of a qualified health care provider. The whole herb is usually safe over long periods of time, but if digestive symptoms occur, discontinue use, and the symptoms usually will resolve quickly.

Sweet Wormwood (Artemisia annua), also called Chinese wormwood and Qing Hao
Traditional Chinese Medicine has used sweet wormwood for over 2,000 years to treat fevers, inflammations, and bacterial infections, particularly malaria and other parasites. Artemisinin, a naturally occurring component of sweet wormwood, is a potent antimalarial and is considered to be about 90% effective in curing uncomplicated malaria. However, in 2006, the World Health Organizationʼs Global Malaria Programme issued an ultimatum to the pharmaceutical industry to phase out artemisinin as a monotherapy against malaria, because malaria parasites were becoming resistant to artemisinin as a single oral drug. WHO recommended using instead artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs). (Rehwagen C. WHO ultimatum on artemisinin monotherapy is showing results. BMJ. 2006;332:1176.)
Artemisinin was isolated from sweet wormwood by Chinese scientists in the 1970s; since then both Western and Eastern medicine have shown sharpened interest in studying artemisininʼs effects in treating other conditions, in particular various types of cancer. One NIH study analyzed 55 cell lines of artesunate, a derivative of artemisinin, and showed that it has anticancer activities against cell lines of leukemia; colon cancer; melanoma; breast, ovarian, renal, prostate, and central nervous system cancer. (Efferth T, Dunstan H, Sauerbrey A, Miyachi H, Chitambar CR. The anti-malarial artesunate is also active against cancer. Int J Oncol. 2001;18:767-773.)
An ever-growing amount of Western and Eastern research has concentrated on the potential for artemisinin and its derivatives, as a source of naturally occurring anticancer mechanisms, for inhibiting the growth of prostate, lung, cervical, and thyroid cancer cells, and for use as cancer chemotherapy that is nontoxic to normal human cells. (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Web site. Artemisia annua. May 11, 2011. – mskcc.org  Willoughby JA Sr, Sundar SN, Cheung M, et al. Artemisinin blocks prostate cancer growth and cell cycle progression by disrupting Sp1 interactions with the cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (CDK4) promoter and inhibiting CDK4 gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:2203-2213; Paik IH, Xie S, Shapiro TA, et al. Second generation, orally active, antimalarial, artemisinin-derived trioxane dimers with high stability, efficacy, and anticancer activity. J Med Chem. 2006;49:2731-2734; Zhai DD, Supaibulwatana K, Zhong JJ. Inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in human lung carcinoma 95-D cells by a new sesquiterpene from hairy roots of Artemisia annua. Phytomedicine. 2010;17:856-861; Disbrow GL, Baege AC, Kierpiec KA, et al. Dihydroartemisinin is cytotoxic to papillomavirus-expressing epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Res. 2005;65:10854-10861.)
Although sweet wormwoodʼs constituent, artemisinin, is felt to be the chemically active ingredient as an antimicrobial, the whole plant (which contains numerous other components) seems to be therapeutically effective, without the side effects often reported when taking artemisinin by itself. Sweet wormwood with its broad spectrum of antimicrobial actions is a targeted herb in the treatment of Lyme disease. As Stephen Harrod Buhner states, “The herb is exceptionally potent in that it spreads quickly throughout the body and it easily crosses the blood/brain barrier. Because it infuses the blood, it is carried throughout the body to every cell, all of which need blood to live.” (Healing Lyme: Natural Healing and Prevention of Lyme Borreliosis and Its Coinfections. Silver City, NM: Raven Press; 2005:183.)

Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium), also known as common wormwood
Wormwood, like its Asian brother, Sweet Wormwood, has been used throughout the ages for its anti-­parasitic actions: hence, the name, Wormwood. The oil of wormwood which carries a characteristic smell, has been used in Europe and America as a foliage spray against pests and from anecdotal evidence it keeps mosquitoes at bay.
Wormwoodʼs bitter qualities have been used as an ingredient in apératif bitters which act to support digestion and liver functions. It is an ingredient in the spirit absinthe that derives its name from the plant Artemisia absinthium. As a medicinal herb, it works as a tonic to promote good digestion, alleviate an upset stomach, and guard against intestinal invasions by bacteria or parasites.
It’s antiseptic and antibiotic actions were demonstrated in a recent study which showed its action against gram­positive pathogenic bacteria. Although not s studied in its specific effects against Lyme disease, in my practice I find that a small quantity of both artemisia species is beneficial, with very few incidents of side effects.

Michael Tierra‎ aan East West School—Study with Michael and Lesley Tierra
21 januari 2013 · 
Regarding the use of Teasel extract for Lyme disease: i have reviewed enough people pro and con regarding its possible benefit and I agree with my respected colleagues that there is little evidence that teasel does anything to "cure" Lyme Disease. Promoting it as such is dangerous because it is likely to cause someone to ignore the demonstrable benefit of antibiotics which is only effective in the early stage of Lyme disease. Few studies exist but here's one that is interesting:Pharmazie. 2011 Aug;66(8):628-30.
Growth inhibiting activity of lipophilic extracts from Dipsacus sylvestris Huds. roots against Borrelia burgdorferi s. s. in vitro.
Liebold T, Straubinger RK, Rauwald HW
As for the many people who claim to be "cured" using Teasel or some other herbal protocol, please be aware of the fact that Lyme is a remitting disease. The spirochette bacteria tends to change shape and form, go dormant for periods of time only to reemerge again. So one woman, Lady Barba on You Tube and her website claims cures and has over 16500 viewers on You tube. She claims to have contracted the disease anew some 8 times and cured herself each time with Teasel extract. Remember such sites seldom report failures but herbalists hear about numerous people who have taken teasel extract and received no benefit from it whatsoever.
When people say they cured it, I think in more cases than not, the disease has only retreated to a period of limited dormancy. Having said this, I would love to hear of anyone who successfully cured Lyme disease with Teasel or any other natural, non-antibiotic treatment. This is something i don't mind being proven wrong.

Stephen Buhner is de pionier op het gebied van Lyme-protocollen. Zijn kennis is door anderen overgenomen, uitgewerkt en aangevuld. Het kernprotocol bestaat uit Reynoutria japonica, Uncaria  tormentosa  en  Andrographis paniculata. Daarnaast schrijft hij per co-infectie aparte kruiden voor. Ook geeft hij een overzicht van symptoombestrijdende kruiden.
Om een goed op maat gemaakt protocol op te stellen, dient men te weten welke co-infecties de patiënt meedraagt. Daarnaast heeft
men gedegen kennis nodig van de verschillende antibiotische kruiden. Via Buhners website is veel informatie terug te vinden [1].
De informatie is omvangrijk, maar overzichtelijk gepresenteerd. Buhner biedt geen kant-en-klare kruidenpakketten aan. Men zal dus zelf moeten uitzoeken welke kruiden van goede kwaliteit en waar te koop zijn. 

Het Cowden-protocol wordt aangeboden door de firma Nutramedix. Het is na het Buhner-protocol een van de oudste Lyme-protocollen. Het bestaat uit acht extracten van antibiotische en ontgiftende kruiden. Daarnaast bevat het zeoliet om zware metalen te binden en het supplement magnesiummalaat. Veel Lyme-patiënten hebben namelijk in meer of mindere mate last van een zware metalenvergiftiging en een tekort aan magnesium.
De belangrijkste tincturen van het Cowden-protocol zijn Uncaria tomentosa, Otoba parvifolia  en Desmodium molliculum (merknamen
 Samento, Banderol en Burbur). Deze drie extracten vormen het kernprotocol. Samento en Banderol zouden samen een synergetische werking hebben wat betreft hun Borrelia-dodende werking. Nutramedix heeft deze claim onderbouwd met een in vitro-studie. Deze studie is overigens niet gepubliceerd, maar wel door bekende Lyme-wetenschapper dr. Sapi uitgevoerd [2].
De vraag is natuurlijk of deze synergetische werking ook in het lichaam plaatsvindt. Zoals eerder uitgelegd, is de Borrelia-bacterie in staat om een biofilm te vormen. Daarnaast bevindt de bacterie zich diep in de weefsels en hersenen. Of alle bioactieve stoffen de
bacterie kunnen bereiken blijft daarom de vraag.

Dr. Horowitz (arts International Lyme and Associated Disease Society) heeft een pilotstudie uitgevoerd waarin hij onderzocht in hoeverre het volledige en het kernprotocol van Cowden effectief was. Hij beweert dat wanneer het volledige protocol wordt gevolgd, er een succesfactor is van 70%. Wanneer gestopt wordt met de behandeling, komen helaas bij 30% van de behandelde Lyme-patiënten de klachten terug. Het kernprotocol met alleen Samento, Banderol en Burbur is volgens hem duidelijk minder succesvol [3]. Veertig procent ervaart dus vooruitgang en dat is
geen slecht resultaat voor een Lyme-protocol. Wanneer het protocol echter wordt aangevuld met kruiden van het Buhner-protocol,
zoals Andrographis  paniculata,  Reynoutria japonica, Smilax glauca en Stephania-wortel (S. tetrandra of S. cephalantha) zijn de
resultaten nog beter. Dit komt omdat dan de co-infecties effectiever bestreden worden [3].

Volgens Horowitz schijnen sommige Lyme-patiënten beter te reageren op het Cowden-protocol dan op antibiotica. Omdat dr. Horowitz onafhankelijk is, is dit een redelijk betrouwbare bron en kunnen zijn bevindingen worden beschouwd als een vraag om meer onderzoek.
Een nadeel van het Cowden-protocol is dat er weinig rekening wordt gehouden met de verschillen tussen Lyme-patiënten.
Iedere Lyme-patiënt is immers belast met een eigen set co-infecties en de kruiden zijn vooral gericht tegen de Borrelia-bacterie en
daarnaast ondersteunen zij het ontgiften van het lichaam. Daarom is het raadzaam het protocol met Buhner-kruiden aan te vullen om
zo de co-infecties aan te pakken. 

REFERENTIES | [1] www.buhnerhealinglyme.com [2] Datar A, Kaur N, Patel S, David LF, Sapi E. In vitro effectiviness of samento and Banderol herbal extracts on the different morphological forms of Borrelia Burgdorferi. Lyme disease research group (Niet in een peer reviewed journal gepubliceerd) Zie: www.newhaven.edu/82773.pdf [3] Horowitz R. Why can’t I get better? New York: 2013, eerste druk, pag. 259. [4] www.samento.com. ec/sciencelib/sarticles/toascirev.pdf [5] Cowden WL, Romero L, Vandergriff J, Moayad H. Pilot Study of pentacyclic alkaloid-chemotype of Uncaria tomentosa for the treatment of Lyme disease. The International Symposium for Natural Treatment of Intracellular Micro Organism; 2003. [6] Effective treatment of Lyme borreliosis with pentacyclic alkaloid Uncaria tomentosa (TOA-free Cat’s Claw (plaats, datum en naam wetenschapper staan niet op het artikel: kortom dit is niet gepubliceerd, maar wordt wel door Nutramedix gebruikt als ‘bewijs’). [7] Buhner S. Healing Lyme. Silver City: 2005 eerste druk, pagina 100. [8] Meriläinen L, Brander H, Herranen A, Schwarzbach A, Gilbert L. Pleomorphic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi induce distinct immune responses. Microbes Infect 2016;18(7-8):484-495. [9] Meriläinen L, Herranen A, Schwarzbach A, Gilbert L. Morphological and biochemical features of Borrelia burgdorferi pleomorphic forms. Microbiol 2015;161(3):516-527. [10] Gilbert L, Meriläinen L. Scientific study into the effectiveness of the Lyme Plus Protocol. University of Jyväskylä Finland. Is niet uitgegeven, artikel kan gevonden worden op: www.makewell.de/study [1] Theophilus PAS, Victoria MJ, Socarras KM, Filush KR, Gupta K, Luecke DF, Sapi E. Effectiveness of Stevia Rebaudiana whole leaf extract against the various morphological forms of Borrelia burgdorferi in vitro. Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp) 2015;5(4):268-280.

Normaal bevat kattenklauw (Uncaria tomentosa) twee bioactieve stofgroepen: tetracyclische oxindole alkaloïden en pentacyclische oxindole
alkaloïden. Deze worden afgekort als TOA’s en POA’s. De POA’s zouden een heilzame werking hebben, maar de TOA’s zouden volgens de firma
Nutramedix de effectiviteit juist belemmeren. Daarom biedt de firma een duur gepatenteerd TOAvrij kattenklauwextract aan, dat Samento heet.
Er bestaat echter geen overtuigend wetenschappelijk bewijs dat de claim onderbouwt. Nutramedixbeweert overigens dit bewijs wel te hebben. Via
een pdf op internet verwijzen zij naar enkele studies [4]. Slechts twee van deze studies gaan specifiek over Lyme. Het betreft zeer kleine pilotstudies, waarin geen controlegroep is opgenomen die een normaal kattenklauwextract kreeg toegediend [5, 6]. Daardoor is niet duidelijk of de heilzame effecten
door het afwezig zijn van de TOA’s groter waren. De
resultaten van beide studies zijn bovendien niet in
een wetenschappelijk tijdschrift gepubliceerd.
Volgens Buhner zouden de TOA’s juist een immuunsysteemversterkende
werking hebben en wordt
kattenklauw al vele eeuwenlang succesvol ingezet
tegen spirocheetinfecties. Hij ziet daarom niet wat
de meerwaarde is van het verwijderen van de TOA’s
[7]. Dit betekent niet dat Samento een slecht product
is. De vraag is alleen of een goedkoper kattenklauwextract
met TOA’s niet evengoed werkt. 

Goc, A., Niedzwiecki, A. and Rath, M. (2015), In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of phytochemicals and micronutrients
against Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia garinii. J Appl Microbiol, 119: 1

Tijdens de zoektocht naar een effectieve behandeling tegen de ziekte van Lyme hebben we 45 natuurlijke stoffen getest op twee soorten
Borrelia, in alle voorkomende vormen: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (de soort die in de VS de ziekte van Lyme veroorzaakt) en Borrelia
garinii (de soort die in Europa de ziekte van Lyme veroorzaakt). De resultaten tonenaan dat alle geteste stoffen de bacteriële groei van spirocheten afremden. De meest effectieve stoffen die de dood van latente ronde vormen van Borrelia veroorzaakten, waren cis-2-deceenzuur, rozemarijnzuur, baicaleïne, monolaurine, luteoline en zeewier (jodium).
Vijf van deze stoffen, baicaleïne, luteoline, monolaurine, cis-2-deceenzuur en zeewier (jodium), wisten tevens biofilm-achtige kolonies,
gevormd door Borrelia burgdorferi, te verkleinen, terwijl uitsluitend baicaleïne en monolaurine de biofilm-vorm van Borrelia garinii wisten te verkleinen. De details van ons onderzoek kunt u nalezen in onze publicatie in het Journal of Applied Microbiology 2015.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi?DOI=10. 1111/jam.12970
Nieuwe wetenschappelijke ontdekkingen bij de ziekte van Lyme Feit — gezondheid is een kwestie van vertrouwen — uitgave 56 | 02-2016
Art.-Nr. 6556 Deze informatie wordt u aangeboden door het Dr. Rath Research Institute. Dit instituut staat onder leiding van voormalige collega’s van de tweemaal Nobel prijswinnaar Linus Pauling († 1994) en is toonaangevend op het gebied van het onderzoek naar kanker, cardiovasculaire en andere veel voorkomende aandoeningen. Het onderzoeksinstituut wordt voor 100% gesubsidieerd door de non-profit organisatie Dr. Rath Foundation.

A few antimicrobial compounds (i.e. mainly synthetic antibiotics) have been scientifically examined against Borrelia sp. (Brorson and Brorson 2006; Brorson et al. 2009; Sapi et al. 2011; Kadam et al. 2014). To date, there are several FDA‐approved antibiotic‐related treatments used as a primary approach (guideline) for patients (Klempner et al. 2013; Cameron et al. 2014; Shapiro 2014). For early stages of Lyme disease, administration of doxycycline is generally the first choice; however, this antibiotic cannot be taken by children and pregnant or breastfeeding women (Loewen et al. 1999; Hansmann 2009). Other alternatives include amoxicillin, and cefuroxime (Loewen et al. 1999; Stricker et al. 2004; Larkin 2008; Hansmann 2009; Shapiro 2014), and for late stages of the disease ceftriaxone or cefotaxime (Maraspin et al. 2011; Delong et al. 2012) are administrated. Unfortunately, continued antibiotic treatment is not recommended as its long‐term effectiveness has not been observed or proven (Delong et al. 2012; Stanek et al. 2012). The increasing trend with new and relapsing Lyme disease cases was noted and attributed mainly to inadequate prevention, ineffective therapy and/or bacterial persistency (Straubinger et al. 1997; Bockenstedt et al. 2002; Peltomaa et al. 2003; Hodzic et al. 2008; Feng et al. 2014).

The efficacy of natural plant‐derived chemicals and micronutrients, including a variety of essential oils, vitamins, and plant metabolites, as anti‐borreliaea agents is still not well known. (Zhang et al. 2013; Morrison and Hergenrother 2014). To date, only a few plant metabolites have undergone extensive scientific evaluation for antimicrobial activity against Borrelia sp., e.g. grape seed extract and teasel root extract (Brorson and Brorson 2007; Liebold et al. 2011). There is an enormous potential in exploring anti‐borreliae properties of natural substances as they are generally ascribed as safe with promising outcomes, and they might be effective as a substitution or adjunct treatment to the standard antibiotic based therapies (Patil and Saraogi 2014; Takeuchi et al. 2014).

In this study, we tested the efficacy of 15 phytochemicals and micronutrients against different forms of B. burgdorferi and B. garinii (i.e. spirochetes, rounded forms and biofilm). These compounds were selected from naturally occurring (nonsynthetic) and plant‐derived substances with potential anti‐bacterial properties that have not yet been scientifically evaluated against Borrelia sp. Also, the selection was limited to compounds with validated safety in in vivo studies and with chemical structure suggesting effectiveness against all morphological forms of Borrrelia sp. To our knowledge this is the first attempt to provide such a comprehensive evaluation of naturally occurring compounds against Borrelia sp., which could advance our knowledge about their antibacterial properties, and help in the development of new approaches or improve already existing treatments for Lyme disease.

........Baicalein, another compound tested in our study, belongs to flavonoids with phenolic groups in their structure. Yun, et al., have indicated that baicalein's antibacterial activity against Staph. aureus may include increasing penetrability of bacterial membranes, inhibiting protein synthesis and affecting activities of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and DNA topoisomerase I and II (Yun et al. 2012). Others have demonstrated that baicalein could reverse the ciprofloxacin resistance of methicillin‐resistant Staph. aureus by possibly causing ATP deficiency (Chan et al. 2011). It can act either alone (at a concentration of 256 μg ml−1) or synergistically (at a concentration of 32 μg ml−1) with gentamicin against vancomycin‐resistant Enterococcus isolates (Chang et al. 2007). In addition, Moghaddam et al., noticed that baicalein had no cytotoxic effect on Vero cells up to 62 μg ml−1, and at 125–250 μg ml−1, it decreased the survival of these cells by 20–25% (Moghaddam et al. 2014). In additionWang et al. (2014), observed no effect of baicalein below 100 μmol l−1 on the viability of HeLa cells.

One of the best antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral agents still considered is iodine, due to its rapid penetration of phospholipid membranes and its oxidative damage to bacterial proteins, nucleotides and fatty acids (McDonnell and Russell 1999). Iodine is also reported as a relatively safe compound (York et al. 1988; Slots 2002). The study of Wichelhaus, et al., has shown the antibacterial effects of povidone‐iodine at concentrations between 1–10% against highly resistant Gram‐positive bacteria (Wichelhaus et al. 1998). Soares, et al., established the MICs for povidone‐iodine against dermatophytes isolated from patients with tinea pedis that ranged from 4 to 128 μg ml−1 (Soares and Cury 2001). In addition, Kaspar, et al. reported that a povidone‐iodine concentration below 0·2% had no significant effect on proteoglycan and DNA synthesis of chondrocytes as well as viability and proliferation of BALB3T3 fibroblasts (Kaspar et al. 2006).

The anti-borreliae efficacy of phytochemicals and micronutrients: an update
Anna Goc, Matthias RathFirst Published July 4, 2016 review-article

Naturally occurring substances have been used for centuries to fight against various pathogens. They serve as a source for new chemical entities or provide options to already existing therapeutics. While there is an increasing interest in studying antimicrobial properties of naturally derived agents, little is known about their effects against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative pathogens of Lyme disease. A better understanding of this aspect could advance knowledge about pathophysiology of these bacteria and help improve the efficacy of current approaches against Lyme disease. Here, we review all naturally occurring substances scientifically evaluated to date, including plant extracts, their metabolites, and micronutrients, against vegetative (spirochetes) and latent (rounded bodies, biofilm) forms of Borrelia sp. This summary reveals the potent anti-borreliae activity of several of these natural compounds indicating their potential in enhancing the efficacy of current treatments for Lyme disease, and offering new options to already existing therapeutic regiments.


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