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GANODERMA/REISHI REFERENCES/RESEARCH

Ganoderma Lucidum (English),    Reishi(Japanese),     Lingzhi (Chinese)

*Anti-tumor and immunoregulatory activities of Ganoderma lucidum / Reishi and its possible mechanisms. ( Lin ZB, Zhang HN) Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center,Beijing, China. Abstract: Ganoderma lucidum (G lucidum) is a medicinal fungus with a variety of biological activities. It has long been used as a folk remedy for promotion of health and longevity in China and other oriental countries. The most attractive character of this kind of medicinal fungus is its immunomodulatory and anti-tumor activities. Large numbers of studies have shown that G lucidum modulate many components of the immune system such as the antigen-presenting cells, NK cells, T and B lymphocytes. The water extract and the polysaccharides fraction of Ganoderma lucidum exhibited significant anti-tumor effect in several tumor-bearing animals mainly through its immunoenhancing activity. Recent studies also showed that the alcohol extract or the triterpene fraction of G lucidum possessed anti-tumor effect, which seemed to be related to the cytotoxic activity against tumor cells directly. Preliminary study indicated that antiangiogenic effect may be involved antitumor activity of G lucidum. 

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*The Actions of Reishi Polysaccharides
Ganoderma lucidum / Reishi is officially listed as a substance for treating cancer by the Japanese government.
In comparison to its other properties, Reishi has received the most attention as a source of anti-tumor activity. This action is due to immunostimulating polysaccharides, particularly those known as Beta-D-Glucans.
Dr. Fukumi Morishige, M.D., Dr. Med. Sci., Ph.D., a former heart surgeon and cancer surgeon, did extensive research on the action of Reishi on the immune system. He gave two groups of patients Reishi extracts. In those patients who had shown high readings of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgE, IgM), their counts had lowered, while those who previously had low counts now showed the same antibodies in higher counts.
In 1979, researchers in Poland found that an RNA from Reishi disrupts viral diseases by inducing the production of interferon. This RNA was found in the fruit body of Reishi and in higher levels in the mycelium.

Ganoderma lucidum / Reishi Polysaccharides increase RNA and DNA in the bone marrow where immune cells such as lymphocytes are made. One of the active polysaccharides is called D6. Researchers in Beijing injected it into mice for a week and then monitored the changes in DNA and RNA in the bone marrow. Increases were roughly 50%. Protein in bone marrow also increased by as much as 28.5%.
It is in the bone marrow that the body manufactures B-cells which in turn produce antibodies. It is also where macrophages have some of their earliest beginnings.
Investigators in China found that the polysaccharide part of Reishi causes a marked increase in the action of macrophages to gobble up foreign cells in the abdomen of mice.
Dr. Morishige discovered that vitamin C renders the high molecular weight polysaccharides into oligoglucans of molecular weight about 30,000. He explains that once the oligoglucans are dissolved in the bloodstream, the macrophage, which normally rests until late in the war on abnormal and foreign cells, is called into action at an earlier stage of the battle.
Reishi polysaccharides also augments the responsiveness of antibodies, particularly IgG, by expanding the "memory" of T-cells. IgG constitutes a major class of antibodies in human serum that act to enhance phagocytosis (the cell-gobbling action of certain immune cells) and neutralize toxins.
AIDS treatment news, a newsletter out of San Francisco, talks about research conducted on Fu Zheng treatment of AIDS by Dr. Subhuti Dharmananda and his group. Reishi is one of the herbs that appears to be used successfully.
Another Japanese study showed that long-term application of Ganoderma / Reishi promoted deep, slow-wave sleep in insomniacs. It has also been used to treat neurasthenia, a condition common in chronic fatigue syndrome. Cardiovascular benefits: during the 1980's Japanese scientists identified over 100 ganoderic acids (triterpenes) in Reishi mushrooms. Numerous studies in Japan, Russia and China have demonstrated marked cholesterol lowering abilities of these substances in humans, as well as other circulatory benefits. Ganoderic acids in Reishi extracts have also been found to be highly effective as anti-inflammatory agents, and in the treatment of severe liver problems. There have been extensive work, with considerable success, using Reishi in combination with Vitamin C to treat cancer.

*How to use Ganoderma lucidum / Reishi Polysaccharide
Reishi polysaccharides have high molecular weights of up to 1,050,000, which makes absorptiion by the intestines difficult. Dr. Fukumi Morishige, M.D. found that patients given large doses of Reishi (2-9g/day) had diarrhea, but when a large dose of vitamin C was combined, no diarrhea occurred. Vitamin C renders the high molecular weight polysaccharides to a molecular weight of 30,000 when they are much more readily absorbed by the intestines and bloodstream.
For general health maintenance and prevention:
take 1 Reishi Polysaccharide capsules twice per day on an empty stomach. Also take 1000 mg of Vitamin C per day after breakfast (can take up to 8,000mg per day, at 1,000mg per time).
When a serious illness occurs, increase the dosage to 4 capsules of Reishi Polysaccharide in the morning and 4 Reishi mycelium capsules at night on an empty stomach. Also take 2,000-3,000 mg of Vitamin C per day after meals.
(Some people may experience Vertigo Reaction when they first take Reishi. During the first week, they may experience slight swelling of the head or dizziness. Arthritis patient may experienced a temporary increase in the pain level. This is a cleansing reaction, often called a "healing crisis". Continue to take Reishi and the symptoms will be alleviated within a week)
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Official Legal Disclaimer The information provided on this website is for informational purposes only. This information is not intended to provide specific medical advice, or substitute for medical advice from a physician or other qualified medical professional. Nothing contained in this website shall create, or shall be deemed to create a doctor-patient relationship, nor shall we the team members or the content there of be responsible for or assume any liability to arise from your use of any Herb. All the information is collected from sources which studied and found positive healthcare support to improve immune system. Person to person, condition of person, usage etc. also varies effectiveness. All claims and statments including testimonies are of respective writers, websites and links there of. Ganoderma is not a replacement but may be used as supplementary therapy.

We firmly urge you to research the ancient medicine and the wisdom that can be gained thereby. Although we are not Medical Practioners/Doctors and cannot make any medical claims for Ganoderma Lucidum, We know that you will find the evidence to support the safety and effectiveness of Reishi more than adequate to come to your own decisionThis website cannot be used for Medico-Legal Purpose. Hence no Claim of any sort can be made in any part of the world. All statments, contents belong to orignators.          

In our regulated society we are not permitted to make claims to consumers in support of health benefits derived from foods. This means we cannot make specific statements as to how food-based, non-drug products may help prevent or treat diseases. If we were to succeed, our government would attempt to re-classify that food as a drug! Eating any food or a concentrated natural product should be a decision based on your personal research and understanding. Food-derived antioxidants, minerals and enzymes play an important role in your health. 

References:                                       ______________________________________________________________________________

* Wang, S.Y., M.L. Hsu, H.C. Hsu, C.H. Tzeng, S.S. Le, M.S. Shiao and C.K. Ho, 1997. "The anti-tumor effect of Ganoderma lucidum is mediated by cytokines released from activated macrophages and T lymphocytes." International Journal of Cancer 70(6): 669-705.
* Min, B.S., J.J. Gao, N. Nakamura and M. Hattori, 2000. "Triterpenes from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum and their cytotoxicity against Meth-A and LLC tumor cells." Chemical Pharmacology Bulletin Jul;48(7):1026-33.
* Lee, J.M., H. Kwon, H. Jeong, J.W. Lee, S.Y. Lee, S.J. Baek and Y.J. Surh, 2001. "Inhibition of lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage by Ganoderma lucidum." Phytotherapy Research May: 15(3)245-9.
* Lin, J.M., C.C. Lin, M.F. Chen, T. Ujiie and A. Takada, 1995. "Radical scavenging and antihepatoxic activity of Ganoderma formosanum, Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma neo-japanicum." Journal of Ethnopharmacology Jun, 23; 47(1):33-41.
* Kim, H.W. and B.K. Kim, 1999. "Biomedical triterpenoids of Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. (Aphyllophoromycetideae). International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 1: 121-38.
* Lin, Y., C.C. Lin, H.F. Chiu, J.J. Yang and S.G. Lee, 1993. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and liver-protective effects ofAnoectochilus formosanus, Ganoderma lucidum and Gymnostermma pentaphyllum in rats." American Journal of Chinese Medicine 21: 59-69.
* Stavinoha, W.B., 1990. S. Weintraub, T. Opham, A. Colorado, R. Opieda, J. Slama, 1990. "Study of the anti-inflammatory activity of Ganoderma lucidum." Proceedings from the Academic/Industry Conference (AIJC), August 18-20, Sapporo, Japan.
* Chang, H.M., P.P. But, 1987. Pharmacology and Applications of Chinese Materia Medica Vol. II, Singapore, World Scientific.* Chen, K. and W. Zhang, 1987. "Advances in anti-aging herbal medicines in China." Abstracts of Chinese Medicines 1: 309-30.
* Han, M.D., E.S. Lee, Y.K. Kim, 1998. "Production of nitric oxide in raw 264.7 macrophages treated with ganoderan, the beta glucan of Ganoderma lucidum." Korean Journal of Mycology 26:246-55.
* Chen, W.C., D.M. Hau, C.C. Wang, I.H. Lin and S.S. Lee, 1995. "Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and krestin on subset T-cell in gamma-irradiated mice." American Journal of Chinese Medicine 23(3-4): 289-98.
* Gao. J.J., B.S. Min, E.M. Ahn, N. Nakamura, H.K. Lee and M. Hattori, 2002. "New triterpenes aldehydes, lucialadehydes A-C, from Ganoderma lucidum and their cytotoxicity against murine and human tumor cell lines." Chemical and Pharmacological Bulletin Jun; 50(6): 837-40.
* Hu, T., J. Chen, J. Xu and Q. Yang, 1992. "Effects of polysaccharide-peptide of Coriolus and polysaccharide of Ganoderma on scavenging active oxygen species." Acta. Biochemical et Biophysical Sinica 5: 465-70.
* Yang, W., T. Hu, D. Win, 1992. "The experiments on the Ganoderma lucidum extract for its anti-aging and invigoration effects." The 4th International Symposium on Ganoderma lucidum, Seoul, Korea.
* Lee, J.M., H. Kwon, H. Jeong, J.W. Lee, S.Y. Lee, S.J. Baek & Y.J. Surh, 2001. "Inhibition of lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage by Ganoderma lucidum." Phytotherapy Research May: 15(3)245-9.
* Wang, J. et. al., 1985. "Study of the action of Ganoderma lucidum on scavenging hydroxyl radical from plasma." Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 5: 44-60.
* Zhu, M., Q. Chang, L.K. Wond, F.S. Chong and R.C. Li, 1999. "Triterpene antioxidants from Ganoderma lucidum." Phytotherapy Research 13, 529-531.
* Ukai, S., T. Kiho, C. Hira, I. Kuruma and Y. Tanaka, 1983. "Polysaccharides in fungi. XIV. Anti-inflammatory effect of the polysaccharides from the fruitbodies of several fungi." Journal of Pharmacobiodynamics Dec; 6(12): 983-90.
* Tao J. and K.Y. Feng, 1990. "Experimental and clinical studies on inhibitory effect of Ganoderma lucidum on platelet aggregation." Journal of Tongji Medical University 10(4): 240-3.
* Kim, B.K., H.W. Kim and E.C. Choi, 1994. "Anti-HIV effects of Ganoderma lucidum." in Ganoderma: Systematics, Phytopathology & Pharmacology: Proceedings of Contributed Symposium 59 A,B. 5th International Mycological Congress. Vancouver.
* Stavinoha, W.B., J.T. Slama and S.T. Weintraub, 1996. "The anti-inflammatory activity of Ganoderma lucidum 6.1" pp. 193-6 inGanoderma lucidum, A Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum Ganoderma, Polyporaceae and others. Oriental Tradition, Cultivation, Breeding, Chemistry, Biochemistry and Utilization of Ganoderma lucidum" ed. by T. Mizuno. Il-Yang Pharm Co.
* Mizuno, T. and B.K. Kim, 1996. "A Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum." Il-Yang Pharm Co., Seoul, Korea
* Stavinoha, W.B., 1997. "Status in Ganoderma lucidum in United States: Ganoderma lucidum as an anti-inflammatory agent." Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Ganoderma lucidum in Japan Nov. 17-18th, 99-103. Tokyo
* Small, E.J., M.W. Frohlich and R. Bok, 2000. "Prospective trial of the herbal supplement PC-SPES in patients with progressive prostate cancer." Journal of Clinical Oncology 18: 3595-3603.
* Andreacchi, A., T. Wang and J.H. Wu, 1997. "Cardiovascular effects of the fungal extract of basidiomycetes sp. YL8006" Life Sciences, vol. 60, no. 22, pp. 1987-94.
* Yang, Q.W. and M. Wang, 1994. "The effect of Ganoderma lucidum extract against fatigue and endurance in the absence of oxygen." Proceedings of Contributed Symposia 59 A,B. 5th International Mycological Congress, Vancouver, Canada, August 14-21, 101-4.
* Zhu, H.S., X.L. Yang, L.B. Wang, D.X. Zhao and L. Chen, 2000. "Effects of extracts from sporoderm-broken spores of Ganoderma lucidum on HeLa cells." Cell Biology & Toxicology 16(3):201-6.
* Lieu, C.W., S.S. Lee and S.Y. Wang, 1992. "The effect of Ganoderma lucidum on induction of differentiation in leukemic U937 cells." Anticancer Research Jul-Aug: 12(4): 1211-5.
* Zhu, J.L. and C. Liu, 1992. "Modulating effects of extractum semen Persicae and cultivated Cordyceps hyphae on immuno-dysfunction of in-patients with post-hepatitic cirrhosis." Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie Ha Za Zhi April; 12(4): 207-9, 195.
 
 
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