Urtica angustifolia Fisch. ex Hornem. (Urtica angustifolia which differs from Urtica dioica in having sparser stinging hairs and comparitively shorter petioles)


Urtica ardens Link (images by Gurcharan Singh; Balkar Singh, Prashant Awale inserted by Gurcharan Singh)- Differing from U. parviflora in stipules rounded (and not cleft) at tip, stems with numerous stinging hairs, leaves wrinkled more clearly visible in dried specimens, comparatively thicker leaves and with more often stinging hairs on upper surface of leaves. 

Urtica dioica L. (images by Gurcharan Singh; J. M. Garg and Prashant Awale- Inserted by Gurcharan Singh)

Urtica parviflora Roxb. (images by Gurcharan Singh inserted by Gurcharan Singh)- Stipules slightly cleft or retuse at tip; leaf blade lanceolate or narrowly ovate; nearly smooth especially when dry, margin crenate or inconspicuously double-denticulate or serrulate; stem with few stinging hairs.

Urtica urens L. (images by Gurcharan Singh; inserted by Gurcharan Singh)- It is small annual herb in shady moist areas with sparse stinging hairs. Leaves are ovate, cordate at base, and inflorescence of small clusters of flowers.

Keys and habitat as per Flora of Bhutan (1983):
1. Stipules 4 at each node, lateral ................ Species 1 (U. dioica L.- Around habitations and on disturbed ground, 2400-3900 m. June-September) & 2 (U. hyperborea Weddell- Mountain slopes, 5000 m. June- July)
Stipules 2 at each node, interpetiolar .......... 2
2. Leaves simply serrate or crenate ............. Species 3 (U. parviflora Roxb.- Subtropical forests, 600- 2000 m. May- August)
Leaves doubly or triply serrate .................... Species 4 (U. ardens Link- Warm broad-leaved forests, 1800-2000 m. May- July) & 5 (U. mairei Leveille- Cool broad-leaved forests, 2700- 3200 m. May- August)

Urtica hyperborea Jacq.UndershrubWestern Ghats, Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Nilgiri
Urtica parviflora Roxb.HerbWestern Ghats, Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Nilgiri

Botanical nameSynonymsFamilyCommon name
Urtica ardens Urtica himalayensis, Urtica zayuensis Urticaceae Himalayan Nettle
Urtica dioica Urticaceae Stinging Nettle
Urtica hyperborea Urtica kunlunshanica Urticaceae Northern Nettle


Indigenous Drugs Of India By Chopra R N, I.C. Chopra (2006)- Details- p.561-

Urtica: The genus Urtica edited by Gulsel M. Kavalali (2004)

Urtica : 1 post by 1 author.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Urtica

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.

Any comments/ corrections are welcome

Pl. go through Urtica (Urticaceae) page with images of species (mainly done by ...) in efloraofindia.

If you find any mis-identification, pl. let us know. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, it will be really nice.

Also, if anybody is interested to take up the activity of inserting images on efloraofindia pages from efloraofindia posts, pl. let us know.
Kindly find attached photographs of stipules of U. parviflora with cleft.
But I have to tolerate the nettle stings many times to click these photographs.