Solanaceae

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Solanaceae Adans.,  Fam. Pl. (Adanson) 2: 215. 1763

Herbs, shrubs or small trees, rarely climbers, often poisonous, sometimes with prickles. Leaves alternate, simple, entire or variously lobed, sometimes pinnate compound, stipules absent. Inflorescence cymose, in panicles, subumbellate or solitary flowers. The flowers bisexual, actinomorphic, rarely zygomorphic, hypogunous. Calyx with 5 united sepals, persistent, sometimes enlarged in fruit. Corolla with 5 united petals, rotate, tubular, funnel-shaped or rarely bilabiate. Stamens 5, all equal or 4 in unequal pairs and fifth rudimentary, epipetalous, inserted lower or higher on the corolla tube, filaments free, anthers bithecous, introrse, dehiscing by apical pores or longitudinal slits. Carpels 2, rarely  3-5, united, ovary superior, bilocular, sometimes divided by false septa, placenta swollen, septum oblique; style 1, ovary seated on nectary. Fruit a capsule or berry; seeds few to many, embryo straight, endosperm present.

Cosmopoliton family with more than 98 genera and 2715 species. Nearly 23 genera and..........species in India, wild or cultivated

Key to the genera in India

1a

Perfect stamens less than 5, or if 5 not all equal

(2)

 

1b.

Perfect stamens 5, all equal

(5)

 

 

 

 

 

2a

Perfect stamens 2; flowers zygomorphic, nearly 2-lipped, corolla lobes deeply cleft.

 

 

1.       Schizanthus

2b

Perfect stamens more than 2, didynamous

(3)

 

 

 

 

 

3a

Stamens 4; fruit a berry or capsule; plants woody

 

2.       Brunfelsia

3b

Stamens 5; 4 in two pairs, fifth very small or rudimentary; fruit a capsule; plants herbaceous

 

(4)

 

 

 

 

 

4a.

Corolla longer than 3 cm, usually funnel-shaped; both anther lobes  developed  in all the four stamens.

 

 

3.       Petunia

4b

Corolla shorter than 3 cm, salver-shaped; shorter  pair of stamens with only one anther lobe developed.

 

 

4.       Browallia

 

 

 

 

5a

Fruit fleshy when mature, not splitting to dehisce

(6)

 

5b

Fruit  a dry capsule, splitting to dehisce

(18)

 

 

 

 

 

6a

Anthers forming a cone around the style, opening by terminal pores or lengthwise.

 

(7)

 

6b.

Anthers  not forming a cone, distinct, dehiscing longitudinally

(9)

 

 

 

 

 

7a

Anthers with broad filament and connective clearly separating anther lobes; dehiscence by terminal pores or lengthwise.

 

 

5.       Cyphomandra

7b

Anther lobes close together, not separated by broad connective.

 

(8)

 

 

 

 

 

8a

Calyx with distinct lobes above tube, 5-nerved; leaves entire or divided; plants unarmed or armed, herbaceous or woody

 

 

6.       Solanum

8b.

Calyx truncate with 5-10 teeth below the rim, 10-ribbed; leaves entire; plants unarmed, woody

 

 

7.       Lycianthus

 

 

 

 

9a.

Corolla tube in flower at least 4 times longer than lobes; seeds usually less than 12 in fruit; plants woody, unarmed.

 

 

8.       Cestrum

9b

Corolla tube in flower  not more than 3 times longer than lobes; seeds usually more than 12 in fruit.

(10)

 

 

 

 

 

10a

Plants woody; flowers tubular with narrow limb

 

9.       Iochroma

10b

Plants  herbaceous; flowers rotate or funnel-shaped

(11)

 

 

 

 

 

11a

Calyx enlarged at least as long as fruit; plants herbaceous

(12)

 

11b

Calyx  scarcely enlarged in fruit, much shorter than fruit

(15)

 

 

 

 

 

12a

Calyx almost as long as fruit, spreading; flowers in clusters

 

10.   Atropa

12b

Calyx longer than fruit, bladder-like

(13)

 

 

 

 

 

13a

Flowers several together; corolla 1 cm across

 

11.   Withania

13b

Flowers solitary.

(14)

 

 

 

 

 

14a

Flowers less than 1.5 cm across; ovary 2-celled; fruiting calyx ovoid, 5-toothed.

 

 

12.   Physalis

14b

Flowers more than 2 cm across; ovary 3-5-celled; fruiting calyx cordate, winged. 5-parted.

 

 

13.   Nicandra

 

 

 

 

15a

Plants herbaceous; corolla campanulate or rotate.

(16)

 

15b

Plants woody; corolla funnel-shaped or campanulate.

(17)

 

 

 

 

 

16a

Leaves all basal; root swollen; fruit globose

 

14.   Mandragora

16b

Leaves on stem and branches; root not swollen; fruit usually elongated.

 

 

15.   Capsicum

 

 

 

 

17a

Plant spiny at nodes; flowers 1-4 in each cluster; corolla funnel-shaped, lilac-purple; berry  globose, mostly red .

 

 

16.   Lycium

17b

Plant not spiny at nodes; flowers several in dense axillary clusters; corolla campanulate, white;  berry orange.

 

 

17.   Ancistus

 

 

 

 

18a

Capsule circumscissile (opening through a lid).

 

(19)

 

18b

Capsule opening lengthwise or bursting irregularly.

(21)

 

 

 

 

 

19a

Flowers solitary, distant.

 

18.   Scopolia

19b

Flowers several in a distinct inflorescence

(20)

 

 

 

 

 

20a

Upper  flowers forming a raceme or spike.

 

19.   Hyoscyamus

20b

Upper flowers forming a corymb.

 

20.   Physochlaina

 

 

 

 

21a

Fruiting calyx reflexed, much shorter than capsule.

(22)

 

21b.

Fruiting calyx not reflexed, nearly covering the fruit.

 

21.   Nicotiana

 

 

 

 

22a

Fruit prickly; corolla erect, less than 15 cm long, calyx circumscissile, the upper part falling off; plants herbaceous.

 

 

22.   Datura

22b

Fruit not prickly; corolla nodding, longer than 15 cm; calyx not circumscissile, upper part not falling off; plants woody

 

 

23.   Brugmansia

 

 

 

 








Plant Taxonomy 2E By Sharma (2009)- Details

Taxonomy Of Angiosperms By Pandey & Misra (2008)- Details

We are going to have another episode on family Solanaceae from February 11-24, 2015, last one in April 2011. Hope we will be be able to add more taxa to our database and redefine some earlier ones. Please keep your photographs ready for upload during the Fortnight.
I request some expert to volunteer for coordination.
Thanks, ... I don't think anyone better than you on Solanaceae.
So request you to pl. coordinate.
Here are the genera already discussed in efi. ...................

 
 
 

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