Scrophulariaceae



 
Reposting the data written on my blog in Jan 2009.
(Disclaimer:There might be some changes after my collection of information from different sources.)

FAMILY OF THE WEEK: SCROPHULARIACEAE

This family is cosmopolitan in distribution but most abundant intemperate regions. In India it is represented by 57 genera and 350 species occurring chiefly in Himalayas.
Vegetative characters:
Mostly annual or perennial herbs, sometimes shrubs (Veronica) or rarely trees(Wightia). Certain members are aquatic(Limnophila) or marsh (Departrium and Herpestis) Some are chlorophyll containing hemiparasites(Pedicularis and Striga) or parasites without chlorophyll as Lathraea.
Usually the lower leaves are opposite and upper alternate.They are simple exstipulate entire or pinnately lobed or incised.
Inflorescence and flowers:
Variable but commonly racemose or spicate. Sometimes cymose or axillary solitary.The bracts and bracteoles are usually present.
The flowers are perfect, hermaphrodite,zygomorphic or sometimes as in Verbascum nearly actinomorphic and hypogynous.The calyx is deeply five lobed or divided, persistent, imbricate or valvate. The corolla is gamopetalous and the limb is usually free and more or less bi-lipped.Commonly five stamens are fertile and the fifth is reduced to a staminode or is completely absent.The stamens are epipetalous. the anthers are dithecous but occasionally the two cells are unequal or only one cell is present. The gynoecium is bicarpellary and syncarpous with a superior bilocular ovary. The style is simple and the stigma is capitate, bilobed or bi-lamellate.
An annular or cup shaped nectariferous disc is present at the base of the ovary which is sometimes bilobed.
Fruits and seeds:
The fruit is a capsule or rarely a berry. the seeds are small with a fleshy endosperm and straight or slightly curved embryo.
Pollination and dispersal:
The flowers are adapted for insect pollination. The seeds are dispersed by water, birds or animals.
Examples:
Antirrhinum majus (Snapdragon)
Digitalis purpurea (Common foxglove)
Linaria vulgaris
Verbascum chinens
Rhamphicarpa
Lobelia nicotianifolia(Ran Tambaku)
Lindernia ciliate

After searching it seems that there are a lot of changes in the family Scrophulariaceae.
Some genera which were included earlier in one family are now transferred to other family and vice versa. I hope we will be discussing all closely related families and mostly those which were earlier included in Scrphulariaceae.
Some such families are
Plantaginaceae
Orobanchaceae
Phrymaceae
Linderniaceae
Buddleja and Myoporum both previously in their own families are now in Scrophulariaceae.
Lobelia is now in Campanulaceae (We have already discussed in the relevant week episode)
Some life histories associated with some families are:
Parasitism : Orobanchaceae
Wind pollination : Plantaginaceae
Aquatic habit : Callitrichaceae and Hippuridaceae (I don't know whether these are represented in India?)
Callitrichaceae with Callitriche genus (2 species) and Hippuridaceae with Hippuris vulgaris are found in Uttarakhand.
Thanks a lot ... for nice and informative write up.. will try to find how many of these genera I have in my collection, I think all the members should post the pics which they know are in Scrophulariaceae, even in case of any doubts regarding their reshuffling in any other closely related family.. and we can discuss this here...
Hoping to see a great participation with interesting uploads for this large family..
Data from Botanical Survey of India (Munshi et al. 2001) says that Scrophulariaceae (traditional sense) is represented in India by 66 genera and 387 species. Pedicularis is the biggest genus with 105 species followed by Veronica (35 species), Euphrasia and Lindernia (25 species each) and Limnophila (20 species),

Scrophulariaceae fortnight: August 1 to 14, 2013 : 4 posts by 3 authors.
Our next episode in the month of August would cover family Scrophulariaceae in the classical sense including members which are now mostly placed under Plantaginaceae. Members are requested to kindly participate with upload of both identified photographs as well those meant for identification.
1. Please have subject line as "Scrophulariaceae Fortnight: .......................(name/unique ID) from ..............................(Place)
2. Please mention your upload number at the end of subject line.
Following genera are already discussed in efi under Scrophulariaceae as per efi site (One can click on them to find out various species under them): 
.................... 
Under Plantaginaceae
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