Limonia acidissima


Images by tspkumar

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¿ lie-MOW-nee-uh ? -- from Persian limuna or Arabic limoin
ass-id-ISS-ee-muh -- from Latin acidus (very sour)
... Dave's Botanary

commonly known as: curd fruit, elephant apple, monkey fruit, wood apple • Arabic: tuffâhh el fîl • Bengali: কপিত্থ kapittha, কয়েতবেল kayetabela • Gujarati: કોઠા kotha, કોઠી kothi • Hindi: दधिफल dadhiphal, दन्तसठ dantasath, कैथ or कैथा kaith, कपित्थ kapitth, कठबेल katabel, कावित kavit, मन्मथ manamath, पुष्पफल pushpaphal • Kannada: ಬೇಲದ ಹಣ್ಣಿನ ಮರ baelada hannina mara, ಬೇಲದ ಮರ baelada mara, ದಧಿಫಲ dadhiphala, ದಮ್ತಸಟ damtasata, ಕಪಿಠಾ kapithha, ಮನಮಥ ಮರ manmatha mara, ನಾಯಿಬೆಲ nayibel • Malayalam: നായ് വേലം naay veelam, വിളങ്കായ് vilankaay • Marathi: कपित्थ kapith, कवंठ kavant, कवंठी kavanti, कवठ kavat • Oriya: koyito • Prakrit: कइत्थं kaittham, कइत्थो kaittho • Sanskrit: दधिफल dadhiphala, दधित्थ dadhittha, दन्तशठ danthashatha, कपित्थं kapithama, कपित्य kapitya, कपित्यं kapityama, पुष्पफल pushpaphala • Tamil: கபித்தம் kapittam, கவித்தம் kavittam, தந்தசடம் tantacatam, விளா vila, விளா மரம் vilamaram, விளாம்பழம் vilampazam • Telugu: కపిత్థము kapitthhamu, వెలగ velaga, వెలగపండు velagapandu

Native to: India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand    




 
This one is commonly known as "Wood Apple, Kovit".
Bot. name: Limonia acidissima
Family: Rutaceae.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limonia_(plant)
The pulp of this fruit along with jaggery is used in preparation of Chatanii. It is real tasty...


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Fruits and vegetables week- MS010511 - 1: The wood apple hanging from trees. Botanical name is *Feronia limonia*. Pulp is edible. It can be eaten raw wih jaggery or made into juice, which is coolant during summer.   Belada hannu in Kannada. 

 
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Flora of Haryana: Limonia acidissima from Karnal Near NDRI Campus:  *Limonia* *acidissima* L
From Roadside area Near NDRI Campus Karnal Haryana (228 Mts)
Planted by forest deptt there
Localy known as " Kaintha". Fruit is edible and have medicinal value

yes it is called kavath in Marathi and a deleicious chatani is made from its pulp esp on Mahashivratari day
It is also known as Kaith. I experienced its sharp thorns during my childhood. But also tried to fell few fruits- some ripe and some of them fully ripe. Enjoyed the taste. And in the bargain got scolding.

VALMIKI : OBSERVER OF NATURE: Valmiki mentioned KAPITTHA in his Ramayan. Scientifically this plant is Feronia limonia. It is Kait in Hindi and Kait or Katbel in Bangla. Attaching the image of a twig of KAPITTHA.
 
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Wood apple is an erect, slow-growing tree with a few upward-reaching branches bending outward near the summit where they are subdivided into slender branchlets drooping at the tips.  
The bark is ridged, fissured and scaly and there are sharp spines 3/4 to 2 in long on some of the zigzag twigs. The deciduous, alternate leaves, 3 to 5 in long, dark-green, leathery, often minutely toothed, blunt or notched at the apex, are dotted with oil glands and slightly lemon-scented when crushed.  
Yellowish green flowers, tinged with red, 1/2 in across, are borne in small, loose, terminal or lateral panicles.  
The tree is mostly known for its hard woody fruit, size of a tennis ball, round to oval in shape. The pulp is brown, mealy, odorous, resinous, astringent, acid or sweetish, with numerous small, white seeds scattered through it.


Rutaceae week: Limonia acidissima at Chennai: Bot. name: Limonia acidissima
Family: Rutaceae
Common name: Kawit, wood apple
Date/Time: 31st March/ 04:30PM
Location: Chennai


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Rutaceae Week: Limonia acidissima L. from Delhi: Limonia acidissima L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2.554. 1763
syn: Feronia limonia (L.) Swingle; Feronia elephantum Correa; Schinus limonia L.  
Common names: Wood apple, Elephant apple
Hindi: Kaith, Bilin
Beng: Kait, katbel
Guj: Kavit, kotha, kothun
Mar: Kavatha, kavith
Tel: Velaga
Tam: Vilanga
Photographed from Herbal Garden, Punjabi Bagh, Delhi
 
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Rutaceae week: Feronia limonia (Limonia acidissima) from Hooghly:    
Attaching images of Feronia limonia L. recorded from two different places in Hooghly.
Species : Feronia limonia L. (syn. Feronia elephantum Correa., Limonia acidissima L., Schinus limonia L.)
Habit & Habitat : large tree, roadside, garden
Date : 03-05-2012 (1st Set), 09-05-12 (2nd Set)
Place : Gobra (1st Set), Garalgacha (2nd Set)
 
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Rutaceae week: Limonia acidissima:  Rutaceae week: Limonia acidissima (Feronia elephantum)
'Kavath' कवठ
Only two of the native genera of Maharashtra have distinctly winged petioles.
Limonia and Naringi.
Limonia acidissima is a moderate sized tree. Spines straight sharp.
Leaves imparipinnate. Tip crenulate.

I am not sure whether it is native because some sources say it to originate from Java and planted for its fruits.


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Rutaceae Week :: Limonia acidissima at Pune: Sharing pictures of Limonia acidissima at Pune for Rutaceae Week
In Marathi- KavaTH (कवठ).
 
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¿ lie-MOW-nee-uh ? -- from Persian limuna or Arabic limoin
ass-id-ISS-ee-muh -- from Latin acidus (very sour)
... Dave's Botanary 
Apr 14, 2012 ... at Sagar Upvan, Mumbai
commonly known as: curd fruit, elephant apple, monkey fruit, wood apple • Arabic: tuffâhh el fîl • Bengali: কপিত্থ kapittha, কয়েতবেল kayetabela • Gujarati: કોઠા kotha, કોઠી kothi • Hindi: दधिफल dadhiphal, दन्तसठ dantasath, कैथ or कैथा kaith, कपित्थ kapitth, कठबेल katabel, कावित kavit, मन्मथ manamath, पुष्पफल pushpaphal • Kannada: ಬೇಲದ ಹಣ್ಣಿನ ಮರ baelada hannina mara, ಬೇಲದ ಮರ baelada mara, ದಧಿಫಲ dadhiphala, ದಮ್ತಸಟ damtasata, ಕಪಿಠಾ kapithha, ಮನಮಥ ಮರ manmatha mara, ನಾಯಿಬೆಲ nayibel • Malayalam: നായ് വേലം naay veelam, വിളങ്കായ് vilankaay • Marathi: कपित्थ kapith, कवंठ kavant, कवंठी kavanti, कवठ kavat • Oriya: koyito • Prakrit: कइत्थं kaittham, कइत्थो kaittho • Sanskrit: दधिफल dadhiphala, दधित्थ dadhittha, दन्तशठ danthashatha, कपित्थं kapithama, कपित्य kapitya, कपित्यं kapityama, पुष्पफल pushpaphala • Tamil: கபித்தம் kapittam, கவித்தம் kavittam, தந்தசடம் tantacatam, விளா vila, விளா மரம் vilamaram, விளாம்பழம் vilampazam • Telugu: కపిత్థము kapitthhamu, వెలగ velaga, వెలగపండు velagapandu
Native to: India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand
References: Flowers of IndiaENVIS - FRLHTWikipediaPurdue UniversityWorld Agroforestry CentreM.M.P.N.D.Digital Dictionaries of South Asia
more views: Apr 14, 2012 ... at Sagar Upvan, Mumbai
Feb 17, 2008 ... along Mahabaleshwar - Wai Road, Maharashtra
Small favor to ask: I may be wrong but I think in Gujarati its called Kotthu for singular fruit and કોઠા kotha, for plural fruits... and never heard or read it as Kotthi... the feminine name is not usually heard or used..
A hard copy of a publication of GEER Foundation (Gujarat Ecology and Enviornment Research Foundation) had the names: કોહું kohu, કોઠા kotha, કોઠી kothi
The word કોઠી is found in web page - Heritage Trees of Junagadh Municipal Corporation web site.
I have 2 or 3 dumb little questions;
You don't mention કોથા Kotha, is this wrong?
Is Kothi = Kotthi, Kothu = Kotthu? if not what are the scripted words equivalent.
You list
કોહું Kohu but Usha di mentions Kotthu. Please explain.
It is very informative to mention the differences between sing. plur. masc. and fem. Thanks Usha di. Those of us who do have grammatical genders in their language greatly appreciate these details. Some languages do not have plurals so it is also good to mention that there could be 2 forms of the same name depending on the number.
I humbly suggest to master Dinesh that it would be useful to add this info to names in such listings, something like (sing.) (plur.) (masc.) (fem.). Example કોઠી Kothi (fem.).
you ask: I Quote: "You don't mention કોથા Kotha, is this wrong?"
MY Ans: yes, no such thing ... this fruit is not called kotha કોથા
english spelling should be Kotthu for Gujarati spelling કોઠુ
its hard dental /dentate pronounciation .
And KOHU કોહું seems to be listed in a regional gujarati internet site.which seems written well, so I take it they are right in the listing it on their website page ... may be a regional difference, some tribal gujarati name that is accepted locally...
I have not seen this કોહું Kohu in modern gujarati literature of educated folks, nor in gujarati dictionary and the gujarat state flora listing

Q: re Kotthi ... is feminine ... refers to the tree (mother) that bears the Kotthu fruit ...
Thanks for asking this question, I ended up spending a lot of time looking thru tons of books, and learnt that what one learns in good schools and precise parents while one was a wee child remains in some unknown recesses in the brain and come up when needed... the books and dictionaries bore out the stored data in the recesses of the cortex somewhere ..

Based on the educated advice of ... (a native speaker I am guessing) I propose the following entry for Gujarati names of Limonia acidissima L. in all databases.
GUJARATI : કોઠા(Kotha) Khotta (fruit-plur.), કોઠી (kothi) Kotthi (tree-fem.), કોઠુ (Kothu) Kotthu (fruit-sing.), કોહું Kohu (reg.dial).
It includes all the information received so far. Job well done, thanks to all involved.
Could we have a suggestion for the best way to cite this in outside publications? I am keen to include this entry into the MMPND and I like to give credit when credit is due.
Please Usha di call me Mic or Michel or make up a cute Gujarati equivalent.
Apologies again. A slight error. a h was wondering around.
This is the correct answer. Do you approve Ushi di?
GUJARATI : કોઠા(Kotha) Kottha (fruit-plur.), કોઠી (kothi) Kotthi (tree-fem.), કોઠુ (Kothu) Kotthu (fruit-sing.), કોહું Kohu (reg.dial).
Quote:. Do you approve Usha di?: ....
Ans: ya, but I would separate the mother tree from the listing of the fruits... and that rule should apply to all trees and their progeny.. I think... no matter what others or books do, lets start a logical listing ourselves... be a trend setter ourselves if others before us / you have not done it...
You are a trend setter with your MMPND work ... so I think this should be easy for your thinking process to accept...
GUJARATI : Fruits: કોઠા(Kotha) Kottha (fruit-plur.), કોઠુ (Kothu) Kotthu (fruit-sing.), કોહું Kohu (reg.dial).
Tree: કોઠી (kothi) Kotthi (tree-fem.): tree that bears the fruits.
And if MMPND must have refs pl let me know I'll type up the dictionary names and books citations... when time permits
This is a nice idea ... I had a similar brainstorm about these concepts with a Catalan colleague last year. For any given plant there can be also leaf, flower, root (especially in medicinal plants), derived extracts, products etc. I am thinking here of oil, essential oil, wax etc. In a presentation such as mine or ... in his well known listings it could add many extra lines. As far as databases are concerned it would probably mean extra fields. So for practical reasons I cannot really adopt this presentation. I find it hard enough keeping tracks of all the (masc.) (fem.) (sing.) (plur.) (prod.) etc. These listings are always a compromise unfortunately. We can only do the best we can.
I will always warmly welcome your comments regarding gender, number, flower, leaf, tree, fruit etc. in Gujarati and any other language.
As far as referencing I meant only how to acknowledge efloraofindia. Is there a standard citation or do we adapt to the subject matter?

Sharing pictures of Limonia acidissima at a private society at Pune
Family: Rutaceae
Common name wood-apple, elephant-apple, monkey fruit, and curd fruit
In Marathi- KavaTH (कवठ).
Very nice photographs. It is very difficult to get the close up of the flowers of this tree, so nicely.  
Is it flowering now?
I have seen the flowering in spring esp. in our area.
Yes ... it is in full bloom looking reddish with flowers and that is the reason it caught my attention


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prickly shrub or tree Hooghly 20-12-12 sk2:  Found this shrub or tree yesterday in village outskirts.
Species : UNKNOWN
H & H : about 8 to 10 ft high
Date : 20/12/12
Place : Hooghly
Looks like Bilva Aegle marmelos ? not sure.
Limonia acidissima
Rutaceae
Kavath कवठ tree. 
Thank you very much ... and ..., i have an earlier post - yet i failed to identify, thought some other species!
 
 
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Fruit Trees of Bangalore - RA - Limonia Acidissima - Wood Apple Tree - Kaith:  Wood apple is an erect, slow-growing tree with a few upward-reaching branches bending outward near the summit where they are subdivided into slender branchlets drooping at the tips.  
The bark is ridged, fissured and scaly and there are sharp spines 3/4 to 2 in long on some of the zigzag twigs. 
The deciduous, alternate leaves, 3 to 5 in long, dark-green, leathery, often minutely toothed, blunt or notched at the apex, are dotted with oil glands and slightly lemon-scented when crushed.
Yellowish green flowers, tinged with red, 1/2 in across, are borne in small, loose, terminal or lateral panicles. 
The tree is mostly known for its hard woody fruit, size of a tennis ball, round to oval in shape. The pulp is brown, mealy, odorous, resinous, astringent, acid or sweetish, with numerous small, white seeds scattered through it.
Ref. Wood-Apple
We have this tree in our state as well as I have seen few trees in Delhi (..., I hope I am not wrong). But I have never seen this in flowering stage, only finding wood apple.. thanks for showing this remarkable beauty.
Beautiful pictures of
Limonia Acidissima Syn Feronia limonia Syn. Feronia elephantum.
Family : Rutaceae


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Flora of Madhya Pradesh: Limonia acidissima from Alha Udal Akhara Maihar MP:  
Limonia acidissima from Alha Udal Akhara Maihar MP
This was an ancient large tree there
pls validate
 
 
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ID 23042015PHK 1 : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)
ID Please
A medium sized tree
At Nallamala forest, AP
It's Limonia acidissima
Yes Limonia acidissima
Somehow the colour of anthers is yellowish white here which is mostly maroon to brown
 
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TSPNOV2015-13: Images of Limonia acidissima (Rutaceae) : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (6)
It is my pleasure to share few images of Limonia acidissima (Rutaceae
Habit: Medium-Large tree
Habitat: Dry deciduous forests.
Sighting: Tumkur, Karnataka, about 800 msl 
Date: 23-09-2014 and 01-03-2015 
we call it kath-bel. very sour


https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/e22453476340c/IMG_20170222_084759.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrESQ2RJdGNYp9v2h3EgFZFX4sd1ThZyCa4KIG3fLNAVC1cBy5ROOS-yn5zXpe0dVgDUNi2kftYVx1AJiFkyf7K4jbC__PL7P3O4G1yUimpWc__5w70
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/e22453476340c/IMG_20170222_084802.jpg?part=0.2&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGV44H8whWxHaFXCGmsS8MWh7yQ5DdfPyDmlPgjph4OBJXu-ufEhtspWc0rkH1wO3ofG1IfAyKPBtoEvnat-6ALpsSLYb_K3q9xw7aGDYiZdTK_pCU
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/e22453476340c/IMG_20170222_084814.jpg?part=0.3&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGZUnHBTel77iWG0AuyuC0XHm58brfid7VyQRTLNmuj251jH0hRDURoB6Sdnl7P-MkDtAXuBfaHhzbuMcncJkGjbEmz7fDwZRZUkfGrbJLd0ZaLW1s
SH22/2/2017 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)
Date/Time-22/2/2017
Location- Mangalore
Habitat- Wild
Plant Habit- Shrub
Height-3 meter
Flower- Reddish white

Limonia acidissima L. [Rutaceae].
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/proxy/XNc1HmrH9vzubaU6DfUEA-J2b3Hhj67DthVmngAiUh4rDmxJKLZJ3TWfr0gCUZWaF5zGFoHR1kxvoHIDoRaRm33zaGfBcnKIiTcEOmGoU5R9M_E=w5000-h5000
 
https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/proxy/J_zHCH2zK48ENKw4_5SQd8pKzvcDKK9Zb3SvTr8jIb4wvTBnik-kJnv73R2BXxdbyRsXh4kD0MSMNjdmF6C5QIaRwanM0E7dOejTFmMgQuiECkg=w5000-h5000
https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/proxy/DIRD-ArIjF0AFjxRQstRQw0DEXTQoKB2CBRfDun6h6Tgxb9M_b-wki-YkXyE_0Had9CweL7OHZltOcr3dGW7orAogOLbUjgncESfysE9nYxXfV0=w5000-h5000
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/proxy/mzrSI4wJ0avMufOEEUrdwNuVYLwtRiJ_9XqA795Zx4cdHE_qAXI4kdsHuOdbuN6cDrnOaYJ-lOartElDkMNB7if1umylVt-Zs_u4EYkGBK-ilp0=w5000-h5000
https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/proxy/TleWISY0Y4iHNveNYx35SDLOjSbks17Czf6wTg5RboOImf29n9BFYmgEAHE1DL-xvLsLt2aQcvfEvEe8Oc_a1d2bKITSnjLXlicDahubIXoX4yQ=w5000-h5000
https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/proxy/x7EvVxI3QQ9UjyY4Vs68il_NLFqbbNSTFpmTQxX4mMwJ_U7AuPfjxqxlP1idtVvYcmRxdEupoVhe3PYW1yRXoLF7rSwocamVrz_n2CwAHO4NQOs=w5000-h5000

Rao Jodha Desert Rock Park  Jodhpur
Date: October 24, 2018 ... Altitude: about 300 m (980 feet) asl
¿ Limonia acidissima ? and ¿ parasite / climber ?  
Dear friends,
The small tree with winged-rachis leaves could be Limonia acidissima; please validate. Not sure whether the other wire-branched plant is some climber, or a parasite like Viscum, or just another plant growing in crunched space. Please help with their IDs; hopefully the photos help.

Could the other "wire plant" be Ephedra foliata ?
Looks different from images at 
https://sites.google.com/site/efloraofindia/species/a---l/e/ephedraceae/ephedra/ephedra-foliate
Check for plants with winged rachis. 
On further checking, both your ids appear close to me as per Limonia acidissima and Ephedra foliata



  
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