Mitragyna parvifolia

 
my-tra-GY-na -- from the Greek mitra (a turban or headdress) and gyne (ovary)
par-vee-FOH-lee-uh -- small leaves

commonly known as: kaim, water kadamba • Bengali: ধারাকদম্ব dharakadam, গুলিকদম্ব gulikadam • Gujarati: કલમ kalam • Hindi: गुरी guri, कैम kaim • Kannada: ನೀರ ಕದಮ್ಬ nira kadamba, ಸಣ್ಣ ಕದಮ್ಬ sanna kadamba • Malayalam: കതമമരം kathamamaram, നീര്‍ക്കടമ്പ് niirkkatamp, പൂച്ചക്കടമ്പ് puuccakkatamp, റോസ് കടമ്പ് roos katamp, വീമ്പ് viimp • Marathi: कळम kalam • Sanskrit: वितानः vitanah • Tamil: நிசுளம் niculam, நீர்க்கடம்பு nirkkatampu • Telugu: అజఘ్నము ajaghnamu, అంబుసారము ambusaramu, జలతుంబురు jalatumburu, నిరుకడము nirkadambu, ఋష్య rsya, తధిద్రుమ tadhidruma

Native to: India

Medium size deciduous tree; leaves opposite, oblong-ovate, obovate, ovoid to almost orbicular, 6-12 cm long; stipules large, oblong or elliptic, glabrous above, hairy beneath along veins; petiole 5-18 mm long; flowers cream coloured or greenish, in globose 8-15 mm across heads on up to 12 mm long peduncle, head singly or in cluster of up to 5, each subtended by two bract-like leaves; calyx lobes minute with ciliate margin; corolla with 4-6 mm long tube, lobes half as long, throat hairy inside; style filiform, stigma mitriform (headgear); fruiting head fruiting head dry with aggregation of capsules.
 
The leaves of Haldina cordifolia (Roxb.) Ridsdare heart shaped with long petiole, and crowded at the end of branches; flowers with pale yellowish lobes and pinkish tube..
where as, the leaves of Mitragyna parvifolia (Roxb.) Korth are variable, but never cordate; flowers with whitish-green lobes and same coloured tube
Haldina cordifolia was originally described by William Roxburgh which is characteristic by the orbicular -cordate leaves, orbicular-oblong stipules, yellow flowers and very peculiar calyx, which are 5-lobed.
Mitragyna parviflora also described by Roxburgh remarkably different from Haldinia cordifolia by the presence of 2 linear-oblong reduced leaves at the base of flower head, obovate stipules, entire calyx limb etc. Leaves are highly variable in later from orbicular, oblong,ovate or cordate hence are not a reliable character for species delimitation.  


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un tree Hooghly 13/12/12 sk2:
Attachments (7). 14 posts by 3 authors. 
This is a mid-size tree growing diagonally, possibly due to want of space, in an orchard.
Species : UNKNOWN
H & H : tree; leaves opposite; fruits (?) fig size
Date : 8/12/12, 10.03 a.m.
Place : Hooghly
This is my favourite tree - Haldu [Haldina cordifolia].
Found flowers of Haldina cordifolia in the net, very much like Neolamarckia cadamba!
You are most welcome. Some of my photographs are available at this link
Feedback from ... from another thread:
"the same tree was identified as Haldina cordifolia - efi thread and has been placed under - https://sites.google.com/site/efloraofindia/species/m---z/r/rubiaceae/haldina/haldina-cordifolia" (instead of Mitragyna parvifolia).
In view I shall be taking it as Mitragyna parvifolia unless l there is a feedback to the contrary.
It is Mitragyna parvifolia (Roxb.) Korth.
The tree in the photographs I have opined on is Haldu [Haldina cordifolia]. Have plenty of trees of both Haldu and Kalamb [Mitragyna parviflora] in my forest at Shahapur and my photographs of both are available in the archives of this group. Here is one such link

I understand that these photos (in this post) are not sufficient to draw a conclusive id. So, i waited for the flowers. More so because at that time i also received a personal mail suggesting the id as Mitragyna.
At the time of my 2nd post (efi thread) I noticed several of your uploads of Mitragyna in many posts, including in threads of other members. That is why i was more confused.
Finally, in my 3rd post i concluded, after finding these illustrations -
Haldu flowers do have a scent, but they are not as aromatic as those of Kalamb.
Flora Indica is silent on aroma of both the species, instead it stressed on the descriptions of wood.
Am sending a few more recent photographs (5) of mine here and some of Haldu in a separate mail.
Thank you very much ..., found your Haldu - efi thread - great !


 
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Tree for ID Srisailam, Andhra Pradesh NAW-OCT-04 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3). 
Kindly identify this forest tree photographed in the Nallamalla Hills, in the Srisailam-Nagarjuna National Park on 2nd Oct 2014.
No flowers at this point of time. But reddish terminal leaf bud may be a characteristic feature. Leaves about 12-15 cm in length and 8 cm in width.


 
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Anmod Ghat :: Mitragyna parvifolia :: DVFEB67/100 : 5 posts by 3 authors. 3 images.
Anmod Ghat ... NH4A descending from Anmod, Karnataka to Mollem, Goa
Date: 23 APR 2011 ... Altitude: descends from about 640 m asl to 90 m asl
Mitragyna parvifolia (Roxb.) Korth. ... (family: Rubiaceae)
Oh! Wah!! What a unbelievable century.
Thanks to the time I could get! Thoroughly enjoyed it.
Lovely shots to complete a ton !


 
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FLOWERS /PLANTS MENTIONED BY TAGORE IN HIS SONGS ( NEEPA -1 ) : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching translated version of a song by tagore, wher NEEPA has been mentioned.
Is it Mitragyna parvifolia or Neolamarckia cadamba ?
It is Mitragyna parvifolia. Tagore used three different names for KADAM in his songs. These are KADAM, KADAMBA and NIPA. In Bengal both Mitragyna parvifolia and Neolamarckia cadamba are commonly known as Kadam.
 
 
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Tree for Id- ID 09042016 SH2 : 8 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (1)
Tree for Id pl.
Location - Nagzira Wildlife Sanctuary
Date - 26.3.2016

The closely parallel secondary venation of the leaves together with the infructescence pattern suggests Bridelia retusa of the Phyllanthaceae.  However, the dried fruits on enlargement appear to be beset with small spinules.  Hence this suggestion need not be taken for granted.  An image with higher resolution will probably clarify the situation whether the fruits were drupaceous.
The general appearance reminds me of Mitragyna parvifolia.
Thanks ... It may be Mitragyna parvifolia (kalam- कळम in Marathi)
Adding two more images for confirmation. Off course not clicked on the same day but sure of the same tree i suppose.
Yes ..., these photos show Mitragyna parvifolia.
Thanks ... for confirmation.
Yeah, I agree with ...


 
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MS/23/10/2016 - 4- Request for Id of a tree : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
Kindly identify the tree. It could be Mitragyna parvifolia. Photo taken in Mysore.
Thanks, ...  I think you should be right.
I also think it is Mitragyna parvifolia.
Looks like  Mitragyna parvifolia to me too
 
 
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SK427 15MAR-2017:ID : 2 posts by 1 author. Attachments (3)
Location: Tal Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary, Rajasthan, India 
Date: 2 February 2016
Altitude: 600 ft.

Mitragyna parviflora
Thank you for the ID ...!
Mitragyna parvifolia (Roxb.) Korth.
Nepali Names : कैम Kaim /  फाल्दु Phaaldu / सानो हलेदो Saano Haledo / टिकुल Tikul   


 
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Tree for ID :: Devgad, Konkan, May 2017 :: ARKMAY13 : 10 posts by 6 authors. Attachments (4)
I saw this tree not far from a salt water creek near Devgad, MH in May 2017.
Could you please provide ID?
Additional pics
Attachments (2)  

These appear to be the leaves of Mitragyna parvifolia (Roxb.) Korth. [Rubiaceae].
Mitragyna tubulosa....
Mitragyna parvifolia to me. Often found in wet places and near creeks. 
As far as I know Mitragyna tubulosa is not recorded from Maharashtra.

Opposite leaves
Cuneate base
Seen here


 
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28082017BHAR3 : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)
Found in a garden near Sriperumbudur, Chennai.

Mitragyna parvifolia, Rubiaceae 

Thank you very much.
This tree is called Neer Kadamba in Tamil which is being compared and confused for the name 'Cadamba' or 'kadamba' with Neolamarckia cadamba and Barringtonia acutangula.
Cadamba or Kadamba is available in Tamil language which denotes Lord Murugan- Second son of Lord Shiva.
Neolamarckia cadamba is such a big tree which are available at hills where Lord Murugan resides.
Cadamba is skthala or sthala viruksham for murugan temples. 

 
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Plant from Jhalana Forest Jaipur:  कळम Mitragyna parviflora
Rubiaceae
सरल पर्ण
Photo Taken on-23.6.2009
- The correct name is Mitragyna parvifolia (Roxb.) Korth. and not Mitragyna parviflora 
 
 
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Mitragyna parviflora: Mitragyna parviflora
Marathi name: kalam
Today at Sagargad, Alibag 
- Yes .., but a little correction. It is M. parvifolia (not parviflora). Nice photographs
 
 
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Verditer Flycatcher on Mitragyna parvifolia: The Verditer Flycatcher (Eumyias thalassina) sitting on Mitragyna
parvifolia
[Rubiaceae]. Picture taken at Rajaji National Park on 12.3.2011. 
- Its simply awesome. Is it a visitor only or it feeds on the fruit of Mitragyna ? Because now a days its very important for us to know the interaction and linkage between plants and animals. In one of my study i have identified 36 species of plants whose fruits are used as food by the Giant squirrel in Karlapat wildlife sanctuary.
- This is a flycatcher so its obvious it will feed on insects. They do come down during this season otherwise I have seen them in Askot. The present pic sud be some where around 300m asl.
 
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Is this tree Haldina cordifolia? please confirm: Kindly identify this tree from Aarey milk colony.
Date/Time-        15/05/2011       02:45PM
Location- Place, Altitude, GPS-     Aarey Milk colony, Mumbai, Maharashtra.
Altitude :Sea level
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type-:  Wild
Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb-  : Medium tree
Height/Length- 30fts approx
Leaves Type/ Shape/ Size-  as seen in picture
Inflorescence Type/ Size- as seen in picture
Flowers Size/ Colour/ Calyx/ Bracts- as seen in picture
Fruits Type/ Shape/ Size Seeds- as seen in picture 

Nice pictures of Mitragyna parvifolia.
Usually occurs in the vicinity of water-courses, hence called as 'Neer kadambu' in Tamil. (Neer = water)
In Marathi it is called Kalam,, and Kadam is referred to Neolamarkia cadamba (which is found near water vicinity)
Yes it is Mitragyna parvifolia. In Haldina cordifolia the leaves are larger (10-25 cm), almost orbicular and cordate at base.


 
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ID request 25052011 PJ 1: Id  requested for the following attachment.
Date/Time-: 08/05/11   -    16:45
Location- Place, Altitude - Kaiga , Uttar Kannada ,Karnataka, 380 mtrs
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type-   wild
Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb- tree
Height/Length-10-12m

Yes, it is Mitragyna parvifolia.
Neer kadambu (நீர் கடம்பு) in Tamil.
 
 
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SYMBIOSIS: 1 correct images as above.
At this place there are only two trees of Mitragyna parvifolia (Kaim or Krishna Kadamba).They are in bloom now. Sending an image of Redbase Jezebel butterfly on the flower of this tree. You may like this. 
This butterfly has never been seen feeding on nectar of Mitragyna parvifolia before.
Attaching an image of Grey pansy butterfly on the flowers of Plam Sp. You may like it.
Heliconia is in bloom at Cooch Behar, at this time of the year. Butterflies like Common Fourring, Palm Fly, Common Baron etc visit this flower. Attaching an image where a female of Palm Fly is on Heliconia. You may like it.
There is only one Chandan (Santalum album ) tree at Cooch Behar. The tree is in bloom and number of butterflies visit the small flowers of this tree. Attaching an image of Common Crow butterfly on the flowers of Chandan. You may like it.

 
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Request ID GD 29042012: Sending this huge tree for ID. These pictures are taken today (April 29,
2012) at my former hostel in Nagpur. Though I lived at this hostel for about 5 years, I never knew what this tree is.
Seems to be a deciduous tree; having new leaves now. The fruit-like structures are from last season. There seems to be a bud-like structure on one of the twig though. The leaves are delicate now; they get a bit dark
green with season. The pictures will tell the rest!
Mitragyna parvifolia
I can see the interpetiolar stipules.


 
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Tree for ID : Mumbai : 231011 : AK-3: A tree found at Maharashtra Nature Park, Mumbai on the 22nd of Sept,11.
Cultivated since all trees & plants there are specially planted.
A medium size tree having round fruits.
No flowers seen.
look like Some Rubiaceae member, please provide more pictures..
This is a close up of the fruit.
Sorry not a good picture but may help.
These were identified as the fruits of Mitragyna parvifolia by ..., The Dy Director of MNP.
Common names Kaim or Kalam.
Kaim is a tree native to India. Can be thought of the Indian cousin of the thai born Kratom (M. speciosa), more popular in the West. The Mitragyna genus is found in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Asia and Africa.  
Asian species of Mitragyna are often found in rainforests, while the African species are often found in swamps.  
Mitragyna species are used medicinally as well as for their fine timber throughout the areas they grow.  
Kaim reaches heights of 50 feet with a branch spread of over 15 feet. The stem is erect and branching. Flowers are yellow and grow in ball-shaped clusters. The flowers are very fragrant, and remind one of the better known Kadam flowers. Leaves are a dark green in color, smooth, rounded in shape, and opposite in growth pattern. 

Very nice big tree. Thanks for sharing.
A small mistake in the spelling which is very common. (I also didn't notice it earlier.)
The correct name should be.........parvifolia meaning small leaved......probably as compared to Kadamb. and not parviflora
Mitragyna parvifolia (Roxb.) Korth
Thanks ...,
Wiki has the following page.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitragyna_parviflora
Are they different?


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SYMBIOSIS : 183: Attaching an image of Redbase Jezebel butterfly on the flower of Mitragyna parvifolia. This is a type of KADAM which is not very common at this place. The common species available here is Neolamarckia cadamba.


 
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SYMBIOSIS 184: Attaching an image of a diurnal Moth on the flower of Mitragyna parvifolia. I am not sure about the identity of the Moth. I have seen the same moth on some other flwers also, during day time.
Nice photograph ! The moth is Dysphania militaris.

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for ID 240811 BRS1: Pl. confirm the id. of the photo attached herewith.
I think, it is Adina cordifolia of Rubiaceae.
Why not Neolamarckia cadamba?
I too agree with ... this is most probably Neolamarckia cadamba of Rubiaceae family.
Neolamarckia cadamba can be the right choice as far as the leaf shape is concerned (most visible leaves are without a cordate or heart shaped base) but the red flowers point away from Neolamarckia. it is a character of Adina cordifolia.
yes Neolamarckia cadamba,,
Even i feel it is Kadamba
It appears to be Nauclea purpurea Roxb. (Nauclea elliptica Bedd.)
Usually seen along the perennial stream and rivers with rocky exposure in the western Ghats (not very common).
The inflorescence is blackish when very young, later changes to green (we can see in the photograph) and appears as above when bloom.
It is very distinct from Nauclea missionis Wall. (Nauclea elliptica Dalz.) a red listed plant.
In absense of information in the required format it can be guessed to be Ochreinauclea missionis or Neonauclea purpurea. The location details would have ruled out Kadamba. Looking at the (longer) length
of peduncle it can be the latter as ... has guessed. Four genera have similar looking flowers, largest is Kadamba and smallest is Haldina. Details besides just a picture would have certainly helped the ID.
I feel it is Mitragyna parvifolia. [Kalam in Marathi.] Or Anthocephalus kadamba [Kadamb in Marathi.]
Leaves can help to confirm ID.
I have notice that tree in Coimbatore. Shortly I will upload the picture for id. confirmation. .......................

I don't know how the two plants got mixed up
The plant originally uploaded by ... on 24-8-2011 is clearly Mitragyna parvifolia with narrower leaves, cuneate at base. It can't be Anthocephalus cadamba (Neolamarckia cadamba) as stigma is much larger and more so dried shrunk fruits on the left of the photograph can be seen (they are fleshy in Anthocephalus).
......................................


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Mitragyna parvifolia / Kaim tree - Flora of Madhya Pradesh: Sharing this -Mitragyna parvifolia ( Rubiaceae ) or Kalam tree from Jungle of Chikhral, Betul, MP.
Dated- 15 th Dec 11.
Tree height- 30 feet ( appx)
The wood of this tree z used specially for making scales. ( along wid furniture, doors etc ).
Yes Mitragyna parvifolia... earlier i confused it with Adina cordifolia because of the similarity in inflorescence and overall looks of bark and tree canopy but the obvious point is 'cordifolia' which i missed while getting confused on them.....
and this is the famous kadamb tree associated with Lord Krishna....
Yes, this is Mitragyna parvifolia, .....and I have a notion that the plant associated with Lord Krishna- the Kadamb is Anthocepahlus cadamba, not this one.
Yes, agree wid ... dat Neolamarckia cadamba or Anthocephalus cadamba or indicus are associated with Lord Krishna.
my-tra-GY-na -- from the Greek mitra (a turban or headdress) and gyne (ovary)
par-vee-FOH-lee-uh -- small leaves

Apr 1, 2007 ... at a resort garden near Vajreshwari, Maharashtra
commonly known as: kaim, water kadamba • Bengali: ধারাকদম্ব dharakadam, গুলিকদম্ব gulikadam • Gujarati: કલમ kalam • Hindi: गुरी guri, कैम kaim • Kannada: ನೀರ ಕದಮ್ಬ nira kadamba, ಸಣ್ಣ ಕದಮ್ಬ sanna kadamba • Malayalam: കതമമരം kathamamaram, നീര്‍ക്കടമ്പ് niirkkatamp, പൂച്ചക്കടമ്പ് puuccakkatamp, റോസ് കടമ്പ് roos katamp, വീമ്പ് viimp • Marathi: कळम kalam • Sanskrit: वितानः vitanah • Tamil: நிசுளம் niculam, நீர்க்கடம்பு nirkkatampu • Telugu: అజఘ్నము ajaghnamu, అంబుసారము ambusaramu, జలతుంబురు jalatumburu, నిరుకడము nirkadambu, ఋష్య rsya, తధిద్రుమ tadhidruma
Native to: India
References: Flowers of IndiaAyurvedic Medicinal PlantsENVIS - FRLHTFlowers of Sahyadri by Shrikant Ingalhalikar
more views: Mar 28, 2009 ... at Karnala Bird Sanctuary, Maharashtra
May 1, 2009 ... at Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Maharashtra
again a beautiful and complete set
 
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https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/896c5b286675eca6/Mitragyna-parviflora-Ridge-Delhi-3.jpg?part=0.3&view=1&vt=ANaJVrHSkgzXroF9yOM4AgEDYV_QZNzibAKorj8nDOqZNWjitdA97-njs_eGb9lseYC6sq2wmOtzcrgGkZaeZXW4GaTlQEaw0xhekTJ3xGFc_tUIVtS-mlc
Rubiaceae Week: Mitragyna parvifolia (Roxb.) Korth. from Delhi: Mitragyna parvifolia (Roxb.) Korth., Observ. Naucl. Indic. 19 1839
syn: Nauclea parvifolia Roxb.; Stephegyne parvifolia (Roxb.) Korth.
Medium size deciduous tree; leaves opposite, oblong-ovate, obovate, ovoid to almost orbicular, 6-12 cm long; stipules large, oblong or elliptic, glabrous above, hairy beneath along veins; petiole 5-18 mm long; flowers cream coloured or greenish, in globose 8-15 mm across heads on up to 12 mm long peduncle, head singly or in cluster of up to 5, each subtended by two bract-like leaves; calyx lobes minute with ciliate margin; corolla with 4-6 mm long tube, lobes half as long, throat hairy inside; style filiform, stigma mitriform (headgear); fruiting head fruiting head dry with aggregation of capsules.
Commonly planted along roadsides, almost common on Ridge. Photographed from old Delhi Ridge.


 
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sharing the images of Mytragyna parviflora taken from Ranpur
Name: Mytragyna parviflora
Family: rubiaceae
Habit: Tree
Habitat: Wild, near stream bed
Place of collection: Ranpur, Nayagarh, Odisha
Yes ..., This is very nice. I think the spelling should be Mitragyna
One more Superb set of Pics
It is parvifolia and not parviflora
Thanks a lot Sir for correcting me.
 
Rubiaceae Week:: Mitragyna parvifolia- at Nagpur:  Flowers of Mitragyna parvifolia.
Family: Rubiaceae
Date/Time: 15-05-2010 / 03:50PM
Location
: Nagpur.
Excellent flowers and great photography.


 
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Rubiaceae Week: 12022012 BS-2 Mitragyna ?? from Morni Hills:
Mitragyna ?? from Morni Hills
can this Wildly growing tree be Mitragyna parvifolia??
Only fruits can be seen
pls validate
Yes ..., Mitragyna parviflora.

Rubiaceae Week : Mitragyna parvifolia Pune.: Mitragyna parvifolia
A big tree.
Kalam Laghu Kadamb.
Superb catch ... All ur snaps with flash are rocking.


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Hooghly : Mitragyna parviflora? or Haldina cordifolia? : Attachments (7 + 1+ 14). 10 posts by 4 authors.
These photos were recorded on 17/4/13, in Hooghly.
Should be Mitragyna. It will be flowering around now.
It is Mitragyna parvifolia (Roxb.) Korth. (Rubiaceae).
Yes Mitragyna parvifolia (Not parviflora)
Thank you very much Madam for the ID. If Mitragyna parvifolia is the accepted name for Nauclea parvifolia, Roxburgh writes, "..... flowers during the cold season...." On the other hand FoP informs flowers from April to October - http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=220008667.
...,
flowers terminal ------- Nauclea parvifolia
flowers axillary ------ N. cordifolia
Attaching one more photo of the same tree.
I have recorded more picture (14) today.
Beautiful pictures!!
Thank you ..., but i am still confused.
Mitragyna parviflora.
Thank you Madam, it is not Haldina cordifolia.
Enclosing few pics. (5). May be helpful to differentiate.
Thank you very much Sir. I find it easier to differentiate both the species based on stigma and calices.

Adina cordifolia :  5 posts by 5 authors.
Can anyone please tell the difference between Haldina cordifolia (=Adina cordifolia) and Mitragyna parviflora ?
the obvious difference is
The leaves of Haldina cordifolia (Roxb.) Ridsdare heart shaped with long petiole, and crowded at the end of branches; flowers with pale yellowish lobes and pinkish tube..
where as, the leaves of Mitragyna parvifolia (Roxb.) Korth are variable, but never cordate; flowers with whitish-green lobes and same coloured tube
i Hope this would be of some help to you.
Haldina cordifolia was originally described by William Roxburgh which is characteristic by the orbicular -cordate leaves, orbicular-oblong stipules, yellow flowers and very peculiar calyx, which are 5-lobed.
Mitragyna parviflora also described by Roxburgh remarkably different from Haldinia cordifolia by the presence of 2 linear-oblong reduced leaves at the base of flower head, obovate stipules, entire calyx limb etc. Leaves are highly variable in later from orbicular, oblong,ovate or cordate hence are not a reliable character for species delimitation.
Both have ball like flowers, resembling Kadamba flower. Arguably Mitragyna parviflora is the real Kadamba associated with Krishna lore. It is native to dry rocky areas of Mathura-Vrindavan. Have leaves which resemble Mahua leaves. Kadamba has more beautiful leaves. Mitragyna flowers are fragrant. I dont know about Haldu.
Pictures of Haldina and Mitragyna leaves.
http://pick14.pick.uga.edu/mp/20p?see=I_PAO7865&res=640
http://pick14.pick.uga.edu/mp/20p?see=I_PAO7882&res=640


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https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/ee40c5f4924c0ebc/P1020356.jpg?part=0.11&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFpqJC8lVo5bNxvKZVEXP7R-f__tC0UdXjTCYK5pA7uuDdnm_BCHU7vFN-0_aZ7mnOSJrRLndWRFVIB-OSJUAyUdjY9vZdnfDDnPK3ZlEa4mFPd6Dw
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Hooghly Today : Mitragyna parvifolia (Roxb.) Korth. : Attachments (12).  5 posts by 3 authors.
Great capture of two forms of Common Mime butterfly nectaring on the flowers. The brown one is mimic of Common Indian Crow butterfly in Common Mimes' Clytia form & the other one - Common Mimes' dissimilis forms mimics Blue Tiger butterfly... The oozing tree sap often attracts Blue Oak Leaf butterfly. Also this is the larval host plant of Commander butterfly. ... thnx for sharing all superb photographs...
 

 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/2c6937907bcf0/Cadamba.jpg?part=0.2&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFp-O3v2NVq8Qi6yPQN_Ba7n-dDP0RD9hFsbs1KnJ3UeCh3LOnjKmexfwGUQevvX7ZGI8Q_M6OmgvjDExVUL0cg3K281YsvOVepoHTeTl-RrLyAqWg
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/2c6937907bcf0/Mitragyna%20parvifolia.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrHdi7dSA5Mny3PjHSN9ELz14TvKWVXEYMkqInt9DvWfBGhuQa1ANU6S2J8J8I6EjAC1Ft47_N3L9ROMm7eMEqzv3VyJwchcLffdRkTpcXe5EgX3R0A
Fwd: MITRAGYNA PARVIFOLIA : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (2)
Attaching two collages.
First one is of Mitragyna parvifolia and the second one is of Neolamarckia cadamba/ Mitrgyna parvifolia.

 
 
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2018....ID plz : Attachments (1)
Location guhagar, ratnagiri Maharashtra
Dr. 31.7.2018

Very nice flowers of Haldina cordifolia (Roxb.) Ridsdale (= Adina cordifolia (Roxb.) Hook. f.), timber tree, holy tree, wood yellowish

Thanks, ..., for the initial id.
I think more closer to Mitragyna parvifolia than Adina cordifolia as per images, keys and details herein.


 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/4bd988536f8e8/Symbiosis%201218.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGQ_0GteRMoJ9PiAny-F_Cngq0aOq9kZkE3_q551ki83Md_eDZoJrmjlwIfFrEJ7jK_KEqX4SUzWd26W0ZDxnBmxefeTKFVhTfCuD-MrNaxzc2-t5E
SYMBIOSIS : 1218 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Red base Jezebel visiting flowers of Mitragyna parvifolia (KAIM/ GULIKADAM).


 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/1723a726a48e7a/Symbiosis%201219.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrF4n85z8Heiev8vuZiVF1EMaiKAMyD1c6gsasi6bxJ_USDEjlxW6J71eGk10x-ijR8X8AkkXkP_qBULXQmW_FbdSH1a-KWAcNB-Cc_1mMfa4Nusgbg
SYMBIOSIS : 1219 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Red spot Jezebel visiting flowers of Mitragyna parvifolia.


 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/1624aee1d63fc9/Symbiosis%201220.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrHKe5KWd17-JcTVq8qIf0Hls-ip4Z2Bwi9Jqttb6-bc9UDh5jbMg1cTCoEIZjK1guNlOZaQxckJhT596_9hlyXKnMqiU6rGqM0YSZDVcDl1TRr80dQ
SYMBIOSIS 1220 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Blue Tiger visiting flowers of Mitragyna parvifolia.


 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/16e2cc7c924451/Symbiosis%201221.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGMMjNQPN9CQ5KFEXpUuAAhQJaMemx77nHHn_Trp0TJiK4lfmN3JaZ5InXPndfALB-5F6Nja_OuuOtGIFaBS8qaBMZdA-1jIRxIU_ty9O-Cx_rRWNk
SYMBIOSIS : 1221 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Common Bottle blue visiting flowers of Mitrgyna parvifolia.

 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/2f666f6d0c903/tn_DSC_0946.JPG?part=0.3&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFVw2swNbct520H0ZQ2DsTk2iqe3FwA22KALkLPQOr2lT0DH50znDPvIeEnwRHYDYri9kf4qmhy4dDNWFlzk4PuazFhGzMlHUF3qqVafgwa2ad5LMA
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/2f666f6d0c903/tn_DSC_0944.JPG?part=0.4&view=1&vt=ANaJVrHctqlCZwn4wHreCi6pxUWQY0FcrgxMA2YFXwzczn3YesCBrLZshOPBNBii6Hmy2Vocv0_JmzX7MaVErB15zgZqQOQgN47AK-woWs6ChZ9umtzj0tw
 
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Mitragyna parvifolia from Panjab University, Chandigarh : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (6)
Here am uploading some images of Mitragyna parvifolia (Rubiaceae) taken from Panjab University, Chandigarh in June 2018.
very nicely done. i wish every body would follow your example. but you know what would make your cases as real examples to others? if you would also show the habit of the whole plant/ tree and habitat that would be wonderful.
 
 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/520a7e8dc3280/Symbiosis%201241.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFnYcr06OSoY6SIO8ykgK_nMkyw6Jqu97-kxvmtyliR8FXYLtjnIW7ycU_G7O0GETlRXVY1woZqCwZ9dXDdR-9Eu6KxxeRNIWoXy39LtGwuWQIZ664
SYMBIOSIS : 1241 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Common Emigrant visiting flowers of Mitragyna parvifolia (KAIM/ KRISHNA KADAM)


 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/6697bc7d5901e/Symbiosis%201265.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrF-KNmwabIJi2dv2eWIYQzJ3wr4wQijKMt32PRJcun0MNjsQ2DkGjeWTMDvLkG0GqgtMIC5QJ4HigBJ92PNeNDo7Rgexp60W-S2uqcVhO-O_ejE6tY
SYMBIOSIS : 1265 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching an image of Tailed Jay visiting flowers of Mitragyna parvifolia. (KAIM/ GULI KADAM/ KRISHNA KADAM


 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/6175277a87bad/Symbiosis%201264.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrEizTPj3D4dH5upEEVFfQTyOGdZivoAjVncQoNNoWvc_CB6AIJDgaOCvK-9I8OkUqec-Jw1VaOz6UnCoM0_7d5TeOeF3xo0WSVDn6whtldhJngbPkw
SYMBIOSIS : 1264 : 4 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Plain Tiger visiting flowers of Mitragyna parvifolia (KAIM/ GULI KADAM/ KRISHNA KADAM)


 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/5ca3808eb6c85/Symbiosis%201263.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFpG27A-xHAMQqkIHpiX8KDGGkNcd0eKd86mLXAu1nwVdJNUUHGn2PpT35PvpCkD_HS2-oVGWLWd7JkRKpKUhz3lk9MPCT0hG6NTEAekLWInvLFXDY
SYMBIOSIS : 1263 : 4 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Striped Tiger visiting flowers of Mitragyna parvifolia (KAIM/ GULIKADAM/ KRISHNA-KADAM).


 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/37190efc4a459/Symbiosis%201267.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrHRkAGsR2qh544jLFDaFiHHv3ceGKW-qKoMqT3Qr7DkZfODxElsDrssC8KmEgAJMZ92b7dcSZBDcEzv67gj9YL2RQbvwr4XpfYTVX4Nsi0p_N7M8rk
SYMBIOSIS : 1267 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Arctid moth visiting flowers of Mitragyna parvifolia (KAIM/ GULI KADAM/ KRISHNA KADAM)


 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/26ed66039c038/Redbase%20Jezebel%201.jpg?part=0.2&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGIWi0IZXGeXgcsivNbUdWQJ1mf-ergnUHwuQ5b701MpdlyAB1HZd6uUEoEs3tcsVIlpks0D9C_iJ2MFfAsnW-MXJX8H6X5ZP9mDUoW_LC8AjVvqw8
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/26ed66039c038/Redbase%20Jezebel%201.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrF8UQLJOAQ8iiewQYSvthbyHT_xhLsES1J5VrzqhbD1fzEgYa8hVEBkaoLX0a7azFx-R30N3Morwl6Wk2aArXhqC7PmGoFULSJdgLhsnPnZCjrg3Tk
I am observing visiting butterflies on different flowers for last few years. I am not sure what triggers butterflies towards a particular flower.
Is it the size ? (Probably not, tiny flowers of Satalum album attracts many butterfly species where as Sunflower attracts hardly any). Is it the colour of a flower ? (Rose attracts hardly any, whereas Murraya paniculata attracts many). Is it the fragrance ? (Not very sure. Flowers of Alstonia scholaris with strong smell attracts less number of species in comparison to the flowers of Santalum album which does not have appreciable smell)
Both Mitragyna parvifolia (KAIM / KRISHNA KADAM) and Neolamarckia cadamba (KADAM) blooms at this time of the year. The former is inferior in look and fragrance. But it attracts more species of butterflies in comparison. Attaching two images of Red base Jezebel visiting both these flowers. A serious student of zoology/ botany may like to find out. 


https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/ce0e568ca1121d8b/IMG_2352%20fruiting.JPG?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGPqPs_FYRCeJQ_iAoWIiIi0u6XztLA8ZHfu9_p2mvE8CDCz4zEm0OCQeVeonNnh2kkYd9uV5HQ_tqaVUC5ux-rRfqnry-y14srJ_8W1t1pvQ5ZeN4
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/5749ceb4df72370c/kaim_Mitragyna%20parviflora_delhi_648_250608.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrHxFDLwT2YWVw_O8HBKbKGz87HsaTIcmjFI5pSRkHTRgguqrJV24T79WWJeqGdsFmvbZNu1YnFJx8-7LyeNrEpBaDos_fVbnJ7viD34TlfGfqjq5Bg
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/5808cb6e72e0b4dd/kaim_Mitragyna%20parviflora_delhi_661_250608.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrH4vKQMWTnY_4Z9aW8Md9kZ42zp4iyqrNr1k-IGK-KkggRQTa5_4BSrnO7eH7Cjxs3uQjaCyEyWT1kn5Fnp5vKKOtP7GwLTUVqSqTSbnmBGnh8Y4Ow
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/65f956eff0fe6559/kadamba_leaves.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrEvRfQ2X0jX6q53inkADBxTVQLFMF8TXgLRSz5Buntlucj3qICdedG6Z0_5uLgO4g3yYqu3Lk7gfa7oKOfo0wchwVnXqiJs2QOEmy3ITX7sPxW2asc
 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/33cb5486301467ca/Mitragyna%20parviflora%20tree%20bark%202.jpg?part=0.3&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFOQ1Wee4lZWmCufhlCF4u8UVWsuoWYKHrNe_udD4oZAwsICSWqCFnu7-BDtNDbraKVdYwY6R5TpZSqEMpH0jcaGsHgJqHZuoiBa7s8YFrk7HwJETE
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https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/da253108384716b6/Mitragyna%20parviflora.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGzZB91LEOW29RH0xH4eIFP_t8rrN_acegPC2N5ZHjr3rHmgtppSHlptKm2CJIRYb0SDuQYDIQ-naYEvKOx70pGLy0ztY13I_GsRqxqHIzaA-7Kcw0
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at Delhi on 25.6.08; in Pune city- April'10; at moist mixed deciduous forest of Kulgi, Dandeli, Karnataka on 24 April '10; 15-05-2010: Nagpur; Devgad, Maharashtra;
Trees of Delhi- Flowers mid May or June, continuing into the rains.Kaim/ Kadamb/ Kallam/Phaldu/ Mundi (Mitragyna parviflora) - indiantreepix | Google GroupsID of tree - efloraofindia | Google Groups

 
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Nagla forest  ... part of Sanjay Gandhi National Park
Date: December 21, 2019 ... Altitude: sea level to about 600 ft asl
Mitragyna parvifolia  (Roxb.) Korth.



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