Hedyotis





 
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Hedyotis cyanantha Kurz (India; Malaya; Sri Lanka; Sulawesi as per Catalogue of Life)

 
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(Bangladesh; India; Malaya; Myanmar; Sri Lanka; Sumatera; Thailand as per Catalogue of Life)
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Hedyotis purpurascens Hook.f. (India (Tamil Nadu, Kerala) as per WCSP)

 
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Leptopetalum biflorum (L.) Neupane & N.Wikstr. (Trop. & Subtrop. Asia to W. Pacific as per WCSP)
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/b54b1e81a5b076d4/P1030459.jpg?part=0.5&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGfhfG2kO9wcLCpB3abPaKlNQee8oNU16BaCLeWXhopkRDhUhtKmfkW0PYqwz4T9kPaxQRLtfK8Tor6-lTyiWWPZX5fLtP18kHkv-E8q0jefVvGP-g
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Leptopetalum pteritum (Blume) Neupane & N.Wikstr. (China Southeast; India; Jawa; Lesser Sunda Is.; Malaya; Myanmar; Nicobar Is.; Philippines; Sulawesi; Thailand; Vietnam as per Catalogue of Life

https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/88372aa6213ab58d/hedyotis%20pterita%202.jpg?part=0.7&view=1&vt=ANaJVrF1fmZpvZpcJUyFrefyu2SHaEeYLAswbRwmhfMSJCfY-VPrtLbSoGzA-Rz051v6eDsK-EmYAwcm9SLeWVQeODH24T4Fyyo7lmV-0BioerGmEasr-LM
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Oldenlandia affinis (Roem. & Schult.) DC. (Trop. & S. Africa to Pen. Malaysia as per WCSP)
 
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Oldenlandia corymbosa L. (Trop. & Subtrop. Old World as per WCSP)
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Oldenlandia herbacea (L.) Roxb. (Africa, Indian Subcontinent as per WCSP)
 
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Oldenlandia stocksii Hook.f. (S. India as per WCSP)

 
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Oldenlandia stricta L. (India, Sri Lanka as per WCSP)

 
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Oldenlandia umbellata L. (Cambodia; Hainan; India; Jawa; Laccadive Is.; Maldives; Myanmar; Pakistan; Sri Lanka; Sulawesi; Vietnam as per Catalogue of Life)

 
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Scleromitrion diffusum (Willd.) R.J.Wang (Trop. & Subtrop. Asia as per WCSP

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Scleromitrion verticillatum (L.) R.J.Wang (Trop. & Subtrop. Asia to WC. Pacific as per WCSP)

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The Hedyotis-Oldenlandia complex (Rubiaceae: Spermacoceae) in Asia and the Pacific: Phylogeny revisited with new generic delimitations (pdf)- Suman Neupane,  Steven Dessein, Niklas Wikström, Paul O. Lewis, Chunlin Long,  Birgitta Bremer & Timothy J. Motley- TAXON 64 (2) April 2015: 299–322 (Abstract- Hedyotis and related genera (here called the Hedyotis-Oldenlandia complex) are highly debated groups in the Rubiaceae family with no consensus to date on their generic delimitations. The present study focuses on Asian-Pacific taxa from these groups and aims at resolving taxonomic inconsistencies by describing monophyletic genera within the complex. The generic circumscriptions presented in our study are based on the phylogenetic trees of nuclear (ITS, ETS) and plastid (petD, rps16) sequence data inferred using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods. Morphological key features of the group such as habit, fruit type, seed form, and pollen type are studied and compared with the phylogeny to characterize the clades. Based on these results, the Asian-Pacific members are placed in 14 monophyletic groups across the Hedyotis-Oldenlandia complex. Of these, we accept and circumscribe 13 monophyletic genera: Debia, Dentella, Dimetia, Edrastima, Exallage, Hedyotis, Involucrella, Kadua, Kohautia, Leptopetalum, Neanotis, Oldenlandia, and Scleromitrion. Two of these, Debia and Involucrella, are here described as new genera)
Keys as per Flora of Pakistan:
28 (27)Calyx teeth contiguous on the capsule. Capsule splitting longitudinally 3 Hedyotis
+Calyx teeth distant on the capsule. Capsule splitting at the apex (29)
29 (28)Corolla tube cylindrical. Anthers and stigma included, stigmas always below the anthers 5 Kohautia
+Corolla tube cylindrical or infundibuliform, if cylindrical than either anthers and stigmas exserted or anthers below the stigma 4 Oldenlandia

Keys as per Flora of China:
19 (18)Fruit indehiscent or splitting into 2 indehiscent mericarps. 22 Diodia
+Fruit capsular, splitting septicidally into 2 segments with 1 or both segments then splitting loculicidally. 86 Spermacoce
20 (18)Plants without fetid odor when bruised, usually drying green or brownish green; seeds angled to lenticular. 35 Hedyotis
+Plants usually with fetid odor when bruised, usually drying black to gray; seeds peltate to plano-convex. 60 Neanotis


Flora of Eastern Ghats: Hill Ranges of South East India, Volume 3 By T. Pullaiah, K. Sri Ramamurthy (Description & Keys)-
Hedyotis affinis (syn. of Oldenlandia affinis (Roem. & Schult.) DC.),
Hedyotis aspera (syn. of Kohautia aspera (B.Heyne ex Roth) Bremek.),
Hedyotis auricularia synonym for Exallage auricularia (L.) Bremek.,
Hedyotis brachiata (syn. of Oldenlandia attenuata (Willd.) M.R.Almeida),
Hedyotis caerulea (syn. of Hedyotis cyanantha Kurz),
Hedyotis corymbosa (syn. of Oldenlandia corymbosa L.),
Hedyotis diffusa synonym for Scleromitrion diffusum (Willd.) R.J.Wang,
Hedyotis gracilis (syn. of Kohautia gracilis (Wall.) DC.),
Hedyotis graminifolia (syn. of Oldenlandia stricta L.),
Hedyotis herbacea (syn. of Oldenlandia herbacea (L.) Roxb.),
Hedyotis nitida (syn. of Hedyotis neesiana Arn.),
Hedyotis puberula (syn. of Oldenlandia umbellata L.) &
Hedyotis pumila (syn. of Oldenlandia pumila (L.f.) DC.)    
  

From Floral Database of Tamilnadu :

 

BinomialHabitNotesReferencesDistribution
Hedyotis affinis Roem. & Schultes is a synonym of Oldenlandia affinis (Roem. & Schult.) DC.HerbPlains to Low Altitude, Moist LocalitiesFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Coimbatore, Dindigul, Nilgiri, Kancheepuram, Salem, Theni, Tirunelveli, Tiruvannamalai, Vellore
Hedyotis albo-nervia Bedd. (Hedyotis albonerva Bedd.) ShrubWestern Ghats, Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Tirunelveli
Hedyotis anamalayana (Gamble) R. Rao & Hemadri is a synonym of Hedyotis leschenaultiana DC.UndershrubWestern Ghats, Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Coimbatore
Hedyotis articularis R.Br. ex Wight & Arn. subsp. articularisShrubWestern Ghats, Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Coimbatore, Dindigul, Nilgiri
Hedyotis articularis R.Br. ex Wight & Arn. subsp. santapaui (Shetty & Vivek.) Deb & DuttaUndershrubWestern Ghats, Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Coimbatore
Hedyotis aspera Heyne ex Roth is a synonym of Kohautia aspera (B.Heyne ex Roth) Bremek.HerbPlains, Moist LocalitiesFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987All districts
Hedyotis auricularia L. (syn. of Exallage auricularia (L.) Bremek.) Trailing HerbWestern Ghats, Moist Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Coimbatore, Nilgiri, Theni, Tirunelveli
Hedyotis barberi (Gamble) Henry & Subram.ShrubWestern Ghats, Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Tirunelveli
Hedyotis beddomei Hook.f.ShrubWestern Ghats, Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Balasubramanian 1972Nilgiri
Hedyotis biflora (L.) Lam. synonym for Leptopetalum biflorum (L.) Neupane & N.Wikstr.HerbPlains, Moist LocalitiesFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987All districts
Hedyotis brachiata Wight is a synonym of Oldenlandia attenuata (Willd.) M.R.AlmeidaHerbPlains, Moist LocalitiesFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble 1957Coimbatore, Kancheepuram, Thiruvallur, Tiruchchirappalli, Tiruvannamalai
Hedyotis buxifolia Bedd.ShrubWestern Ghats, Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Coimbatore
Hedyotis caerulea Wight & Arn. is a synonym of Hedyotis cyanantha KurzHerbPlains, Dry LocalitiesFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble 1957Dharmapuri, Kancheepuram, Thanjavur
Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. = Oldenlandia corymbosa L.HerbPlains, Moist LocalitiesFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987All districts
Hedyotis devicolamensis Deb & DuttaShrub/undershrubWestern Ghats, Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Coimbatore
Hedyotis diffusa Willd. synonym for Scleromitrion diffusum (Willd.) R.J.WangHerbPlains, Moist LocalitiesFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Mayuranathan 1929Coimbatore, Dindigul, Kancheepuram, Thiruvallur, Tirunelveli, Tiruvannamalai
Hedyotis erecta Manilal & Sivar. is a synonym of Oldenlandia erecta (Manilal & Sivar.) R.R.MillHerbDry LocalitiesR. Vijaya Sankar, 2007Tiruvannamalai
Hedyotis eualata (Gamble) Henry & Subram. var. agastyamalayana Henry & Subram.UndershrubWestern Ghats, Evergreen Forests, EndemicFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Kanniyakumari, Tirunelveli
Hedyotis eualata (Gamble) Henry & Subram. var. eualataShrubWestern Ghats, Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble 1957Coimbatore, Nilgiri, Tirunelveli
Hedyotis gamblei Henry & Subram.ShrubWestern Ghats, Evergreen Forests, EndemicFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Kanniyakumari, Tirunelveli
Hedyotis gracilis Wall. is a synonym of Kohautia gracilis (Wall.) DC.HerbWestern Ghats, Moist Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Coimbatore, Tirunelveli
Hedyotis graminifolia L.f. var. graminifolia synonym for Oldenlandia stricta L.HerbCoastFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Cuddalore, Kancheepuram, Kanniyakumari, Ramanathapuram, Thanjavur, Thiruvallur, Tirunelveli
Hedyotis graminifolia L.f. var. shuteri (Hook. f.) Deb & Dutta synonym for Oldenlandia stricta L.HerbDry Evergreen to Dry Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Tiruchchirappalli, Tirunelveli, Tiruvannamalai, Vellore
Hedyotis herbacea L. = Oldenlandia herbacea (L.) Roxb.HerbDry Evergreen to Dry Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987All districts
Hedyotis hirsutissima Bedd.ShrubWestern Ghats, Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Nilgiri
Hedyotis leschenaultiana DC.ShrubWestern Ghats, Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Coimbatore, Dindigul, Nilgiri, Theni
Hedyotis lessertiana Arn.ShrubWestern Ghats, Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Coimbatore
Hedyotis nitida Wight & Arn. is a synonym of Hedyotis neesiana Arn.HerbWestern Ghats, Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Coimbatore, Kanniyakumari, Nilgiri, Theni, Tirunelveli
Hedyotis ovatifolia Cav. synonym for Debia ovatifolia (Cav.) Neupane & N.Wikstr.HerbWestern Ghats, Moist Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Coimbatore, Dindigul
Hedyotis pruinosa Wight & Arn.ShrubCoastFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Thoothukkudi
Hedyotis pterita Blume synonym for Leptopetalum pteritum (Blume) Neupane & N.Wikstr.HerbPlains, Moist LocalitiesFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Coimbatore, Kancheepuram, Namakkal, Thiruvallur
Hedyotis puberula (G.Don) Arn. is a synonym of Oldenlandia umbellata L.HerbPlains, Dry LocalitiesFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987All districts
Hedyotis pumila L.f. = Oldenlandia pumila (L. f.) DC.HerbPlains , Moist LocalitiesFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble 1957, Rangaswamy et al. 1967 Cuddalore, Kancheepuram, Nagapattinam, Nilgiri, Ramanathapuram, Thiruvallur, Tiruvannamalai, Tiruchchirappalli, Tirunelveli, Vellore , Viluppuram
Hedyotis purpurascens Hook.f. var. pallida (Gamble) Mohanan is a synonym of Hedyotis purpurascens Hook.f.ShrubWestern Ghats, Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Tirunelveli
Hedyotis purpurascens Hook.f. var. purpurascensShrubWestern Ghats, Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Fyson 1932Kanniyakumari, Nilgiri, Theni, Tirunelveli
Hedyotis ramarowii (Gamble) R. Rao & Hemadri var. kannikattica Sundaresan, Manickam ,G.J. Jothi & MuruganUndershrubWestern Ghats, Evergreen Forests, EndemicFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Tirunelveli
Hedyotis ramarowii (Gamble) R.Rao & Hemadri var. ramarowii UndershrubWestern Ghats, Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Tirunelveli
Hedyotis shettyi Ravikumar & Lakshmanan ShrubWestern Ghats, Evergreen Forests, EndemicK.Ravikumar, 1999Theni
Hedyotis sisaparensis Gage is a synonym of Hedyotis leschenaultiana DC.UndershrubWestern Ghats, Evergreen Forests, EndemicFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble 1957Nilgiri
Hedyotis swertioides Hook.f.ShrubWestern Ghats, Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Hook.f.1880Coimbatore, Dindigul, Nilgiri, Theni, Tirunelveli
Hedyotis travancorica Bedd.UndershrubWestern Ghats, Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Kanniyakumari, Tirunelveli
Hedyotis villosostipulata (Gamble) R.Rao & Hemadri (Syn. of Oldenlandia villosostipulata Gamble) ShrubWestern Ghats, Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Kanniyakumari
Hedyotis viscida Bedd. (syn. of Oldenlandia viscida (Bedd.) Kuntze)ShrubWestern Ghats, Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Fyson 1932Nilgiri, Tirunelveli

 

 

FRLHT Indian Medicinal Plants Nomenclature Database with images/ herbarium, distribution, local names etc. :


  

Species with description & keys from Flora of Pakistan (Distribution):

Hedyotis hirsuta (L. f.) Sprang. (Java, Japan to temperate Himalayas, Bhutan to East Kashmir and Pakistan) synonym for Neanotis hirsuta (L.f.) W.H.Lewis



Species with description & keys from Flora of Pakistan (Distribution):

Oldenlandia corymbosa L. (Tropical east Asia-Java, India, Pakistan (Murree & Hazara), Kashmir, Ceylon, Bangla Desh, Malaysia, tropical Africa and America)

Oldenlandia nudicaulis Roth (Indo-Malaya, lava, Assam and Pakistan) synonym for Debia ovatifolia (Cav.) Neupane & N.Wikstr.

Oldenlandia umbellata L. (India, Ceylon, Burma, Pakistan (Sind) and west Tropical Africa)



Species with distribution in annotated checklist of Flowering plants of Nepal (Distribution):

Hedyotis auricularia L. (900-1700 m; Himalaya (Nepal to Assam), India, Burma, east to S. China, Malaysia, Australia, Tropical Africa (probably introduced)) synonym for Exallage auricularia (L.) Bremek.

Hedyotis biflora (L.) Lam. (200-1600 m; Himalaya, India, east to China and S. Japan, Malaysia, Polynesia) synonym for Leptopetalum biflorum (L.) Neupane & N.Wikstr.

Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. (200-2400 m; Himalaya, India, Ceylon, all tropical Asia, Africa, America) synonym for Oldenlandia corymbosa L.

Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (600-1000 m; Tropical and subtropical eastern Asia, India, S. China, Japan, Malaysia) synonym for Scleromitrion diffusum (Willd.) R.J.Wang

Hedyotis lineata Roxb. (1000-1800 m; Himalaya (Nepal, Sikkim), Bengal, Burma) synonym for Exallage ulmifolia (Wall.) Bremek.

Hedyotis ovatifolia Cav. (200-1200 m; Himalaya (Kumaun to Sikkim), India, Thailand, Indo-China, Taiwan, Malaysia) synonym for Debia ovatifolia (Cav.) Neupane & N.Wikstr.

Hedyotis pinifolia Wall. ex G. Don (550 m; Himalaya, India, Thailand, Indo-China, Malaysia) synonym for Scleromitrion pinifolium (Wall. ex G.Don) R.J.Wang

Hedyotis scandens Roxb. (400-1800 m; Himalaya (Nepal to Bhutan), Khasia, Burma, Indo-China) synonym for Dimetia scandens (Roxb.) R.J.Wang

Hedyotis verticillata (L.) Lam. (200-800 m; Himalaya, India, Thailand, Indo-China, Ryukyu, Malaysia, Micronesia) synonym for Scleromitrion verticillatum (L.) R.J.Wang



Some species found in India with description & keys from Flora of China [Distribution other than China]:

Hedyotis auricularia Linnaeus [India, Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Australia] synonym for Exallage auricularia (L.) Bremek.

Hedyotis biflora (Linnaeus) Lamarck [[India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Vietnam; SE Asia to Pacific islands] synonym for Leptopetalum biflorum (L.) Neupane & N.Wikstr.

Hedyotis brachypoda (Candolle) Sivarajan & Biju [Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia (Malacca), Nepal, Philippines, Vietnam] is a synonym of Oldenlandia brachypoda DC.

Hedyotis brevicalyx Sivarajan [India, Indonesia (Java), N Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Vietnam] synonym for Oldenlandia umbellata L.

Hedyotis capitellata Wallich ex G. Don [India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam] synonym for Dimetia capitellata (Wall. ex G.Don) Neupane & N.Wikstr.

Hedyotis corymbosa (Linnaeus) Lamarck [Africa and tropical Asia; widely adventive in the Americas and the Pacific region]. synonym for Oldenlandia corymbosa L.

Hedyotis diffusa Willdenow [Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand] synonym for Scleromitrion diffusum (Willd.) R.J.Wang

Hedyotis herbacea Linnaeus [widespread in tropical Africa and Asia] = Oldenlandia herbacea (L.) Roxb.

Hedyotis hermanniana R. M. Dutta [India, Sri Lanka].

Hedyotis lineata Roxburgh [Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Nepal] synonym for Exallage ulmifolia (Wall.) Bremek.

Hedyotis merguensis Bentham & J. D. Hooker  [India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam] synonym for Involucrella coronaria (Kurz) Neupane & N.Wikstr.

Hedyotis ovatifolia Cavanilles [India, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand] synonym for Debia ovatifolia (Cav.) Neupane & N.Wikstr.

Hedyotis pinifolia Wallich ex G. Don [India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam] synonym for Scleromitrion pinifolium (Wall. ex G.Don) R.J.Wang

Hedyotis prostrata Blume [India, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam].

Hedyotis pterita Blume [India, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam] synonym for Leptopetalum pteritum (Blume) Neupane & N.Wikstr.

Hedyotis scandens Roxburgh [Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Vietnam] synonym for Dimetia scandens (Roxb.) R.J.Wang

Hedyotis tenelliflora Blume [India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam; Australia, Melanesia] synonym for Scleromitrion tenelliflorum (Blume) Korth.

Hedyotis trinervia (Retzius) Roemer & Schultes [India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, N Vietnam] synonym for Edrastima trinervia (Retz.) Neupane & N.Wikstr.

Hedyotis uncinella Hooker & Arnott [India, Myanmar].

Hedyotis verticillata (Linnaeus) Lamarck [Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam] synonym for Scleromitrion verticillatum (L.) R.J.Wang

Hedyotis vestita R. Brown ex G. Don [India, Indochina, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand] (Syn. of Exallage costata (Roxb.) Bremek.)



Hedyotis & Oldenlandia : 1 post by 1 author.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Oldenlandia & Hedyotis

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other databases.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

Any comments are welcome.


 

Pl. go through Old Hedyotis complex (Debia, Exallage, Hedyotis, Leptopetalum, Oldenlandia & Scleromitrion) page with images of species in efloraofindia.

If you find any incorrect identification, pl. let us know.

If anybody can send images of other species of this genus (for incorporation in the website) to indiantreepix@googlegroups.com, it will be really nice.