Rubus rugosus

Rubus rugosus Smith (Rubus hamiltonianus Ser.; Rubus rugosus Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don (ambiguous synonym); Rubus rugosus var. cambodiana Card.) as per Catalogue of Life & efi thread

Rubus indicus Thunb., Diss. Rub. 5 & 7. 1813; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 169. 1984; Antony, Syst. Stud. Fl. Kottayam Dist. 153. 1989; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 130. 1998. Rubus wightii Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 440(312). 1919; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 191. 1990. Rubus rugosus sensu Wight, Ic. t. 225. 1839, non Smith 1815. Rubus moluccanus sensu Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 2: 330. 1878, p.p., non L. 1753. as per Kerala Plants;

Rubus indicus Thunb. (syn: Rubus rugosus Wight; Rubus wightii Gamble) as per Catalogue of Life & efi thread

Nepal to Sikkim, Assam, Thailand, S-India, Sri Lanka, peninsular Malaysia, Vietnam as per Catalogue of Life (Rubus rugosus Smith);

India, Sri Lanka, Thailand as per Catalogue of Life (Rubus indicus Thunb.);

in Avalanche- Kunda Forest Reserve-Mukurthi National Park- 13.5.10;For ID 270610 ET - efloraofindia | Google Groups
Rosaceae Week_Rubus mollucanus_RKC06_03102011Rubus mollucanus for you.
Loc.: Yingkyong, Upper Siang district (ca 550msl), Arunachal Pradesh
Date: October, 2005.
Locally called as "Tapa-Tara" by Adi community.
Fruits are edible.

Sorry for the Typo error... The name should be R. moluccanus L.
I think we need need to recheck the identity...   as "The Plant List" mentions the name as 'Unresolved'.
However, the name has been frequently used in many floras of NE India. Comments plz.

Where The Plant List say Unresolved, it is better to just ignore it till they have a conclusion. For them most Indian names are unresolved.

Blackberry or Rubus molluccanus of Rosaceae (To be validate )  
Vernacular : Nukkatte, Nuccatte (Kannada, Kodagu)

Looks like R. moluccanus to me...but not sure about its distribution in S. India.
Fruitlicious - 29Aug11AR01 from Thalacauvery: Monsoon Magic - Fruiting Red: 29Aug11AR01 from Thalacauvery
An edible fruit
Date/Time-28 Jul 2011 11.06 AM
Location- Place, Altitude, GPS- Talacauvery- Bhagamandala
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type-, Wild, forest road side
Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb- Climber
Leaves Type/ Shape/ Size- Shape - Palmate, Alternate, 15cms
Fruits Type/ Shape/ Size Seeds- resemble pomegranate, fruit -3cms, 0.25cms each edible aril is 0.25 cms
No. of fruit sightings -1
Blackberry or Rubus molluccanus of Rosaceae. Not too sure of sp. though. Must check with local flora.
Vernacular name : Nuccatte / Nukkate - (Probably the name is in coorg/Kodagu language)
When botanists identify this fruit as black berry, locals question - the fruit is Red why don't you call Red berry ?
It turns black/dark red (according to place, shade etc.) when it fully ripened, as we can see in the first picture.
Rubus moluccanus to me also
RUBUS SP: If you have visted Tezpur (Assam) and have been to a Hillock called Bhomraguri (at the bank of mighty Brahmaputra, in fact it is next to the bridge.), you know how rich is the area in terms of flora. There I came across a plant whose leaves attracted my attention. I came to know it is a type Raspberry. But not sure about the identity. I found one similar plant at Cooch Behar. Attaching two images of fruiting branch of the plant.

I think Rubus moluccanus L.
Yes, I agree.
However, It is found in various forms which are very difficult to separate out from one another.
Commonly occurring in Assam.
Unknown sp.-8 from Shillong, Meghalaya. :  Attachments (4). 3 posts by 2 authors.
Attached images are  unknown sp. from Shillong, Meghalaya. Please ID the plant.
Date :09.10.2013
Location: Shillong, Meghalaya 
Seems to be Rubus moluccanus
ANSEPT06 Climber with spines for identification : 3 posts by 1 author. Attachments (4).  
August 2014

Is there a Vitaceae climber with minute spines?
Climber has been identified as Rubus moluccanus
Rubus 240715SP1-3 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)
I need species level identification of following 3 images of Rubus sp.
Date: 24/07/15
Locality: Patlebans, Darjeeling
Altitude: 6200 ft (GPS)
Habit: Shrub, scandent
To me it seems to be Rubus moluccanus. (Ref. Edible Wild Plants of The Himalayas,1964/R L Badhwar and R R Fernandez)
I think yes, R. maluccanus
Rubus 020815SP1-2 : 9 posts by 4 authors.
I need species level identification of following 3 images of Rubus sp.
Date: 02/08/15
Locality: Jalapahar Darjeeling
Altitude: 7000 ft (GPS)
Habit: Shrub, scandent

Rubus species in eFloraofindia (with details/ keys from published papers/ regional floras/ FRLHT/ FOI/ Biotik/ efloras/ books etc., where ever available on net)

This white flowered Rubus seems to be R. floribunda
As per GRIN Rubus floribundus Kunth, does not occur in India in wild.
Looks like Rubus moluccanus L.
Thank you again ... I didn't even see a simple leaved rosaceae!
To me it seems to be Rubus moluccanus.
Eravikulam National Park :: Rubus indicus :: DV02JUL : 9 posts by 6 authors. 6 images.
Eravikulam National Park
Date: June 4, 2014 ... Base elevation: 2000m asl
Rubus indicus Thunb. ... (family: Rosaceae)
Excellent pictures ...
Did you try tasting the berries?

Thank you very much ...
I did not try tasting the berries ... I have never done that!
Thanks, ...
Taxonomy of Rubus is very confusing.
I could not find any refrence on net (in books (old or new) or in efloras or in any good reliable source) for Rubus indicus Thunb.
This is really surprising.
As per JSTOR, Holotype of Rubus indicus Thunb. is stored under Rubus lasiocarpus Sm. = Rubus niveus Thunb.
Further there are three different Rubus indicus to confuse the matter as per The Plant List.
Thanks ... for the observations.
The ID is based on placard in the National Park. It says nothing about the author.
India Biodiversity Portal mentions Thunb.
I hope someone throws light and validates the author citation.
I find as many as 12 species of Rubus in Edible Wild plants of The Himalayas by R L Badhwar and Dr R R Fernandez .
In that book there is an image of Rubus moluccanus which is similar to the images sent by ... I have seen this
plant At Tezpur and I found the same plant at Cooch Behar. In the book I am referring there is no mention of Rubus indicus.
May be that book is of 1964 vintage, and there are lots of change since then.
Thanks ... As per India Biodiversity Portal the distribution of this plant is Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Thus there is possibility it may not be listed in Edible Wild plants of The Himalayas. Let us wait for more comments.

India Boidiversity portal has made pages on all accepted & unaccepted names.

Thank you ... It will be of great help if someone validates the synonymy of Rubus indicus and Rubus moluccanus.
Rubus moluccanus in view of discussions in the thread.
Names of Plants in India :: Rubus indicus Thunb. : 1 post by 1 author. 1 image.
via Species‎ > ‎R‎ > ‎Rubus indicus Thunb. ... family: Rosaceae  
Flowers of India Discussions at efloraofindia more views in flickr more views on Google Earth
ROO-bus -- red; also the Latin name for brambles ... Dave's Botanary
IN-dih-kus or in-DEE-kus -- of or from India ... Dave's Botanary 
commonly known asIndian raspberry • Malayalamഎരുമച്ചുള്ളി erumachchulliകാട്ടുമുന്തിരി kattumunthiri 
botanical namesRubus indicus Thunb. ... synonyms: no synonym known 
Rubus moluccanus in view of discussions in the thread.
Rubus indicus Thunb.
at Eravikulam National Park on June 4, 2014  
Nice images! id is correct Rubus indicus
Rubus moluccanus in view of discussions in the thread.
Thanks ...; will take up making notes for Rubus moluccanus in my flickr photostream.
But I think Rubus indicus must be listed among other synonyms on Rubus moluccanus page in eFI site.
There are 3 unresolved names in The Plants List (2013). Version 1.1 

Thanks, ... I will put the necessary synonyms as per the reference books given by …
Rubus indicus Thunb. : 14 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (7)
Sharing some pictures of Rubus indicus (I guess) shot at Nagarkot on 13 August 2016 at 7000 ft.
These matches with images of the same species by ... at
Rosaceae Fortnight :: Rubus indicus :: Eravikulam National Park :: DVSEP20
I am a little confused about the differences between Rubus indicus and Rubus moluccanus. Can some one explain?
Thanks, ... The following links may be of some use in this matter:
Is this the same plant ? Pictures were shot at Kakani Nepal on 29 July 2016 at 6000 ft.

Appears so.
As a non botanist , I try to identify plants with plates given in books. I have got two books on plants of India. These are,
In these books there is no mention of Rubus indicus. But Rubus Indicus is there in Google.
In both the above mentioned books Rubus moluccanus is mentioned. This is how the plant is described in book at (b)
"A prickly shrub. Leaves 5-20 cm across, digitately 3-7 lobed, with wrinkled upper surface; edges toothed. Flowers white, 1.2-2.5 cm across.  Fruit round, fleshy, red or scarlet.
Distribution: Himalayas from Kumaon to Sikkim at altitudes of 900- 2100 m and in Assam up to 1950 m.
Season : All the year round "
As per book at (a) the plant is known as KATSOI (Kumaon), SUFOKJI (Lepcha) and BIPEN KANTA (Nepal).
To me the images sent by ... is of Rubus moluccanus and not of Rubus indicus. 
According to the following links all 4 names looks synonyms. As such, we can take it as R. rugosus as listed in Nepal publications.
Any further enlightening is welcome.
As Catalogue of Life 28th July 2016, Rubus moluccanus L. does not have any distribution in India, while it gives distribution of Rubus indicus as per link.
Frankly, I had gone by the placard at Eravikulam National Park.
My two posts in this group are:
I too am not clear about relation/ difference between R. indicus and mollucanus.
Shall we say facts given in a publication of CSIR and a publication by Forest Research Institute are wrong?
In that case some one should apprise them about the misinformation so that non botanists are enlightened.
When were these books published ?
Lot of changes has happened in the recent past due to rapid changes in taxonomy.

Rubus moluccanus in view of discussions in the thread.
Adding some fresh pictures of the same plant for the final verdict on it. Attachments (10)
Thanks, ... We have already decide on following the name Rubus moluccanus
There was lot of discussions in the matter in a recent thread.
After seeing & adding all images of all the members at efi pages at Rubus indicus & Rubus moluccanus as well as after perusal of images at FOI links as below:
I feel that all these images are of the same plant.
I could not find any differences between the two species on net.
As per the following links, there is no distribution in India of Rubus moluccanus except in Andmans & Nicobar.
However, the following links give its distribution in Himalayas & India.
However, very little details are available on net about Rubus indicus. The distribution of Rubus indicus is given in India, Sri Lanka & Thailand as per
Catalogue of Life & GBIF. India Biodiversity Portal gives its distribution in Indo-Malesia with Notes: Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests.
After doing all this research, I feel there is only one species & it should be Rubus moluccanus
Your feedback in the matter will make me take a suitable decision.
Enclosing exerpts from two major books of Nepal which would clarify that all three are same. Request your further opinion. Attachments (4)
Thanks, ...  I think that settles the issue
DESIGN OF A CARD : USE OF LEAF/PETAL/SEED : 4 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (1)
You will not have to be a botanist to appreciate beauty of plant kingdom. If some one knows names (not necessarily botanical) of some trees on the road side or in the countryside, his walk will be more enjoyable even if he happens to be walking alone. He will not feel loneliness as he will be able to make a rapport with the known trees. This was the motivation which initiated me to find out identity of a plant (Not from botanical point of view but from esthetic point of view). I use leaves of different shapes to design my cards. To add color I use petals of different flowers. One of the leaf I use quite often is of Rubus moluccanus.
I saw this plant for the first time at a place called BHOMRAGURI (on the bank of mighty Brahmaputra at Tezpur). In shape of the leaf I see the outline of face of Goddess Durga as depicted in popular images. I saw this plant even at Cooch Behar. Attaching scanned copy of a card in which Leaf of Rubus moluccanus is used along with seeds of Aristolochia ringens and cut pieces of scales of bamboo.
Thanks, ... Beautifully brought out & interpreted.
... very nice depiction and beautiful art, ... !!
MS Sept.2016/08 for ID : 4 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (1)
Place : Sairep, Mizoram
Altitude : ca.1,500 m.
Date : 21/09/2016
Habit : Straggling shrub
Habitat : Wild

Rubus species in efi so far. 
According to the leaf and altitude I guess it matches with 
Accepted scientific name: Rubus indicus Thunb. (accepted name)
Synonyms: Rubus rugosus Wight (synonym); Rubus wightii Gamble (synonym)
Rubus moluccanus L. (accepted name) ??? : 7 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
Location: Bhotechaur, Nepal
Altitude: 5000 ft.
Date: 28 September 2013
Any leaves ?
Sorry !
Typical fruits!  Very common and widespread species.

Is the ID correct?
Fruits are very typical.
Bhagamandala - Thalacauvery Road Karnataka
Date: 22 FEB 2017 ... Altitude range: ~ 907 - 1122 m (2976 - 3683 ft) asl
Rubus indicus Thunb. ... (family: Rosaceae
SK766 29 SEP-2017:ID : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (7)
Location: Lakeside, Pokhara, Nepal 
Date : 13 August 2017
Altitude : 2600 ft.

Rubus indicus Thunb.  ??  FoI
Rubus rugosus Sm.  ??  FoI and ACLoN, Book of Nepal
Rubus hamiltonianus Ser.   ??  ACLoN, Book of Nepal 
Rubus moluccanus L.  ?? Book of Nepal 
Rubus wightii Gamble  ??   FoI


Also check in efi site. Beautiful images. 
I thought we have sorted out this issue in Rubus indicus or Rubus moluccanus or both
Pl. see more details at Rubus moluccanus
Re: Rubus species 1 from Kalimpong : 3 posts by 2 authors. 3 images.
Please identify this
Pl. check 
To me appears close. 

To me the species seems to be Rubus moluccanus.
Help me with ID please : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)
Location: Bhutan, 1954m
Captured: 17th August 2018

Rubus species
Family - Rosaceae
Please check at Rubus species page of group.

To me it seems to be Rubus moluccanus
Fwd: RUBUS MOLUCCANUS : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
I was at Tezpur during 2001-2003. A beautiful place on the bank of mighty Brahamaputra. On almost every sun day and on holidays, I used to roam around on bicycle to observe plants, butterflies birds etc. The area is rich in biodiversity.
Those were the days I used to collect leaves of different shapes to be used for designing cards. There is a hillock Bhomraguri  on the bank of the river (on which the bridge connecting Tezpur and Nogaon is standing). This was one of my favorite place. On one such trip I saw this plant with leaves of distinct cut (as if it is the outline of the image of Goddess Durga), I collected some leaves from there. As I am a man with no botanical background, I did not know the identity. Those days I could lay hand on an excellent book EDIBLE WILD PLANTS OF THE HIMALAYAS. It was written by Shri R L Badhwar and Dr. R R Farnandez. Both from Forest Research Institute. The book is of 1964 vintage. It was gifted to the Armed forces. This is what then Chief of the General staff of that time said about the book.
" The troops on our Northern and Eastern borders have to be trained for mountainous terrain and jungles and may have to operate in small parties in difficult and inaccessible areas. These areas, generally, have poor communications and are cut off from habitation.
It is with a view to help troops operating in such areas that this General Staff publication on "EDIBLE WILD PLANTS OF THE HIMALAYAS" is published. Some 450 different plants have been described in the pamphlet and a knowledge of these will provide a vast choice to meet the primary needs of hunger. "
This book helped me to identify this plant. I find few plants in a place called Mahis Bathan near Cooch Behar. At times I go there. But as the place is at a distance my trips are very few. Other day I saw a Red vented Bulbul relishing the fruits of this plant.
Attaching a collage with leaves, flowers and fruit of the plant.
SK1546 28 Oct 2018 : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4) - around 450 kb each.
Location: Okharpauwa, Nuwakot, Nepal
Altitude:  5500 ft.
Date: 13 September 2018
Habit : Wild 
Rubus moluccanus L. ??

To me also appear close to images at Rubus moluccanus
SK1529 23 Oct 2018 : 7 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (6)- around 600 kb each. 
Location:  Shivapuri National Park,Nepal 
Date: 25 August 2018
Elevation: 5800 ft.
Habit : Wild 
Rubus rugosus Sm.  ??

I think looks somewhat different at first glance at 

Ok ... I shall check. 

Rubus treutleri Hook.f.  ??

I think looks different from images at 

On scrutiny of all threads in efi site, I think it is closer to Rubus moluccanus only.

Thank you ...!.
In Nepal books it is listed as Rubus rugosus Sm. but leaf pattern and rugosus pattern looks somewhat different. I find some Rubus sp. are really very difficult to identify properly.

1st image in Rubus moluccanus in FOI : 6 posts by 3 authors.
1st image in Rubus moluccanus in FOI looks to be from some different species.

I have removed the first image for now. I will have a closer look at it.

Descriptions for Rubus : 6 posts by 2 authors.
Can you provide me some links or details of Rubus indicus and the keys used in Indian floras for Genera Rubus and its species, more descriptions than in floraofindia and flowersofindia. I am dealing with some Rubus sp.
Hope to hear from you soon.
Thanks, … There is a lot of confusion w.r.t. Rubus indicus Thunb., Rubus rugosus Wight & Rubus moluccanus Hook. f.
We have bunched them together at Rubus rugosus as per discussions at Rubus indicus or Rubus moluccanus or both
You can some descriptions at India Biodiversity Portal  & Kerala Plants
There is a lot of confusion w.r.t. Rubus indicus Thunb., Rubus rugosus Sm. & Rubus moluccanus Hook. f.
Online Flora of Nepal has some details of Rubus rugosus Sm.
I do not have keys in Indian floras for Genus Rubus. 
Thank you ...!! Is there any taxonomic keys for Rubus sp in Indian flora?
Thanks, … Some Flora were published, but all families were not covered.
You can download pdfs of what ever was published at
I checked these up. Rosaceae has not been published as yet by them.