Ziziphus

(As per efi threadZ.caracatta is an unarmed small shrub/ small tree. with glabrous leaves and fruit. Z.xylopyra is a small tree [which may or may not be armed with prickles] and has tomentose undersurface of leaves and fruit.)
 
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Ziziphus jujuba subsp. jujuba (Turkey (NW-Anatolia: Bithynia (I), N-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia), East Aegaean Isl., Cyprus (S-Cyprus, E-Cyprus (I)), Iran (E-Iran, NE-Iran: Mts., N-Iran, S-Iran, Iranian Aserbaijan (I)), Iraq (NW-Iraq, SE-Iraq: Mesopotamia, NE-Iraq (I)), Lebanon (C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon), Syria (NW-Syria), Afghanistan (Badakshan, Bamyan Herat, Kunar / Nuristan, Nangarhar, Parwan), India (Himachal Pradesh), Jammu & Kashmir, Myanmar [Burma], Nepal, Vietnam, Laos, Pakistan (Sind, Baluchistan, Kurram, Dir, Chitral, Swat, Hazara, Rawalpindi), Philippines (I), Maldives, Cape Verde Isl. (I) (Santo Antao Isl. (I), Sao Vicente Isl. (I), Ilha de Sao Nicolau (I), Sal Isl. (I), Ilha da Boa Vista (I), Ilha de Maio (I), Ilha de Sao Tiago (I), Fogo Isl. (I), Ilha Brava (I)), Mauritius (I), La Runion (I), Rodrigues (I), Comoros (I), Seychelles (I), Japan (I), Taiwan (I), China (Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Yunnan, Zhejiang), Korea (I), Northern Caucasus (I), Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Georgia [Caucasus], Kazakhstan (I), Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, France (I), Sardinia (I), Malta (I), Sicily (I), Italy (I), former Yugoslavia (I), Slovenia (I), Croatia (I), Macedonia (I), Albania (I), Bulgaria (I), Greece (I), Romania (I), Morocco (I), Algeria (I), Libya (I), Australia (I) (Western Australia (I), Queensland (I)), Fiji (I), Cook Isl. (I) (Rarotonga (I)), Southern Marianas (I) (Guam (I)), Panama (I), Belize (I), Haiti (I), Dominican Republic (I), Cuba (I), Jamaica (I), Guyana (I), Surinam (I), French Guiana (I), Nicaragua (I), Mexico (I), Colombia (I), USA (I) (Alabama (I), Arizona (I), California (I), Florida (I), Georgia (I), Louisiana (I), Texas (I), Utah (I)) as per Catalogue of Life)
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Ziziphus oxyphylla Edgew.


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Ziziphus xylopyra (Retz.) Willd. ? (As per efi thread: Z.caracatta is an unarmed small shrub / small tree. with glabrous leaves and fruit. Z.xylopyra is a small tree [which may or may not be armed with prickles] and has tomentose undersurface of leaves and fruit.)
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  1. Zizyphus andamanica Bhandari & Bhansali (line diagram given) (India: Damp places on the margins of canals. Assam and Andaman Islands)
  2. Z. apetala Hook.f. (line diagram given) (India : West Bengal and Assam)
  3. Z. brunoniana Brandis (India: Assam, Tripura and Andaman Islands)
  4. Z. caracutta Roxb. (line diagram given) (India: Scattered from near base to the top of the hills, also in scrub jungle near sea coast. Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, Maharashtra and Karnataka)
  5. Z. funiculosa Buch.-Ham. ex M. Lawson (Kashmir, West Bengal and Assam; Bangladesh, Myanmar, Malesia and Borneo)
  6. Z. glabrata Heyne ex Roth (India : In dry plains and in grasslands at low elevations. Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, West Bengal, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Andaman; Bhutan and Bangladesh)
  7. Z. horrida Roth (India : Only on hills. Maharashtra)
  8. Z. incurva Roxb. (line diagram given) (India : Frequently on hill tops. Assam, Meghalaya and Tamil Nadu; Nepal and Bhutan)
  9. Z. jujuba Miller (India: Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh; Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, China, Mongolia, Japan and S. Europe)
  10. Z. mauritiana Lam. [vars. fructicosa (India : Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu), mauritiana (India : Very common in dry places. Throughout; Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, China, Australia and Tropical Africa), pedunculata (India : Punjab, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Tripura, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan), pubescens (India: Tamil Nadu)]
  11. Z. nummularia (Burm.f.) Wight & Arn. [vars. glabrescens (India : Punjab, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu), nummularia (India : In dry and arid regions. Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Andaman; Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran and Iraq)]
  12. Z. oenoplia (L.) Miller (line diagram given) [vars. fasciculata (India: Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala), oenoplia (India : Almost throughout, especially in dry forest localities and open bushy places. Most common in the teak forest in Assam; Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Malesia and Australia), pallens (India: West Bengal, Assam and Andaman), pedicellaris (India : Uttar Pradesh)]
  13. Z. oxyphylla Edgew. [vars. oxyphylla (India: Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh; Pakistan), pedicellaris (India: Uttar Pradesh (Dehra Dun))]
  14. Z. rugosa Lam. [vars. glabra (India: Maharashtra), glabrescens ( India: Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Orissa, Rajasthan. Maharashtra. Kamataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala), rugosa (India: In dry deciduous forests, up to 1800 m on hills. Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Kamataka and Tamil Nadu; Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar and Sri Lanka)]
  15. Z. truncata Blatt.& Hallb. (India : On rocks. Rajasthan)
  16. Z. williamiii Bhandari & Bhansali (India: Mostly near the sea coasts. Gujarat and Maharashtra)
  17. Z. xylopyra (Retz.) Willd. (India: In dry deciduous forests, but sometimes also found in Sal forests. Throughout, except E. India; Nepal and Sri Lanka)
Bhandar, M.M. & Bhansali, A.K. 2000. Rhamnaceae. In; Singh, N.P., Vohra, J.N., Hajra, P.K. & Singh, D.K. (eds.) Flora of India vol-5 Olacaceae- Connaraceae. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta. pp.163-245. 

 
 
Binomial Habit Notes References Distribution Common name
Ziziphus glabrata Heyne ex Roth Small tree Dry Evergreen to Dry Deciduous Forests Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Matthew, 1983 Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Kanniyakumari, Madurai, Nilgiri,  Salem, Tiruchchirappalli, Tirunelveli, Virudhunagar Karukattan, Karukkaai, Karrukku vanji, Mullu karrukkuvai
Ziziphus horrida Roth Shrub or small tree Dry Evergreen to Dry Deciduous Forests Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983 Namakkal, Virudhunagar   Nariilandhai, Naiilandhai
Ziziphus incurva Roxb. Large tree Western Ghats, High Altitude, Cultivated, Native of Indo - Chinese Region Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983 Nilgiri  
Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. var. fruticosa (Haines) Sebastine & Balakr. Shrub Dry Forests, Rocky  Localities Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983 Tiruchchirappalli, Tiruvannamalai, Vellore  
Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. var. mauritiana  Tree Dry Evergreen to Dry Deciduous Forests, also Cultivated Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983 All districts Illandhai
Ziziphus nummularia (Burm.f.) Wight & Arn. Small shrub Plains to Low Altitude Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983 Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Kanniyakumari, Madurai, Puddukkottai, Tirunelveli, Tiruvannamalai, Virudhunagar  Korgodi
Ziziphus oenoplia (L.) Mill. Large shrub or small tree Dry Evergreen to Dry Deciduous Forests Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983 All districts Soorai pazham,Soorai Illandhai, Soorai mullu
Ziziphus rugosa Lam. Large shrub or small tree Dry Evergreen to Dry Deciduous Forests Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983 Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Erode, Kanniyakumari, Namakkal, Nilgiri, Salem, Theni, Tirunelveli, Tiruvannamalai, Vellore, Viluppuram, Virudhunagar Soorai,  Kaattilandai, Kottai maram
Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz.) Willd.  Large shrub or small tree Dry Evergreen to Dry Deciduous Forests Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983 All districts Kottailandhai, Mulluduppai

 
 
Botanical name Synonyms Family Common name
Ziziphus caracutta Ziziphus glaberrima, Ziziphus xylopyra var. glaberrimRhamnaceae Kath Ber
Ziziphus mauritiana Rhamnaceae Ber
Ziziphus nummularia Rhamnus nummularia, Ziziphus rotundifoliaRhamnaceae Jhar Beri
Ziziphus oenoplia Rhamnaceae Jackal Jujube
Ziziphus rugosa Zizyphus rugosa, Ziziphus glabraRhamnaceae Wild Jujube

 
 

 
 
 
Mansfeld's Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: (Except ... edited by Peter Hanelt, Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, W. Kilian (2001)- Details-
 
Horticultural Reviews edited by Jules Janick (2011)- Details- p. 201, 203, 207 etc.-
 
Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary edited by C.P. Khare (2007)- Details-
 
An Excursion Flora of Central Tamilnadu, India By K. M. Matthew (1995)- Details with keys-
 
1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants edited by Kerry Scott Walter, Harriet J. Gillett
Ziziphus horrida Roth- Indeterminate- A.P. & Karnataka
Ziziphus truncata Blatt. & Hallb.- Indeterminate- Rajasthan
 
Medicinal Plants in Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah  (2002)- Details-
 
Flora of Davanagere District, Karnataka, India By B. K. Manjunatha, V. Krishna, T. Pullaiah (2004)- Details with keys-
 
Forest Plants of Eastern India By Amal Bhusan Chaudhuri (1993)- Details with keys-
Ziziphus funiculosa Buch.-Ham. ex Wall.
 
Ziziphus : 3 posts by 2 authors.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Ziziphus (Rhamnaceae)

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.

Any comments/ corrections are welcome.


I have added the list of Indian species based on Flora of India vol-5.
Thanks a lot, ... Most of the species at other links match with it.
Pl. see Ziziphus mauritiana, which is an accepted name & I have corrected accordingly.
 

Pl. go throughZiziphus‎‎ ‎(Rhamnaceae) page with images of species in efloraofindia.

If you find any incorrect identification, pl. let us know. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.
Thank you for introducing us with so many beautiful Ziziphus  app., ...