Oxygraphis polypetala

Oxygraphis polypetala Royle ex D. Don, Fl. Ind. 1: 27 1855.. (Syn: Callianthemum endlicheri Walp.; Oxygraphis endlicheri (Walp.) S.S.R. Bennet & S. Chandra; Oxygraphis polypetala (Royle) Hook. fil. & Thomson (ambiguous synonym); Ranunculus polypetalus Royle) as per Catalogue of Life;  

Common name: Himalayan Oxygraphis
 
Smally perennial herb with fibrous roots; leaves all basal, reniform, cordate, 1-5 cm in diam., usually with small obtuse lobes; scapes one or more, 3-10 cm long, each with a single terminal flower; flower 20-25 mm across; sepals 5, elliptic, obtuse, glabrous, sometimes tinged red, persistent and enlarged in fruit; petals 10-15, rarely 8-9, yellow, oblong-spathulate, longer than sepals, tapered towards base with tubular nectar pits; stamens many; carpels several, free, on raised receptacle, compressed, glabrous with straight beak. 


Rootstock surround by fibrous leaf remains. Leaves broadly ovate or suborbicular, 5-15 (-25)mm long and broad, obtuse or subacute, base truncate or subcordate, margins crenate with a few rounded teeth, glabrous; petioles 1-3 (-7)cm. Scapes 1.5-4 (-10)cm. Sepals ovate, 3-7 x 2-4mm, rounded, base subcordate. Petals 4-10 x 1.5-2mm, yellow. Achenes obovate, 1.5-2mm, strongly robbed along outer and inner angles and with a distinct rib on each side.
Fl. May 
Damp clearings in Fir forest and in alpine meadows, flushes, mossy rocks and grassy slopes.
(Attributions- A.C.J Grierson & D.G Long. Flora of Bhutan. Published by RBGE. 1984 from Bhutan Biodiversity Portal
 

  
 
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Ranunculaceae week: Oxygraphis polypetala Hook.f. & Thomson: Oxygraphis polypetala (Royle) Hook.f. & Thomson Fl. Ind. i. 27. 1855.
Basionym: Ranunculus polypetalus Royle Ill. Bot. Himal. Mts. 54. t. 11. f. 2. 1839.
Type: T. Thomson s.n., [NYBG]
Location: In Peer Panjal Range near Rohtang Pass, Himachal Pradesh.
Date: 15.06.2008
Camera used: Sony cybershot
Elevation: >4000m

I hope this episode also helps in identifying this perhaps another related plant unidentified at FOI, which unlike Ranunculus has more than 5 (mostly 6) petals and nearly circular leaves with deeply cordate base and crenate
margins. 
To me this unidentified plant appears to be Ranunculus sarmentosus Adams, placed in distinct genus Halerpestes (6-10 petals) and names H. sarmentosa, but treated as synonym of Ranunculus cymbalariae Pursh. in Revision of Indian Ranunculus:

With flowers I dont mind calling that plant as Ranunculus cymbalariae, but leaves are pretty different. This is reported from Sikkim according to the reference. But as you say the number of petals. I imagine if I have any other option. He does state that the species is highly variable. Leaf matches well with Ranunculus stewartii.

 
 
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Oxygraphis endlicheri from Uttarakhand :  Attachments (2).  6 posts by 5 authors.
Oxygraphis endlicheri (Walp.) Bennet & Sumer Chandra [=Oxygraphis polypetala] of Ranunculaceae family is a tiny alpine herb (2-3cm only) blooming immediately after snowmelt in the Himalayan alpines. It competes with species of Gentiana and Primula for earliest flowering in its habitat; the reward is successful pollination with scarcely available insect pollinators in very early season. With the passage of time this tiny herb is lost below other taller plants. No matter! since the pollination is over and seeds may develop in shade. Plants are intelligent in utilizing space and resources in limiting environments.
Shot at Khalya Top area (3500m) near Munsyari, Uttarakhand in April.
Very beautiful pictures and interesting information.. unique..

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Oxygraphis endlicheri (Walp.) Bennet & Sumer Chandra, Indian Forester 108: 374 374 1982
Syn: Callianthemum endlicheri Walp.; Oxygraphis polypetala (Royle ex D.Don) Hook.f. & Thoms.
Smally perennial herb with fibrous roots; leaves all basal, reniform, cordate, 1-5 cm in diam., usually with small obtuse lobes; scapes one or more, 3-10 cm long, each with a single terminal flower; flower 20-25 mm across; sepals 5, elliptic, obtuse, glabrous, sometimes tinged red, persistent and enlarged in fruit; petals 10-15, rarely 8-9, yellow, oblong-spathulate, longer than sepals, tapered towards base with tubular nectar pits; stamens many; carpels several, free, on raised receptacle, compressed, glabrous with straight beak.
The genus is differentiated from Ranunculus in sepals being persistent in fruit and petals usually 10-15, although we found several plants with 8-9 petals also. These plants may be confused with Ranunculus cymbalariae which has 5-8 petals but sepals are deciduous and don't persist in fruit.
Photographed around Tungnath in Uttarkhand.


Oxygraphis polypetala (Raf.) Hook.f. et Thomson is one of the earliest blooming species in Alpine zones of the Himalaya. Flower buds formed in the last growing season enable this species to bloom so early; immediately after snow melt.
Beautiful photograph seems to be Oxygraphis glacialis
Flora of India, 1993 lists only one species O. endlicheri (Walp) Bennet & Chandra growing in India (syn: O. polypetala (D Don) Hook.f. as its basionym Ranunculus popypetalus D. Don., 1834  is later homonym of R. polypetalus Rafin, 1817). It also considers Indian O. glacialis not actual European plant.
Flora of China, however lists both from North India
O. endlicheri: Leaves reniform with truncate to subcordate base, margin crenate, petals usually 12
O. glaciatis: leaves ovate or elliptic, base cuneate, margin usually entire, petals 12-19.
Looking these the plant is clearly O. endlicheri (syn: O. polypetala).
Thank you, ... the other reply/diagnosis had me and the rest of us confused
You are an excellent taxonomist and a very good teacher of Botany
I learned a lot
And that ... is a very good hiker, botanist and diagnostician..
Thank you ... for this clarification regarding correct name.
And as always I relied on The Plant List 2013 and stumbled. One of the recent flora from BSI (Pusalkar & Singh, Flora of Gaangotri National Park) mention this species as Oxygraphis polypetala (D.Don) Hook.f. et Thomson.
 
Oxygraphis endlicheri (Walp.) Bennet & Chandra in Indian For. 108: 374, 1982
syn: O. polypetala (D. Don) Hook.f. & Thoms.
Small perennial herb with basal leaves only on 3-5 cm long petioles; blade reniform to orbicular with truncate to subcordate base, crenate margin; scapes up to 4, elongating to 6 cm in fruit; flower terminal, yellow 12-16 mm across; sepals 5, ovate to oblong, up to 6 mm long; petals 10-14, linear-spathulate, up to 10 mm long, 2 mm broad; achenes forming ovoid head, 6-8 mm in diam.
Photographed from Tungnath in Uttarakhand 
 
 
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ID-Tabish-Sikkim-2016 : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)
Flower found in East Sikkim, at altitudes of 3500-4000m, flowering in June
To me it looks like some kind of Oxygraphis or Halerpestes or Ficaria from Buttercup family
Please identify
I think Oxytropis endlicheri (Walp.) Bennet and Chandra only (syn: O. polypetala (D. Don) Hook.f. & T
Halerpestes won't have more than 10 petals, according to both eFlora of China and eFlora of Pakistan, as well as latest Flora of India.
Ficaria based mainly on Ranunculus ficaria, does not grow in India, and does not have more than 10 petals.
Also according to Flora of India sepals fall early in Halerpestes, whereas they are persistent and enlarged after flowering. They seem so in first photograph.
Please read Oxygraphis in place of Oxytropis
Thank you ... for your feedback. I did consider Oxygraphis polypetala (Raf.) Hook.f. & Thomson which is the accepted name according to TPL (Syn: Oxygraphis endlicheri, Oxygraphis glacialis). However, the petals in my specimen are narrower than those seen in these three pictures from different sources I am attaching. One of it is a drawing, one is a picture from Bhutan, and one is a picture by ..., from Himachal.
The description of O. polypetala, however, says that petals are spatulate or oblong or linear, and appears to agree with my flowers too. So, I would probably take it as
O. polypetala, unless somebody has another suggestion.

It is good to follow The Plant List but not where we know it makes blunders. I have sent more than 2000 corrections to them, but perhaps even their second version is full of errors. eFlora of China, Flora of India (BSI), have clarified that Ranunculus polypetala Royle ex D Don (1834), the Indian plant is different from Raf. (1817). Strangely  The Plant List considers Oxytrophis polypetala (Raf.) Hook.f. & T as accepted name but does not mention binomial by Raf. in the synonyms. 
 
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Fwd: Oxygraphis 'polypetala' in Kashmir & Ladakh : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (3)
Here with 3 images taken as slides in the 1980s.
The first, on a pass in Kashmir above Krishensar Lake; the second & third images of foliage only above the settlement of Matayan, Ladakh.
Stewart knew this plant as Ranunculus polypetalus - recording it from Kashmir & Ladakh @ 3600-4500m.
During the 1983 Kashmir Botanical Expedition found this above Krishensar & on Nichinai Pass.
Flowers of Himalaya knew it as Oxygraphis polypetala - on open slopes, recently cleared of snow, very common @ 2700-4500m from Kashmir to SE Tibet.
A botanical tour found this on the Rohtang in 1986 with a specimen identified at Edinburgh.
Flora of Bhutan Vol 1 Part 2 (1984) covering Ranunculaceae had it as O.endlicheri -found in damp clearings in Fir forests and alpine meadows, flushes, mossy rocks & grassy slopes @ 3350-4900m.
This Flora also listed Paraoxygraphis sikkimensis but 'The Plant List' does not recognise this.
Dickore & Klimes had it as Oxygraphis endlicheri in the most up-to-date check-list for Ladakh.
The Plant List has it as Oxygraphis polypetala.
 
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Fwd: Do you know this? : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
This was seen in Bhutan at 3900 m. Do you know this? 

Oxygraphis polypetala Royle ex D. Don  

This photo was taken by Prof. Anadi Kundu, and was sent to me for naming and I forwarded this to ...
This was seen at Chelela Pass, Bhutan on 1 May 2018 at 3988 m altitude.
 
 
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Oxygraphis endlicheri syn. O. polypetala : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3)
Oxygraphis endlicheri syn. O. polypetala
we saw this on the Tunganath trek
at an altitude of about 12,000 feet
in the first week of may 2018




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