Drypetes assamica (Hook.f.) Pax & K.Hoffm. (India: Moist evergreen forests, primary forests, deciduous forests, subtropical forests, up to 1400 m altitude. Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam, Nagaland, Tripura, Mizoram, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Andaman Islands; Bhutan, Bangladesh, Thailand and Indo-China as per BSI Flora of India)



Drypetes oblongifolia (Bedd.) Airy Shaw (SW. India, Sri Lanka as per WCSP)


Drypetes porteri (Gamble) Pax & K.Hoffm. (India (Tamil Nadu) as per WCSP)

Images by S. Karuppusamy






Species as per Flora of India Vol 23 (Editors N. P. Balakrishnan, T. Chakrabarty, M. Sanjappa, P. Lakshminarsimhan & P. Singh- by Botanical Survey of India (2012)):
Drypetes andamanica (Kurz) Pax & K.Hoffm.
Drypetes assamica (Hook.f.) Pax & K.Hoffm.
Drypetes bhattacharyae Chakrab.
Drypetes confertiflora (Hook.f.) Pax & K.Hoffm.
Drypetes eglandulosa (Roxb.) Pax & K.Hoffm.
Drypetes ellisii S.P.Mathew & Chakrab.
Drypetes gardneri (Thwaites) Pax & K.Hoffm.
Drypetes indica (Müll.Arg.) Pax & K.Hoffm.
Drypetes leiocarpa (Kurz) Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl.
Drypetes jaintensis (C.B.Clarke ex Brandis) Pax & K.Hoffm. 398
Drypetes longifolia (Blume) Pax & K.Hoffm. 
Drypetes malabarica (Bedd.) Airy Shaw
Drypetes microphylla (Merr.) Pax & K.Hoffm.
Drypetes oblongifolia (Bedd.) Airy Shaw
Drypetes porteri (Gamble) Pax & K.Hoffm.
Drypetes sepiaria (Wight & Arn.) Pax & K.Hoffm.
Drypetes subsessilis (Kurz) Pax & K.Hoffm.
Drypetes sumatrana (Miq.) Pax & K.Hoffm.
Drypetes ugandensis (Rendle) Hutch. (Cultivated)
Drypetes venusta (Wight) Pax & K.Hoffm.
Drypetes wightii (Hook.f.) Pax & K.Hoffm. 

1 a. Styles 2 - 3 mm long 8. D. indica
b. Styles obsolete 2
2 a. Ovary and fruits 1-locular (unknown in D. porteri); leaves usually smaller (up to 16 cm long) 3
b. Ovary and fruits 2-locular; leaves various, often larger 10
3 a. Leaves stiffly coriaceous, broadly rounded or obtuse or retuse at apex; minor nerves bullately impressed; fruits globose or fusiform, 6 - 8 mm in diam., fleshy 16. D. sepiaria
b. Leaves chartaceous to thinly coriaceous, acuminate or at least narrowing towards apex; minor nerves not bullately impressed; fruits not as above 4
4 a. Leaves crenulate-serrulate or denticulate along margins 5
b. Leaves entire along margins 7
5 a. Endocarp of fruits sculptured with strong spiniform outgrowths 18. D. sumatrana
b. Endocarp of fruits not sculptured 6
6 a. Fruits large, 16 - 18 x 10 - 13 mm, not flattened 1. D. andamanica
b. Fruits small, ca 10 x 7 - 8 mm, often somewhat flattened 7. D. gardneri                          
7 a. Minor nerves of leaves finely reticulate, forming polygonal areoles, never branching into veins of higher order 8
b. Minor nerves of leaves not so finely reticulate, forming more or less squarish or rectangular areoles, often branching into veins of higher order 9
8 a. Leaves 11 - 16.5 cm long, glossy; petioles 3 - 6 mm long, pulvinate at apex, mostly geniculate 6. D. ellisii
b. Leaves 5 - 9 cm long, not glossy; petioles 9 - 11 mm long, pulvinate at apex, mostly geniculate 15. D. porteri
9 a. Lateral nerves of leaves 6 - 9 pairs; male disc entire; female pedicels 4 - 5 mm long; fruiting pedicels 10 - 12 mm long; fruits mostly ovoid to ellipsoid, 1.7 - 2 cm long 20. D. wightii
b. Lateral nerves of leaves 7 - 16 pairs; male disc lobulate; female pedicels 8 - 15 mm long; fruiting pedicels 20 - 26 mm long; fruits obovoid, 2 - 2.5 cm long 19. D. venusta
10 a. Inflorescences (at least partly) cauliflorous, on old wood 11
b. Inflorescences strictly axillary, on main leafy shoots 14
11 a. Midrib on upper surface of leaves clearly channeled or impressed 11. D. longifolia
b. Midrib on upper surface of leaves flat 12
12 a. Branchlets and leaves pubescent; leaves entire; fruits small (2 - 2.5 cm in diam.), on 10 - 12 mm long pedicels 12. D. malabarica
b. Branchlets and leaves glabrous or glabrescent; leaves obscurely to prominently denticulate or serrulate along margins; fruits large (2.5 - 5 cm in diam.), sessile to subsessile 13
13 a. Glomerules of flowers coralliform; stamens 15 - 20; male disc shortly cupular and ribbed, with thin raised margins 4. D. confertiflora
b. Glomerules of flowers not coralliform; stamens 30 - 40; male disc disciform, not ribbed 14. D. oblongifolia
14 a. Leaves serrulate or denticulate along margins 15
b. Leaves entire along margins 16
15 a. Leaves 13 - 15 x 4 - 5 cm, chartaceous; midrib flat above; fruits ovoid-ellipsoid, thin-walled 9. D. jaintensis
b. Leaves (10-) 15 - 35 x 4.5 - 8 cm, coriaceous; midrib often slightly incised above; fruits oblong ellipsoid to globose or transverse, thick-walled 17. D. subsessilis (p. p.)
16 a. Female and fruiting pedicels (fruits unknown in D. eglandulosa) longer, 5 - 15 mm long 17
b. Female (unknown in D. leiocarpa) and fruiting pedicels shorter, 0.5 - 5 mm long 19
17 a. Leaves larger, 7 - 28 cm long, glossy; female and fruiting pedicels 5 - 10 mm long; fruits subcubical 3. D. bhattacharyae
b. Leaves smaller, 5 - 10 cm long, not glossy; female and fruiting pedicels 10 - 15 mm long; fruits not sub-cubical 18
18 a. Leaves brownish when dry; nerves and nervules prominent on the upper surface; fruits unknown (N E. India to Myanmar) 5. D. eglandulosa
b. Leaves blackish when dry; nerves and nervules obscure or faint on the upper surface; fruits globose, 1.6 - 2 cm in diam., thick-walled (Nicobar Islands) 13. D. microphylla
19 a. Fruits glabrous, globose 10. D. leiocarpa
b. Fruits pubescent, of various shapes 20
20 a. Leaves often obscurely serrulate; midrib often slightly incised on the upper surface; male flowers 4 - 5 mm in diam.; stamens 3 - 4; female pedicels 0 - 2.5 (-5) mm long; fruits oblongellipsoid to globose or occasionally transverse 17. D. subsessilis (p. p.)
b. Leaves always entire; midrib flat on the upper surface; male flowers ca 10 mm in diam.; stamens (6-) 8 - 15; female and fruiting pedicels 2 - 4 (-5) mm long; fruits subcubical or often transverse 2. D. assamica
Forest Plants of Eastern India By Amal Bhusan Chaudhuri (1993- Distribution- 
Drypetes assamica (Hook.f.) Pax & K.Hoffm.,
Drypetes lancifolia (Hook.f.) Pax & K.Hoffm. synonym of Drypetes indica (Müll.Arg.) Pax & K.Hoffm. &
Drypetes subsessilis (Kurz) Pax & K.Hoffm. ) 
Flora of Ranga Reddi District Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, M. Silar Mohammed (2000)- description-

Drypetes travancorica (Bourd.) Santapau & S.K.Jain synonym of Drypetes gardneri (Thwaites) Pax & K.Hoffm.,
Drypetes malabarica (Bedd.) Airy Shaw,
Drypetes oblongifolia (Bedd.) Airy Shaw,
Drypetes porteri (Gamble) Pax & K.Hoffm., Drypetes roxburghii (Wall.) Hurus. synonym of Putranjiva roxburghii Wall.,
Drypetes elata (Bedd.) Pax & K.Hoffm. synonym of Drypetes venusta (Wight) Pax & K.Hoffm.  

Drypetes ellisii S.P.Mathew & Chakrab.,
Drypetes malabarica (Bedd.) Airy Shaw,
Drypetes porteri (Gamble) Pax & K.Hoffm.
Drypetes travancorica (Bourd.) Santapau & S.K.Jain synonym of Drypetes gardneri (Thwaites) Pax & K.Hoffm.,
Drypetes malabarica (Bedd.) Airy Shaw,
Drypetes oblongifolia (Bedd.) Airy Shaw,
Drypetes porteri (Gamble) Pax & K.Hoffm.,
Drypetes roxburghii (Wall.) Hurus. synonym of Putranjiva roxburghii Wall.,
Drypetes elata (Bedd.) Pax & K.Hoffm. synonym of Drypetes venusta (Wight) Pax & K.Hoffm.,
Drypetes wightii (Hook.f.) Pax & K.Hoffm.