Polygala



Polygala abyssinica R.Br. ex Fresen. (Jammu & Kashmir (Poonch, Kashmir), India (Himachal Pradesh, Indian Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan), Nepal, Pakistan (Sind, Karachi, Baluchistan, Quetta, Waziristan, Kurram, Chitral, Swat), Afghanistan (Kunar / Nuristan, Laghman, Nangarhar, Paktia / Khost, Parwan), Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Sudan, South Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Socotra, Yemen (Aden Desert, W-Yemen, SE-Yemen: coastal Hadhramaut, Inner Yemen), Saudi Arabia (Asir, Dahana, E-Saudi Arabia, N-Saudi Arabia, Nejd), Oman (Mascat & Oman) as per Catalogue of Life)

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Polygala arillata Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don (Sikkim, India (Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala), Bhutan, Nepal, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Palawan, Myanmar [Burma] (Chin, Kachin, Mandalay, Sagaing), Bhutan, Sikkim, Darjeeling, China (Anhui, Fujian, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Jiangxi, S-Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan) as per Catalogue of Life)
 
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Polygala arvensis Willd. (As per efi thread: As raceme is long, I feel it may be Polygala elongata Klein ex Willd. (syn. of Polygala glaucoides L.) Also lateral petal seems to be obovate as in this species and not orbicular as in Polygala arvensis Willd.)
(India (Indian Punjab, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Tripura, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala), Ryukyu Isl., Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Thailand, Sumatra, ?Java, Lesser Sunda Isl. (Sumba), Sulawesi, Philippines (Luzon, Mindoro, Semirara, Mindanao), Moluccas (Ceram, Ambon), New Guinea, peninsular Malaysia (Johor), Cambodia, Vietnam, Andamans (South Andamans), Nicobars (Central Nicobars), China (Anhui, ?Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, ?Guizhou, Hainan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Yunnan, Zhejiang), Taiwan, Taiwan (I), Australia (Northern Territory, Western Australia), Micronesia (Pohnpei) as per Catalogue of Life)

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https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/da7bdc741c5f6b6d/Polygala%20elongata%20I2%20IMG_1340.jpg?part=0.3&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGe6ObRFSYEbUUp3a3Omv-oS3U3EfDF-o4Loygyqix0Dskgd6Sl3-S8lVS2EpQLQCW0B5DfB1zuSwBYhV9WWzlTEP6qxCblWrby0PhMadb1MIbJbUk
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/da7bdc741c5f6b6d/Polygala%20elongata%20Im%20IMG_1342.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGQfBpauuEFRAgtyEVh5ibWdKufCSj1ngn7k7jqTS5YHv82R5JeZ-irho0xySXOisEo6XMo-SeJYW7jUHtl5jrlXRuOyjUz3yxdMP4QqTNN5rBtHM0
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/da7bdc741c5f6b6d/Polygala%20elongata%20I2%20IMG_1339.jpg?part=0.2&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGEqGZJgGHfzlEleD5KI8J_9l0hYzEdt3JRgoIhbrY25HOemjhF5X-aay1KeHyEu0DdUoaNtm0M2VQVpEeXAdfHSSryjWxLAcruc36ygHwD_kjbOG8
 

Polygala bolbothrix Dunn (India (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala), Vietnam as per Catalogue of Life)

https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/227453251f57c/PB210006%20Polygala%20bulbothrix.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFI035Q0EJ_DR_XwiWq2JIbWLuYS3yBz4r_ucTXuTh9uHK0oJL6cHPjwP9OB3o4PfO8OEHyO7ba1UaK1Nox8n9zkhCyCG7KZ5aXezjNCynizQqqB64
 


Polygala crotalarioides Buch.-Ham. ex DC. (China (SW-Sichuan, N-Yunnan), S-Tibet, Laos, Nepal, Sikkim, Thailand, Myanmar [Burma] (Chin), Jammu & Kashmir (Poonch, Kashmir), India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Tripura, Meghalaya, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh), Bhutan, Vietnam as per Catalogue of Life)

https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/3ec6dec72b0699df/Polygala%20sp.%20(1).JPG?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFp50jC5WYMUFQirLC5AL_dPVaWewSPdaWF--XZlOHi9Uaz4HuKNQYgrXCe7ycN6EBblOc1-qATR5jJEruY29rtGxdF9VgeIMPSs1VGRI3EFZ7teDI
 
https://groups.google.com/group/indiantreepix/attach/3ec6dec72b0699df/Polygala%20sp.%20(2).JPG?part=0.2&authuser=0&view=1
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Polygala erioptera DC. (Libya, Algeria, ?Morocco, Pakistan (Karachi, Sind, Baluchistan, Pakistani Punjab), Jammu & Kashmir, India (Indian Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala), Thailand, Vietnam, Myanmar [Burma], South Africa (Limpopo, Mpulamanga), Namibia, Somalia, Ethiopia, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Western Sahara, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Niger, Chad, Sudan, South Sudan, Nigeria, Central African Republic, N-Cameroon, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, E-D.R.Congo (Zaire), Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, ?Burundi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Mozambique, Angola (incl. Cabinda), Abd-al-Kuri Isl., Socotra, Samha Isl., Bahrain, Egypt (NE-Egypt, Nile Valley, SE-Egypt), Iran (S-Iran), Kuwait, Oman (Dhofar, Mascat & Oman), Qatar, Saudi Arabia (C-Saudi Arabia, NE-Saudi Arabia, Hejaz, Asir), Sinai peninsula (C-Sinai), United Arab Emirates, Yemen (Aden Desert, Tihama, W-Yemen), Cape Verde Isl. (Santo Antao Isl., Sao Vicente Isl., Santa Luzia Isl., Ilha de Sao Nicolau, Sal Isl., Ilha da Boa Vista, Ilha de Maio, Ilha de Sao Tiago, Fogo Isl., Ilha Brava) as Catalogue of Life)

 
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https://groups.google.com/group/indiantreepix/attach/3a54ccf8e6dd6f83/Polygala%20erioptera%20IMG_5052s.jpg?part=0.1&authuser=0&view=1
 
https://groups.google.com/group/indiantreepix/attach/3a54ccf8e6dd6f83/_MG_5060s.jpg?part=0.3&authuser=0&view=1
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https://groups.google.com/group/indiantreepix/attach/995adaaf124da4e4/SPC_032_unid-herb-ii.jpg?part=0.2&authuser=0&view=1
https://groups.google.com/group/indiantreepix/attach/995adaaf124da4e4/SPC_032_unid-herb-i.jpg?part=0.1&authuser=0&view=1


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 https://groups.google.com/group/indiantreepix/attach/fb7adf6da11756e/ID-DKB172.jpg?part=0.1&authuser=0&view=1


 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/7c81d9fa05a656e/herb-2.jpg?part=0.2&view=1&vt=ANaJVrEge_qQt8Bw0FI14bu9zIgI7b-LjCYWA4PUVT0O9lzNTeiE7bCFJD0oPe8DhgkxPJyPK0hUvxqb16A4jI97PbyR7hfrwQBUnuKso2DbKsCDfwpXKjc
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Polygala furcata Royle (Jammu & Kashmir, India (Himachal Pradesh, Indian Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Orissa, Meghalaya, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh), Sikkim, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, China (Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan), Bhutan, Sikkim, Myanmar [Burma] (Kayin, Mon, Mandalay) as per Catalogue of Life)

 https://groups.google.com/group/indiantreepix/attach/5671cccc3ad5319d/P.furcata_DSR.JPG?part=0.1&authuser=0&view=1

 https://groups.google.com/group/indiantreepix/attach/40b0ad0fcdbf3b0e/Polygala%20furcata%20%20(3).JPG?part=0.3&authuser=0&view=1

 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/2480b81554c44/DSC_0505.JPG?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrEiFTE1qENamfkOPfi0EW5M8EBVLg5osrz69DYpoTdAHJaxnibuWpTjmaRhrXEaO-DEnJ4TDPLfg4_hQEDPTd7fxs9K85dcgrxNsuVTRw0dsTu70G0
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Polygala glaucoides L. (As per efi thread: As raceme is long, I feel it may be Polygala elongata Klein ex Willd. (syn. of Polygala glaucoides L.). Also lateral petal seems to be obovate as in this species and not orbicular as in Polygala arvensis Willd. )
(Taiwan, Sri Lanka, Laos, W-Sumatra, Singapore (I), Java, Lesser Sunda Isl. (Timor), Sulawesi, India (Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Goa, Daman & Diu, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala), Thailand, Lakshadweep Isl. (Laccadives) as per Catalogue of Life)
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/5008e39eedee18e/IMG_9931.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrF-e-Q4S9faI_tepnIpBU3ipkpiL_TWi6L0EPvr_5M4Yn4azp6-VaRDXLfRXAYRUofK3nNOr_flpyqADbr3-x9P-UrhdEqU_RoAwRSpr7FYx7IgK-Q
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https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/5008e39eedee18e/IMG_9933.jpg?part=0.3&view=1&vt=ANaJVrF9IQ7nK0AS4WERwM0THoWYfV3JXoejzmPpoC9cQ_jJP_igs2rD1m35roMCd8avHHLeB6yH6o_NEL87d58btnEYVupcvi09aU8eQTCM_BFOcmd79Qo
 
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https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/4f8c7c31442a9f91/Polygala%20elongata%20is%20it-%20in%20Hyderabad,%20AP%20I2%20IMG_0424.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrETEE9SPA8GJwRlcMLToTW7sLeKk7PB_zvsKosxBYa82H5ZdXeBZNMORrEQStBy1foKkZTqN_ieq1xelmGzR4rC8jlY-VVbj5FMIl8YN4psqFS2d8M
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https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/7c049c29799f3a6/Polygala%20elongata1.jpg?part=0.3&view=1&vt=ANaJVrHVAdsy3VKF7aUVYQ0jMpG7HdlGnniG15MX8pU8a9Yr-58pkGv2OmL8fLCEJidpKseKyZLEyJLpbUdGeMDkoXYflBHP7WuIiLaFv0poRdi5SvQEONE
 
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Polygala glomerata Lour. (China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, ?Guizhou, Hainan, ?Sichuan, Yunnan, ?Zhejiang), ?Taiwan, Java, Sumatra, Lesser Sunda Isl. (Sumbawa, Sumba, Flores), Borneo, Sarawak, Philippines (Luzon, Golo, Jolo, Mindanao), New Guinea, peninsular Malaysia (Penang), Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, India (Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura, Meghalaya, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala), Pakistan (N.W.Frontier Prov., Swat, Pakistani Punjab, Rawalpindi), Jammu & Kashmir, Bhutan, Sikkim, Bangladesh, Myanmar [Burma], Sri Lanka, Micronesia (Yap), Palau Isl. (Babeldaob), Australia (I) (Queensland (I)) as per Catalogue of Life

https://groups.google.com/group/indiantreepix/attach/cde4fa59e4ebdc94/_MG_4618s.jpg?part=0.2&authuser=0&view=1
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Polygala jacobii Chandrab. (India (Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala), Sri Lanka as per Catalogue of Life)
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/12c641b4bc5677/suyodh%20prostrate%20herb%20yellow%20flowers%20detail.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrG1b-y8aDA-XLbOUlg5YxRSd23RZf0LqEJXUX9PFw1i8C21T4h-5alBy119HCOEVC5gGtjj66CuBFp3gmyRwIKnzHM0m8TwKUuuE2d7m-k3u_He8bM
 


Polygala javana DC. (India (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala), Sri Lanka, Java, Lesser Sunda Isl. (Bali, Lombok, Sumba, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor) as per Catalogue of Life)
 
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(South Africa (Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, N-Cape Prov., W-Cape Prov., E-Cape Prov.), Lesotho, France (I), Corsica (I), Malta (I), Sicily (I), Italy (I), Australia (I) (Western Australia (I), South Australia (I), New South Wales (I), Victoria (I), Tasmania (I)), New Zealand (I), Norfolk Isl. (I), Madeira (I) (Madeira Isl. (I)), USA (I) (California (I)), Algeria (I) as per Catalogue of Life)

 
 
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(Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Colima, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatan), Costa Rica, Panama, Belize, Nicaragua, Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Lesser Antilles (Dominica, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Martinique, St. Lucia, St. Vincent), Isla Margarita, Trinidad, Galapagos Isl., Venezuela (Anzoategui, Aragua, Barinas, Bolivar, Cojedes, Delta Amacuro, Distrito Federal, Falcon, Guarico, Lara, Merida, Miranda, Monagas, Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira, Trujillo, Yaracuy, Zulia), N-Brazil (Roraima, Amazonas), NE-Brazil (Paraiba, Pernambuco, Bahia, Alagoas), C-Brazil (Mato Grosso, Goias, Distrito Federal), SE-Brazil (Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro), Argentina (Corrientes, Entre Rios), S-Brazil (Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina), Paraguay (Guaira), Colombia (Antioquia, Boyacá, Cauca, Chocó, Cundinamarca, Huila, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Risaralda, Santander, Tolima, Valle), Peru, Ecuador, Guyana, Australia (introduced) (Queensland (introduced), New South Wales (introduced)), Taiwan (introduced), China (introduced) (Guangdong (introduced)), Java (introduced), Malesia (widespread (introduced)), Philippines (introduced), Vietnam (introduced), Fiji (introduced), New Caledonia (introduced), Samoa (introduced), Nigeria (introduced), Central African Republic (introduced), Singapore (introduced), Ryukyu Isl. (introduced), American Samoa (introduced) (Manua Isl. (introduced), Tutuila (introduced)), Gilbert Isl. (introduced) (Tarawa (introduced)), Marquesas Isl. (introduced), Micronesia (introduced) (Yap (introduced), Fais (introduced), Truk (introduced), Moen (introduced), Fefan (introduced), Pohnpei (introduced)), Palau Isl. (introduced) (Babeldaob (introduced), Koror (introduced), Ngarakabesang (introduced), Malakal (introduced)), Society Isl. (introduced) (Samoa (introduced), Wallis Isl. (introduced), Niue (introduced)), Southern Marianas (introduced) (Guam (introduced)), Tokelau (introduced) (Swains Isl. (introduced)), Western Samoa (introduced) (Aleipata Isl. (introduced), Upolu), Niue (introduced), Hawaii (introduced) (Kauai (introduced), Oahu (introduced), Maui (introduced), Hawaii Isl. (introduced)), USA (introduced) (Maryland (introduced)) as per Catalogue of Life)

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Polygala persicariifolia DC. (Jammu & Kashmir, India (Himachal Pradesh, Indian Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Meghalaya, Orissa, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala), Sikkim, Bhutan, Vietnam, China (Guangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan), Cambodia, Nepal, India, Myanmar [Burma] (Chin, Mandalay, Shan), N-Thailand, Laos, Philippines (Luzon), peninsular Malaysia, Java, Sumatra, Lesser Sunda Isl. (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Timor, Alor), New Guinea, Australia (Queensland), Yemen (Aden Desert), Guinea, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Sudan, South Sudan, D.R.Congo (Zaire), Ethiopia, Eritrea, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, ?Kenya, ?Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique as per Catalogue of Life)  

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Polygala sibirica L. (Romania, Bulgaria, C- & E-European Russia, Ukraine, Moldavia, Northern Caucasus, Siberia (W-Siberia, C-Siberia), Kazakhstan, Russian Far East, Afghanistan (Paktia / Khost), Pakistan, North Korea, South Korea, China (Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan), Tibet, Mongolia, Jammu & Kashmir, India (Himachal Pradesh, Indian Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Arunachal Pradehs, NE-India, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala), Nepal, Vietnam as per Catalogue of Life)

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Polygala tatarinowii Regel (China (Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Yunnan, Zhejiang), Taiwan, Tibet, Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu), Russian Far East, North Korea, South Korea, Bhutan, Sikkim, Chumbi, N-Burma, Philippines (Luzon, Mindanao), New Guinea, Jammu & Kashmir (Kashmir, Poonch), India (Himachal Pradesh, Indian Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Madhya Pradesh), Nepal, Pakistan (Rawalpindi), Vietnam as per Catalogue of Life)

 
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Polygala telephioides Willd. (India (Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala), Sri Lanka, peninsular Malaysia, Burma as per Catalogue of Life)
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Polygala tricholopha Chodat (China (?Guangxi, Hainan, SW-Yunnan), Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, India (West Bengal, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya), Sikkim, Bhutan, Myanmar [Burma], peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra as per Catalogue of Life)

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The complete account of Polygalaceae of India is available in FLORA OF INDIA VOL-2 published by BSI. This account is written by R.N.Banerjee. In this document (Banerjee,1993) following wild species of Polygala are mentioned growing in India-
1- Polygala abyssinica Fresen.
2- P. arillata D.Don (var. arillata, var. chartacea, var. laevicarpa, var. purpurascens, var. revoluta) diag. given
3- P. arvensis Willd. (diagram given)
4- P. bulbothrix Dunn (var. bulbothrix, var. devicolamensis, var. pulniensis)
5- P. buxiformis Hassk.
6- P. chinensis L. (diagram given)
7- P. crotalarioides Buch.- Ham. ex DC.
8- P. elongata Klein (syn. of Polygala glaucoides L.)
9- P. erioptera DC. (diagram given)
10- P. furcata Royle
11- P. globulifera Dunn (var. globulifera, var. kachinensis) diagram given
12- P. irregularis Boiss.
13- P. jacobii Chandrab.
14- P. japonica Houtt.
15- P. javana DC.
16- P. karensium Kurz (diagram given)
17- P. linarifolia Willd. (diagram given)
18- P. longifolia Poiret
19- P. mariesii Hemsley (diagram given)
20- P. persicariifolia DC.
21- P. rosmarinifolia Wight & Arn.
22- P. sibirica L. (diagram given)
23- P. tartarinowii Regel (diagram given)
24- P. telephioides Willd.
25- P. tricholopha Chodat (diagram given)
26- P. umbonata Craib.
27- P. wightiana Wight & Arn.  
No Polygala is mentioned in Red Data Book of Indian Plants by Nayar and Sastry (1987-90). However, Rao et al. (2003) have mentioned P. tricholopha Chodat as threatened species in India.

 
 
BinomialHabitNotesReferencesDistribution
Polygala arillata Buch.-Ham. ex D. DonErect ShrubWestern Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Moist Deciduous to Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Sebastine, 1960Coimbatore, Dindigul, Kanniyakumari, Nilgiri, Salem, Theni, Tirunelveli
Polygala arvensis Willd.Erect or Ascending HerbPlains to Moist Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983All districts
Polygala bolbothrix DunnHerbWestern Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Dry Localities to Dry Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Madurai, Salem, Tirunelveli, Virudhunagar
Polygala chinensis L.Erect or Ascending HerbPlains to Moist Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Matthew, 1983All districts
Polygala elongata Klein ex Willd. (syn. of Polygala glaucoides L.)Erect HerbWestern Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Matthew, 1983Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Namakkal,  Nilgiri, Salem,  Tirunelveli,  Tiruvannamalai, Vellore, Viluppuram
Polygala erioptera DC. Diffuse HerbPlains, Dry LocalitiesFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983Coimbatore, Kancheepuram, Puddukkottai, Ramanathapuram, Salem, Thiruvallur, Tiruchchirappalli, Tirunelveli, Tiruvannamalai, Viluppuram
Polygala jacobii ChandraboseAscending or Decumbent HerbPlains to Moist Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Matthew, 1983Coimbatore, Cuddalore, Tiruchchirappalli, Viluppuram
Polygala javana DC.UndershrubPlains, Weed, Native of Indo - Malaysian RegionFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983All districts
Polygala longifolia Poir. Erect HerbWestern GhatsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Gamble, 1957Coimbatore, Nilgiri
Polygala myrtifolia L.ShrubWestern Ghats, Cultivated, Native of South AfricaFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983Nilgiri
Polygala persicariifolia DC. Erect HerbWestern Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Deciduous to Moist Deciduous Forests, GrasslandsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Matthew, 1983Coimbatore, Dindigul, Nilgiri,  Salem, Theni, Virudhunagar
Polygala rosmarinifolia Wight & Arn. HerbWestern Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Moist Deciduous to Evergreen Forests, GrasslandsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Matthew, 1983Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Kanniyakumari,   Namakkal,  Nilgiri, Salem, Theni,  Tirunelveli, Tiruvannamalai, Virudhunagar
Polygala sibirica L.HerbWestern Ghats, Moist Deciduous Forests to Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983Coimbatore, Dindigul, Kanniyakumari, Madurai, Nilgiri, Tirunelveli
Polygala telephioides Willd. Diffuse HerbWestern Ghats, Moist Deciduous Forests Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Gamble, 1957; Matthew, 1983Dharmapuri, Kanniyakumari, Tirunelveli, Virudhunagar
Polygala virgata Thunb.ShrubWestern Ghats, Cultivated, Native of South AfricaFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983Nilgiri
Polygala wightiana Wall. ex Wight & Arn.Erect or Ascending HerbWestern Ghats & Eastern Ghats,Moist Deciduous Forests, GrasslandsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Matthew, 1983Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Madurai, Namakkal, Salem, Tirunelveli, Virudhunagar

 

 

Species with description & pictures in Flowers of India as on 19.2.14: 

Botanical nameSynonymsFamilyCommon name

Polygala arillata Polygala arillata var. ovata Polygalaceae Yellow Milkwort
Polygala arvensis
Polygalaceae Field Milkwort
Polygala elongata (syn. of Polygala glaucoides L.)
Polygalaceae Narrow-Leaved Milkwort
Polygala erioptera
Polygalaceae Woolly-Winged Milkwort
Polygala persicariifolia
Polygalaceae Knotweed Leaved Milkwort
Polygala tatarinowii Salomonia martinii, Semeiocardium hamiltonii Polygalaceae Oriental Milkwort

 

Polygala abyssinica R.Br. ex Fresen. (Africa, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Himalayas: from Murree to Kumaon)

Polygala arvensis Willd. (Tropical Asia and Australia)

Polygala crotalarioides DC. (Kashmir to Sikkim and Burma)

Polygala dictyoptera Boiss. syn. of Polygala irregularis Boiss.

Polygala erioptera DC. (Arabia, Tropical Asia and Africa)

Polygala hohenackeriana Fisch. and Mey. (Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, Turkey, Balkans, Caucasus)

Polygala irregularis Boiss. (Arabia, Pakistan, Iran, India)

Polygala sibirica Linn. (Europe and Asia)

Polygala tatarinowii Regel (Temperate Himalayas, W. Pakistan, India, Burma, China, Philippines)



Species with distribution in annotated checklist of Flowering plants of Nepal (Distribution):

Polygala abyssinica (1300-2700 m; Africa, Afghanistan, Himalaya (Kashmir to Nepal))

Polygala arillata Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don (1500-2700 m; Himalaya (Nepal to Bhutan), S. Tibet, India, Ceylon, Burma, Indo-China, China, Malaya)

Polygala arillata var. laevicarpa 

Polygala crotalarioides (2100-3000 m; Himalaya (Kashmir to Sikkim), India, Burma, Thailand, Indo-China, China)

Polygala furcata (600-1700 m; Himalaya (Mussouree to Bhutan), India, Burma, W. China)

Polygala linariifolia (200-2400 m; Himalaya (Punjab to Sikkim), Thailand, Indo-China, China, Malaysia)

Polygala longifolia (900-1500 m; Himalaya (Kashmir to Nepal), India, Ceylon, Burma, Thailand, Indo-China, China, Malaysia, Australia)

Polygala persicariifolia (700-1900 m; Africa, Himalaya (Punjab to Nepal), India, N. Burma, Thailand, Malaysia)

Polygala sibirica var. elegans (1600-3000 m; Himalaya (Garhwal to Bhutan), Assam, S.E. Tibet)

Polygala sibirica var. sibirica (2700-3600 m; E. Europe, Siberia, Himalaya (Kashmir, Nepal), Assam)

Polygala tartarinowii (1800-2900 m; Himalaya (Kashmir to Bhutan), Assam, S.E. Tibet, N. Burma, China, Japan, Philippines)



Some species found in India with description & keys from Flora of China [Distribution other than China]:

(No distribution given in India)

Polygala arillata Buchanan-Hamilton ex D. Don [Bhutan, Cambodia, India (Darjeeling, Sikkim), Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].

Polygala chinensis Linnaeus [Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam] syn. of Polygala glomerata Lour.

Polygala crotalarioides Buchanan-Hamilton ex Candolle  [India, Kashmir, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand].

Polygala elegans Wallich ex Royle [Bhutan, India, Kashmir, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan].

Polygala furcata Royle [Bhutan, N India, Myanmar, Nepal].

Polygala globulifera Dunn [N India, Myanmar]. 

Polygala japonica Houttuyn [NE India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Russia (E Siberia), Sri Lanka, N Vietnam].

Polygala karensium Kurz [Bhutan, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam].

Polygala longifolia Poiret in Lamarck [Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Kashmir, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Australia].

Polygala monopetala Cambessèdes in Jacquemont [Kashmir].

Polygala paniculata Linnaeus [widely distributed in the tropics].

Polygala persicariifolia Candolle [Bhutan, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand; Africa].

Polygala polifolia C. Presl [Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Australia].

Polygala sibirica Linnaeus [Bhutan, India, Japan, Kashmir, Korea, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia; SW Asia, Australia, Europe].

Polygala tatarinowii Regel [Bhutan, India, Japan, Kashmir, N Myanmar, Philippines; Malesia]. 

Polygala tricholopha Chodat [India, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam].

Polygala triflora Linnaeus [Cambodia, N India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand; Australia].



Species as per Flora of Peninsular India: (Keys available here at many pages):

Polygala abyssinica
Flora of Eastern Ghats: Hill Ranges of South East India, Volume 1 By T. Pullaiah, D. Muralidhara Rao, K. Sri Ramamurthy (2002)- Description & Keys-
Polygala bulbothrix,
Polygala buxiformis, 
Polygala elongata syn. of Polygala glaucoides,
Polygala linarifolia,
Polygala rosmarinifolia,
Polygala telephioides
Polygala wightiana

 
Polygala elongata syn. of Polygala glaucoides,
Polygala rosmarinifolia
  
Flora of Davanagere District, Karnataka, India By B. K. Manjunatha, V. Krishna, T. Pullaiah (2002- Details with keys-
Polygala elongata syn. of Polygala glaucoides,
Polygala rosmarinifolia
  
Forest Plants of Eastern India By Amal Bhusan Chaudhuri (1993)- Brief details-
Polygala triphylla Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don is a synonym of Polygala furcata Royle

 
Polygala : 3 posts by 2 authors.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Polygala

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.

Any comments/ corrections are welcome


I have added list of Indian species of Polygala with reference.
Your effort is growing in proportions and going to a big tree, though I do not want it be a banyan tree. It started booming and fruiting is on.
I shall send my publications list so soon, after returning attending a symposium on algae in a college at Kakinada where I did my PUC and graduation.
I was to search for Polygala.  I just arrived there in MH when NC Nair and M Chandrabose have communicated the MS on Polygala of three southern states.
I have a few suggestion for the matter included in the portal.  Go to Polygala (https://sites.google.com/site/efloraofindia/species/mz/po/polygalaceae/polygala).  The pages starts with the list of Polygala species from Flora of India after RN Banerjee).  The volume of FI is as three.  It is to be corrected as '2'.  Species 24 is P. telephoides Willd. is a synonym of P. chinensis L. 
The above link and comment is uncalled for though one has a good intent to correct it. The synonymy is based on TROPICOS, FLORA OF CHINA PROJECT.
It is not of Plantlist.org. This species is very interesting and described from Edgeworth's specimen from northwest India.  I have looked years back and we added as a record for Telangana from a good forest habitat.  If it were P. chinensis and then what about the specimens with the description of that taxon?  It is a very important taxon in China where they extracted number of bioactive compounds.  It is alleged to be used against drug addicts.
Moreover, at the end of the above account of Polygala...it is remarked that there are no threatened species of the taxon since Nayar & Sastry have mentioned any. These authors never assessed the threatened taxa in the field and their accounts or categorization was just based on how many specimens and how often they were collected.
I feel, it is high time that you think of experts who can approved these comments before posting or at least edit them to send no wrong signals.
You need to have two channel...one anybody can post and comment a picture or account of a plant species from the Indian soil and the other which carries the authentic or at least after a consensus
I have gone through the suggestions/ comments of ... He is a veteran botanist and taxonomist of India and his suggestions matters a lot to us.  
Yes the volume number of the Flora of India is 2 and corrected in eFI now. Now the volume being online, the link is also given. 

Species 24 is P. chinensis L. as per The Plant List 2013 and P.telephioides Willd. is a synonym of it based on the Plant List 2013 (which itself mention it synonym based on Tropicos). But this has been our pattern of mentioning the synonyms based on The Plant List. I found it as P.telephioides in all sources not as P.telephoides Willd. as suggested by ... 

We follow The Plant List most often for accepted names and synonyms, as done here in this case. Until there is some new literature in the form of revision etc of the genus we may stick to it.  

Red Data Book of Indian Plants by Nayar and Sastry (1987-90) is an official document of Indian Govt providing information on threatened species in India. A more recent listing of threatened species is by Rao et al. 2003 (based on the ‘1997 IUCN Red List of Theratened Plants’) in which Polygala tricholopha Chodat is mentioned as threatened with ‘Indeterminate’ status. This information is also added at suitable place. Opinion of the people may vary while mentioning status of a species as threatened or rare or common depending upon one’s observation. But to mention a species as threatened we need a published source mentioning the species like Nayar & Sastry (1987-90) or Rao et al. (2003). 

It is a welcome suggestion that we should involve experts for approving our comments/ contents and we are open to it. The participation of experts is needed and solicited. The forum is open to all and acts voluntarily so it depends on experts that how much they can contribute in form of suggestions/ corrections/ editing.

I am a bit surprised that ... didn’t mention whether he found information on the page useful or not? 



Pl. go throughPolygala‎‎ ‎(‎‎Polygalaceae) page with images of species in efloraofindia.

If you find any incorrect identification, pl. let us know. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.


Looking very useful in identifying Polygala species. 

very nice. no wonder you were resurfacing some of these