Rhamphicarpa fistulosa

 
ram-fee-KAR-puh -- from the Greek rhamphos (crooked beak) and karpos (fruit)
fist-yoo-LOW-suh -- hollow, tube-like ...
Dave's Botanary

commonly known as: grassland trumpet • Marathi: तुतारी tutari

Endemic to: Western Ghats (of Maharashtra and Goa, India)
 
Herbs 15-20 cm high, erect. Leaves pinnatisect, 2.5-3.0 cm long, segments filiform. Flowers white axillary, shortly pedicellate or sessile. Capsule c 1.2cm long, obliquely ovoid. Seeds oblong many, brownish

Rhamphicarpa fistulosa is a flowering plant species in the Orobanchaceae family (formerly in the Scrophulariaceae family)[1] - and the genus Rhamphicarpa.[2][3][4][5][6]
The plant is pale-green but can turn reddish towards maturity. It has needle-like leaves and white flowers with long corolla tubes.[7] The flowers only open after sun-set and are supposedly pollinated by night moths.[8]
The plant has a broad distribution in Africa (from Guinea to Madagascar and from Egypt to South Africa) and can also be found in New Guinea and northern Australia.[6]
Rhamphicarpa fistulosa is an annual facultative hemi-parasitic forb species.[8]
It is a very widespread species in seasonally flooded wetlands in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, and it is increasingly important as a parasitic weeds in rain-fed lowland rice systems in Africa,[9] where yield losses of more than 60% are typically reported.[10] It is particularly a problem in rice fields prone to temporary, uncontrolled flooding.[10] Management strategies against Rhamphicarpa fistulosa are limited;[11] hand-weeding, permanent flooding, fertilizer applications and the use of herbicides are currently the only known, effective control measures.[9][12] 
(From Wikipedia on 16.8.13)  


https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/1058db5e96bacd72/Rhamphicarpa%20longiflora%206.jpg?part=0.6&view=1&vt=ANaJVrF1hXu-jag3f7jDiBCcv6wTUsHJpHUl5lnTKZ8RjgtXUyCPVe99617IZmGAV9278NN5ECEFIWekIW0e4G3KNDoI3m-Kc5LLdu53FTxeeJCgEwtKqR0
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/1058db5e96bacd72/Rhamphicarpa%20longiflora%205.jpg?part=0.5&view=1&vt=ANaJVrF13tsLbsnZfjWmrpGiPqUeRIv2zVEhhmlIcFpmPtQnYYp-9F7hJ4cHTWUDP0AswbgnVnnxzzjfr7ePeMsVmZc0DwEgImeBeuWO0zc5t7TsbH-VyCI
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/1058db5e96bacd72/Rhamphicarpa%20longiflora%204.jpg?part=0.4&view=1&vt=ANaJVrEI18kduuzGlxsNYW3fxAsRTuzcWw02WTAnNfhIIZ0GX5acJQwSVLpHfpzDm8iGKIaIVwL7YIIzhr_CZ_rWjx-BE-9rtfN2TU3GVrRK6__9GYkmAXw
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/84287cdb3861113d/Kas-2.JPG?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFBTKOVQNza02ecE8zzw3iKLcx4ntmsGgf3UaYvOdzfXsiAXE_fkvKilyQf1RjyQAw-ayYcIQh1-G6nKgdU83Oe5xijkA3p3DHWHd3bnw6VnESW4TM
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/1058db5e96bacd72/Rhamphicarpa%20longiflora%208.jpg?part=0.8&view=1&vt=ANaJVrEydE9HAFTkf7MJHgqL1Sm6OK3QbtnG0iEPyX_AoF1hTbR8z29tYWb0ctJVo9dErfxZQmyYsC6wDMfZZBvjk_COYn34qeuzgnqopOOfwKWgYKRyrak
Flora of Sahyadri & Konkan -Rhamphicarpa Longiflora:  Name of Species:  Rhamphicarpa Longiflora
Common Name: Tutari
Family: Scrophulariaceae
Conservation status: NA
Photographed: 8th September, 2010
Location: Kas Platue, Western Ghats, Maharashtra
Habitat Type : High Elevation Moist Grassland
Camera: OLYMPUS SP570UZ
Lens: OLYMPUS ED LENS AF ZOOM 4.6 - 92 mm, 1:2.8 - 4.6
Abundence: Known to be occasional in subjected region 

If I am right the leaves of this species is very narrow and grows on thin layer of soil on rocks along with Utricularia spp Drocera spp and all. This plant is active with flowers only during rainy season and
getting such nice pictures in the rain is great effort!
New name of this plant is Rhamphicarpa fistulosa (Hochst.) Benth. of Scrophulariaceae family.
If you could upload a picture of plant with leaves would be useful to understand more about the plant, for people who are new to such kind of plants.

Photographed last weekend. As ... has pointed out flowering generally occurs on rocky areas [which have a thin layer of soil] between July and September. 
Sending a few photographs.
I agree. It is difficult to catch these.
Adding some pictures clicked by me in earlier seasons (Near Pune)
Leaves are visible in one of the pictures.
Great pictures! Thanks for sharing ..., I would like to add laterite rocks......
I haven't got a chance to get the pictures after I got a camera. I have seen this species long back during September 2003 in Kudremukh National Park.
Again I have seen the flower of this species active in the night when we had gone for some night sampling (I was working with an IISc team who work on Orthopterean insects (crickets)). Those were fantastic opportunity for me to learn not only noctornal flowers but also noctornal insects as well.

I would like to add one more point that this species is a root parasite on grasses!
Are these night/evening flowering? Because most of the time when i have seen these flowers they are closed,
The rocks are basaltic rocks. Also checked with a friend who is a Geologist and has visited my farm often.
Yes ... You are perfectly right. I think we must have discussed this earlier.
Some factor of humidity might also be important. The flowers are often seen open in humid dull atmosphere with less sunlight. whereas in bright sunny daytime open flowers are seldom seen. I doubt whether I am guessing or anyone wants to share experience about this?
On this new site where Hariyali has taken plantation activity conditions are similar to kas. Except it is lowline place and hillocks are comparitively smaller. We see many flowers similar to Kas. On this land we can see pleny of these Tutaries ( Ramphicarpa- is it sophubia or something similar?). We are trying to see whether we can see some Utricularia or Drossera. But not yet seen.
I have seen this Ramphicarpa in plenty on the platue of Velneshwar near Guhagar. There we can see Droserra as well as Utricularia sps.
But both these places-- one is low line other is at height, I have seen them closed and druping in morning hours.  
 
Herb for ID RDS 08/08/11:  Photographed yesterday on Neral - Matheran route, Maharshtra 

Nice picture of Rhamphicarpa longiflora (synonym of R. fistulosa, as per http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl/record/kew-2527160).


 https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/719ace62bdb0f4be/ka001.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFVpS19veCWjD4Oyv5tLtWUvsVZ1dRgSvvqUxew9PHSPFTJE7H_9IOy7QUOYvIXqDz-rNrdVsVK4zIOR4bya-e7MYWJ5Y-4JX0RSPwbR4TEgJOWowA
request id - clicked at Kaas plateau last year:  Clicked around August end at Kaas plateau last year.
Have not yet been able to find an id for this.
At first I thought it was Rhampicarpa, but the shape, texture of petals looks different.

Confusing!!! but it may be Rhampicarpa longiflora
I do not have any other photos. That is why it is difficult for me to id it too :) 
... with ... thoughts ... Rhamphicarpa longiflora (now put as synonym of Rhamphicarpa fistulosa).
Yes you are right ... this R. longiflora is synonymous under Rhamphicarpa fistulosa 
Unfortunately beautiful venation on the petals is not conspicuously visible in the picture. 


https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/d91e1179105efa7b/IMG_6191-r.JPG?part=0.4&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFHTZDmswItYv1J0eVDB03Th1ZJx1Axu1valQJ_1MrpR9TYLfnIE8K_dj0UXTCoMbsf3ztWxU3WLuRpaiT-5j_N_ya-vcxI2aGbkCWp_On6ELlAGr4
 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/d91e1179105efa7b/IMG_6183-rr-r.jpg?part=0.3&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGCJsnWdpZLguh9bwR_rblYrVytV2AwAISSU5brt1oYGRnlOzHqx0H3u_wB9ceifo5NysYqiFdKrpJexFlhExsFGMv-yOGBvGq6KqJdYcFnSdyKxV4
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/d91e1179105efa7b/IMG_6181-r.JPG?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrHnea22G79Lr4Ry-aC1hZiJ73nGs2SQA29ap3Z1qTyrKebpCRPgAN5faH5OVBH3SeJ9xLv48jkvzqCu-Sr4ShauWfd2YJqMw2X4PLDmMJftRyJVeMw
identification no 241011sn2: Kindly Id this plant. May be the flower not in full bloom.
date/time:aug/sept11
location:mulshi,pune
habitat:wild
plant habit:herb
height:tiny
other info:has thorns
... yes, Rhamphicarpa longiflora Benth. (synonym of Rhamphicarpa fistulosa (Hochst.) Benth.)

https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/proxy/1LVfBwL9qOoWWYvRiIoysiWMjzkGjlhPz7swhOlV04VZIaup9U3ZhE1gXD8fgb5MZOPg71SYj4-4UtG_IjcZyVsv53-0A6DAo2_VfRyDljHT=w5000-h5000
https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/proxy/QYHEf52OehSfj54hGClMVlwKSAM54rhLZ7rSDgIdVw7909rvDB5f4vgG1zbos0ZhAfeCN907FBVfDH-7LRlF9nXLPvdh8MqDKZHiN0ece9Tg=w5000-h5000
Kas Week :: DV :: 28 SEP 08 - 0259 :: Rhamphicarpa fistulosa:
Kas plateau ... about 4000 ft asl
... one of the 39 World Heritage sites in the Western Ghats of India 
28 SEP 08 and 25 AUG 10
Rhamphicarpa fistulosa (Hochst.) Benth. ... (family: Orobanchaceae, earlier placed in Scrophulariaceae)
syn. Rhamphicarpa longiflora Benth. 
ram-fee-KAR-puh -- from the Greek rhamphos (crooked beak) and karpos (fruit)
fist-yoo-LOW-suh -- hollow, tube-like ...
Dave's Botanary
commonly known as: grassland trumpet • Marathi: तुतारी tutari
Endemic to: Western Ghats (of Maharashtra and Goa, India)
References: Flowers of IndiaFlowers of Sahyadri by Shrikant Ingalhalikar

how come one has all those dark lines...?
It has lost its glory; and beaten by rain.
 
 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/32a6a7c81e55a3f3/Tutari.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrHsm04PMp_R0_CqKMsOKM-sFdYABDnBPGY93zp0BTchY9GtTzwINjwmKLXJgyXCHe90QYQQB8R73X_Rs2BZRZ-EQKhR0rPIjVym8_kxtdEnwSQs3P4
Kaas Week : Rhamicarpa fistulosa:  Aug., 2010
A big typo error there. I was knowing its name as Rhamphicarpa longiflora.
But as per The plant List its a synonym and the accepted name is "Rhamphicarpa fistulosa"
It is going to be tough to remember the change of names every now & then. I am usually, before uploading or IDing any pic, refer to the plant list.
Yes I agree Even the problem is same here with me.
This was just to make the database error free."Rhamphicarpa"
... agreeing with ...; better to correct the errors (typos) in any given thread ELSE it will never appear in search unless someones searches with a ditto typo.


 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/15aaf2b02a146b7f/Rhamphicarpa%20longiflora2.jpg?part=0.2&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGqLldBG_mbCyHawusZ3QhBBxrYU1UNRtswkJzAppT3ECsoAQjDeGNddXyTHnNS8mQHFdTZr1Uentc5r4Z-UKV5IuB6SfLopx5nqZaVQ9TPx4KqNTA
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/506c013e07afcc48/DSC09456-800.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGxXUB8lT2rPGcgELLJTRLidMi1O06ECmL5YhrtCNqCixn0eCQpNmlLPdih9a7fTlz9mMHx9D75x-mkRnZTlSJTqXHUVz-GK1jT-1-s34Sn1BNjIVM
Kas week : Rhamphicarpa fistulosa SMP: Rhamphicarpa fistulosa
Flowers open during night.
Commonly observed on Kas plateau.
(Picture attached from elsewhere)
Yes, this is parasitic on grass and flowers open at evening. A typical plant of rock outcrop usually found along with Drosera indica. Earlier this was in Scrophulariaceae but is now a Orobanchaceae.


 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/506c013e07afcc48/DSC09462-800.jpg?part=0.4&view=1&vt=ANaJVrHE3lfppw5dEqZfsDZkH7H02d4psyveIyGkhiG8BPEbSE7tk-03VzQRb09kURsbsO1izJXYAE6FIxx_Vj8W2UP6ahKZWjFsp2rLZZPIr1RBArO6pYw
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/506c013e07afcc48/DSC09459-800.jpg?part=0.3&view=1&vt=ANaJVrECu21rl7TZDDRegdwpg4PFuW5Pd5aUMAiDySFFkWe1rrWD5OoEoZ4MckxzMXvc0P-OFWEE_zZHTijB1ibWGTn82Gh1UOG-gfXGLP7o2k_wN1bYIKM
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/506c013e07afcc48/DSC09458-800.jpg?part=0.2&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGAiceIdOeZRzH-kDacrrIqX9kNUCJWf5M3IjPVoGPfJt5-sOejd9JbWT_ekEGAWzRxsFK61dDY6cyytVbFzuyVmnv-mXYorw1XLlLmtpcmh6i0Xk4
Rhamphicarpa longiflora - Tutari or trumpet flower MN11102012: Rhamphicarpa longiflora - Tutari or trumpet flower
Place : Bhopar, Dombivli
Date : 2nd October 2012


https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/5f32bc8f86a1473d/IMG_4038.jpg?part=0.4&view=1&vt=ANaJVrE17k3UN_SU0tRy6WtzsyVzekKCmCGnrnWx_h4WKKdLZY643MeWFMO9yhpCD3BW0D5yTd3AXI_ySXquWU12xTsuo7K3dzlyzZhvCYuaBTL_g1s6KW8
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/5f32bc8f86a1473d/IMG_4036.jpg?part=0.3&view=1&vt=ANaJVrF4T3-J_BYyXoxoGM4CXxgYt2lT3Vd7QDoqaevp8rKGVcd7h9HcH9nj3vXcIji-pOupNgtA8cuLn_JvXMqqXU9TvsexKPwrJ3QMml5eYlYJAnsEOWk
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/5f32bc8f86a1473d/IMG_4057.jpg?part=0.2&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGKT7wKX4WhsTNgnZUf8x6Z3o7h8xApTbD2NdYhD5jnSYzbmaL2B8yRgUPJ1rMO6p3JzTml5tTAWEv3NfcXcyYLXfzteCU33XPtx8s1p7W6nlrxdVc
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/5f32bc8f86a1473d/IMG_4056.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrHfdQSxqcrGb0w9Cmpr4a26I7-IeyjaVOM4eZY33YAYntWgLsJx9xOsYzMXGx_23tXZY7IMkfAwFrwbTernreKcuBWl6louQB7RcGkrskNfAT4MqcI
Kas week::PKA45:- Rhamphicarpa fistulosa: Rhamphicarpa fistulosa (Family: Orobanchaceae).


 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/6517ddd84f13a52/Rhamphicarpa%20longiflora.jpg?part=0.2&view=1&vt=ANaJVrF9LvmhYMMYo-48_6PgNKy3DXHXD8toEcexEpVXWFNEyeVAtwLBd0hQryYlecrGpGFYg2zep1FH9iHzlUQ54XJzOa8GU0NmuqMlv0Do85I69ApitNQ
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/6517ddd84f13a52/Rhamphicarpa%20longiflora2.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFjRYVKSfQNPwmMXHtHMn6kWd97YG-h_i9KbzhgniwYdurC4wCVINeXIM6p6qttpuEaUwuIm6EOm7MR5EgJJ3WgqAGHDf4NAyBS9sg0V_DkmiXmYWI
Scrophulariaceae fortnight :: Rhampicarpa longiflora Pune SMP6 : 2 images. 2 posts by 1 author.
Rhampicarpa longiflora
Herbs 15-20 cm high, erect. Leaves pinnatisect, 2.5-3.0 cm long, segments filiform. Flowers white axillary, shortly pedicellate or sessile. Capsule c 1.2cm long, obliquely ovoid. Seeds oblong many, brownish.
As per The Plant List Rhamphicarpa fistulosa is the correct name and the above name is a synonym


 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/8f73edc9bca6b293/DSC09481.JPG?part=0.3&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFHH6Rac8m_WjnG5DeQ4IljEI06LYzEswNJvWOutSXOfBoHSW4dDQqBrepjKNCHBqxAfg2VkinrE8eHrlcGTPrDv2Ao8kjVn9To0ynKa_SgCita_zw
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/8f73edc9bca6b293/DSC09461.JPG?part=0.2&view=1&vt=ANaJVrEjWasaDrurdWbyCXF0q2OCeaaR2SnkarWaoT16GmzbfjcPejT_6rbIk6byo9wT6VKJClX5AZCq0pFVfItJkuFa-O9eeAe5k8QWKZ9mTloZPDSqLYQ
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/8f73edc9bca6b293/DSC09482.JPG?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrEc58hJ93bT-iMLua4-H7ijjXX91JyYJK2McINxsNuMDeDfArji5RLAeC7rOm4VVJ6SQXjpo_OUGPpGOFNgKdTK4bhWVnKIq12L1ONjVfMZvBLvDvk
Rhampicarpa longiflora
Location : Bhopar, Dombivli
September 2012

The correct name as per The Plant List will be Rhamphicarpa fistulosa


 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/20c5a61a22ff3/DSCN5700.JPG?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrEx-1xAw8sMOgMnOKEBBJkfxRWw-icvEDsQsQZ2rEmzjdcaPp8v-yB367vh63bHePIhAXrmIOIu_PWtfOoLOVhFOiQ9q9ACmGaLQvd4j7UtZj4TZ1I
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/20c5a61a22ff3/DSCN5702.JPG?part=0.3&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFy2XAEUwVS9hRzIbAKk8p_awsfn5uAWOw6JnXm8nEw0FGXXJQ8NaOUw9rkOJcIPfVNM1Y1zKTIMqzVQpPu-4zLeipYAd_5UoV41RCxA0P9Tlp2Iog
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/20c5a61a22ff3/DSCN5703.JPG?part=0.4&view=1&vt=ANaJVrHlwFZUUr9pDpskhH1NYhTUjhY5D5Rmm7b9QPRMWJ462Y-k7wR5Fd_nCyBgNeA0PyeELugVauEeclbBqrkbaBwaX1Mn-iFhis8UfdWJ3QrvQ8VMlHU
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/20c5a61a22ff3/DSCN5701.JPG?part=0.2&view=1&vt=ANaJVrHayCPWXiDNjEHlW2uqpCtUX5F95jB0AHuovkEYwrgFkg_u00UWTezm_cAHf5Byz1DcfZDe4RQfMEYNCwHxiJ6TIw8e2tpsqqB7256-ecgsKB3qKTw
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/20c5a61a22ff3/DSCN5704.JPG?part=0.5&view=1&vt=ANaJVrH-nVMeTu3psWMF9LH6VNX5zmK_hB6YEO05VaEi3uWpNl3QsosH8wYjF8qoGEHqVoxAQqL85vfkBAYtg4ngmbXNRgQ-to5c6CBi60SWWQuwoNz_4TI
Wetland herb for ID :: MK002 SEP2016 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5)
Please help me identify this small herb found in wet areas on ground. Is this a Scrophulariaceae?
The flower was long (3-4 cm); but difficult to see its opening.
Habitat: wet (more post monsoon); also near agricultural fields
Alt.: 150 m asl
Date: 20 July 2016
Location: Palakkad Dist., Kerala
Rhamphicarpa fistulosa (Hochst.) Benth. syn. Rhamphicarpa longiflora Benth. (theplantlist ver 1.1) of Orobanchaceae


https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/94676f6feca95/DSC_0748f.jpg?part=0.2&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFHmo1PWjb5c2mc4079kmu-q7C5LWlrJ7LzbmqUI34SU6udn2IhxPOTUDCGkI9tEVusARpDmJaPvQY_5qZaF7TQaOg3igDd1quhjgSvVk02H8992q0
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/94676f6feca95/DSC_0757f.jpg?part=0.3&view=1&vt=ANaJVrE1SF29maNvktzqZsKzHqjgEfFbKXUUfO2RtXo9XOeBvUL2jt4wCfenEbVwcChAHSYO75g6D3Tt4AoH2DqGEuxMeoD5d33vIdFbBdqxYrzj07X0Jao
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/94676f6feca95/DSC_0760f.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFDDmMcjXlDVQEXPSAyqKFcyHrhA5Zt_wk_mtJLdsdcR-XSz2TcllTxm916W0kCYUxMCbH2mrSEH3yfe99CcdlQNpmIXrFTVIiBjXrqFLVAP5BIfH8
Rhamphicarpa fistulosa : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)
Rhamphicarpa fistulosa syn longiflora
family Orobanchaceae
third week of october 2016

 
 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/588b182e0a6d954b/RhamphicarpaSNV30892a.JPG?part=0.2&view=1&vt=ANaJVrHJ-xrZsMwX2spJzlZxcyzNgtL3JTheu_XqMEjeTsgo2JoWdqvG1Zi7R32UzxLBcvX8-scdoS5U97q1j5KQobsPE_DCWWut_PVNGuLxcIyFhKKMQ9I
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/588b182e0a6d954b/DSCN0363.JPG?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrH_aGS58spxnfwVDT7dZBKUswSLXakp4fQVFZ6g5Ja8T6vrxjNM-sg4hzwCHYb6kUqQQ_JFpmtFBZStUEozngsv-NAHXSmvUexxXyosDUDyJeG7VsY
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/e480c98e6dd3880e/P1030206.jpg?part=0.2&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGOverzKs5ThKw6GEyGnF1MNAw0LfGgd3H8eMqV9cWjAqe-IOl8_qwcGMnYxGa1rYqr6wWA6L6Zm1eb3ATZh6Ai1KYws4dn-39dx1AlUeav6eVSNcM
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/e480c98e6dd3880e/P1030214.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFiwDZVBqxIUJyqRScglAX7Wykz64IFoCrATWxHnE66VujmvMBhNbE8deg1DKrdhAJask4ZD9XH2ThrQvV3SMRlU4kS4OYbFszhqsqcmly732gpUsE


  

  
References:
Comments