Ficus arnottiana

Ficus arnottiana (Miq.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 3: 287 1867. (Syn. Ficus courtallensis (Miq.) Baill.; Ficus populeaster Desf.; Urostigma arnottianum Miq. (Unresolved); Urostigma courtallense Miq. (Unresolved));

India (Throughout), Nepal, Sri Lanka as per Synopsis of the Genus Ficus L. (Moraceae) in India Lal Babu Chaudhary*, Jana Venkata Sudhakar, Anoop Kumar, Omesh Bajpai, Rinkey Tiwari and G. V. S. Murthy- Taiwania, 57(2): 193-216, 2012;
Indian rock fig, rock pipal, waved-leaved fig tree, wild pipal • Gujarati: ખડક પાયર khadak payar • Hindi: bassari, palhi, पारस पिपल paras pipal, pilkhan, पिंपली pimpli • Kannada: ಕಲ್ಲ ಅಶ್ವತ್ಥ kalla ashvattha • Malayalam: കല്ലരയാല്‍ kallarayal • Marathi: पायर payar, कडक पाईर kadak payer, पिपळी pipli • Sanskrit: परीस parisah, प्लावक plavaka, प्लवंग plavanga • Tamil: கொடியரசு kotiyarasu • Telugu: కల్లరావి kallaravi, కొండ రావి konda ravi ;
There are two key features in the leaves to distinguish: Leaf base is cordate and tail at tip shorter than 2.5 cm in F. arnottiana. In F. religiosa the leaf base is rounded to slightly cuneate and tail at tip much longer, usually longer than 3 cm and contributing about one third of leaf length. The leaves may be undulate and variously thick in both, depending on age. 
F. rumphii is similar to F. religiosa in leaf base being truncate or rounded, although tail is 1.5-2.5 cm long like F. arnottiana.  
Another interesting feature worth comparison is that C. religiosa has three basal veins (one midrib, two lateral), F. rumphii has 5 and R. arnottiana 7, in both latter lowermost pair is very faint. 
Trunk of F. religiosa is darker with reddish brown with scales peeling off where as F. rumphii is much brighter with grey or whitish colour and most often comparatively smoother.
Request for species id : 12 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (3)  
Location: Indore, Madhya Pradesh.
Request for species id.
Is this Pakhri (Ficus cupulata)?
Or, can it be Ficus arnottiana?! Just a guess...
Ficus arnottiana: Common names - Peepli, Rock Fig. Many thanks.
I have now also restored the original message.
I had photographed F. arnottiana from Mahabaleshwar in 2002 on a film camera, digitised and uploaded in the following thread. It does match with yours.
Here is the thread
its Ficus arnottiana (we have this species among Gondwana hills i.e. Gir in Saurashtra, Pavagadh in central Gujarat and northern extensions of Sahyadri in South Gujarat hills of Dangs and Valsad distric)
Habitat: Rocky- steep hill slopes
Characteristic- Leaf apex short
Receptacle (figs) with stalk, usually in pairs
is there a gujarati name for it?
According to Pradip Krishen's Jungle Trees of Central India other names include Peepli, Paras, Gailani, Kath peepal, Rock/ Crow fig
Its Gujarati name is "Khadak Payar" very much from its Marathi origin as 'khadak' is rock and 'payar' is ficus.
tree for ID 003 PM 030212 : Attachments (3).  8 posts by 5 authors.
Pls help in ID this tree, photographed at Matheran on 3rd Feb., 12
Sapium insigne of Euphorbiaceae or Hura in Marathi. Beware, a poisonous tree.
..., I have a feeling this is some fig tree, possibly Ficus arnottiana.
Flowering-fruiting stalk of Sapium insigne, I have observed it to be always rising straight up, one at end of each twig.
It is Ficus arnottiana Miq. (Payar in Marathi) from family Moraceae
Thanks ... for waking me up; I must have been dozing to have said Sapium. Erect fruiting spikes of Sapium are unmistakable. It is surprising that with no leaves and no sizes of figs mentioned you IDd it to be F. arnottiana. The tree in pictures appears (guess) very tall. F. arnottiana is a branched shrub or a small tree growing in rock crevices more commonly on coast. The cordate, caudate, undulate leaves are a must for its ID. One can pick up the dry leaves lying below the leafless tree. Sans the format ( it is forgotten long back)
I hope someone does not ask the ID of a dead tree.
Have many Ficus arnottiana [Pipran] trees on my property at Shahapur but they are all small trees. Some of them can be viewed at these links.
However have seen a tree [at Shahapur] overhanging a cliff which could be described as 'medium-sized'. Sending a photograph of the tree.
..., many thanks for correcting my thoughts.
The possibility was based on:
1) proportion of the twigs' cross-section and the figs
2) have seen F. arnottiana fruiting with almost all of its leaves shed
3) was not sure if F. religiosa is ever found in the wild
4) none of other species of Ficus came to my mind with the kind of views in 2nd and 3rd photos (P2030117.JPG & P2030118.JPG)
Was not aware that F. arnotianna never grows to become a large tree.
Many thanks once again for the clarity.

i think Ficus arnottiana can grow to a tall tree, infact i have never known that F. arnottiana is consider as a shrub?. still i go with F. arnottiana
Ficus arnottiana (Miq.) Miq. (Cliff Fig).
For identification of Ficus species. : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1) - 1 MB.
Alternate distichous leaves, accuminate, Base cordate. Locality-Sagar, Karnataka.
Ficus arnottiana (Miq.) Miq. [Moraceae].
Ficus for ID :: Hatgad near Saputara :: ARKFEB-06 : 9 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (8)
Saw these trees on the hillside at Hatgad near Saputara, GJ in Feb 2017.
The new leaves look like those of Ficus religiosa. But the fruits look concentrated at the end of branches. This appeared peculiar to me.
Is this F. religiosa only?

This must be Ficus arnottiana.
Thank you ... for the ID. May I ask, is it because of the nature of the fruits (at the terminal end of branches) that this could be identified?
I have based the ID on seeing the length of leaf tip, which is almost half the length of leaf in case of religiosa very little in arnottiana
Beautiful images, this is Ficus arnottiana (Miq.) Miq.
ID help needed-AA02-22-02-2017- 2 : 1 post by 1 author. 4 images.
Kind help needed to identify this tree. I feel this is Ficus tree, possibly F. rumphii. Please correct me if i am wrong. These are the only images i have.
This was seen in the outskirts of Bangalore in a small hill.
What about Ficus arnottiana ?
Thanks ... Yes indeed. It looks closer to F.arnottiana. The sharp cordate leaf base structure can be clearly seen and is not seen in F.rumphii and F. religiosa. Referred to this and i guess came to the conclusion that its indeed F. arnottiana.
Tree for ID :: Devgad, Konkan, May 2017 :: ARKMAY20 : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)
Saw this short tree within another set of shrubs on the Devgad beach, MH in May 2017. The tree may only be 1-1.5 mts in height.
Is it some Ficus? Apologies for providing insufficient pics.
This should be Pipran [Ficus arnottiana]. Please check this link
This should be Ficus arnottiana (Miq.) Miq.
ID request-23022011-PKA1: I had seen this Leafless Tree with globuse fruits on the way to Matheran.
Date/Time: 19-02-2010 / 10:35AM
Location: Matheran Base (near Village Dodhani)
Habitat: Wild
Plant habit: Tree
-  This is Pipran [Ficus arnotiana].
- ... mine is a very wild guess: Ficus arnottiana.
Attached another view of same tree ... (was along with ..., his photo attached too).
 - ... my guess supported by some of the views in my photostream at
- To bring to the notice of .. sir, this plant (which is there in .. sir's photostream) is worshiped by tribals in Chotanagpur and used medicinally too. May be yo can throw some more light on this.
- Mine is no guess-work. My trees are fruiting right now. Sending you a few photographs. Also please check this link for my previous photographs of this:
- please find my image.
Ficus arnnotiana from Mahabaleshwar: While digitalizing my old albums I found this photograph from Kate Point Mahabaleshwar photographed in August, 2002. The plant cropped in the photograph I believe is Ficus arnnotiana. Pl. validate. 
- Yes Sir, I think it is Ficus arnotianna. The main distinguishing features that I generally apply are - the differences in the apex and the base of the leaves in F. arnotianna and F. religiosa.
   The apex of F. arnotianna is  "narrowed upwards to the shortly caudate-acuminate apex, with entire margins base usually cordate, never narrowed to the petiole" as mentioned in Dr. Almeida's flora and as seen in your pictures.
   In Ficus religiosa the "apex produced into a linear -lanceolate tail about 1/2 as long as the main portion of the blade (1/2 s long as the whole blade) , entire, base broad,  rounded , truncate, sometimes in young leaves cordate..." as mentioned in Dr. Almeida's flora. Hope this helps!
- The correct name would be : Ficus arnottiana (Miq.) Miq.
- This is Pipran [Ficus arnottiana]. The species it can be confused with is Pair / Pakar [Ficus rumphii].
- Yes Sir about the Ficus... and the cliff edge between the waterfall and the the place where 2 persons are standing there is a site (safe for the plants but dangerous for botanists) for the rare Frerea indica (Asclepiadaceae) plants. The location is great for observing the diversity of plants of the western ghats. You can call it a hot spot for Orchids.
Ficus arnottiana (Moraceae family), common deciduous tree of moist
deciduous & rain forests
of range that is below Vindhyan mountains upto Sri Lanka. Usually found on open grassy slopes and in rock-crevices of hills. Observed this tree , bit late and missed the flowering but not fruiting. Now (25th May`12) it has got new leaves.
On my study route (at matheran) I have counted 8 F arnottiana trees out of them only one is in mid of evergreen forest rest all on grass-slopes.
My trees are currently fruiting and in new leaves. Sending a photograph taken last Sunday. 1 image.
Ficus and Barbets:  Does anyone know if this is the season for ficus to fruit?
I am doing a story on Barbets and that they are frugivores
We have plenty of wild figs at my place. We have plenty of Barbets too. I did not know that they have a relationship. I will get back to you tomorrow and let you know if the trees are fruiting.
Very interesting thought.
Different species of Ficus flower and fruit in different time and season. Further, the same individual of some species of Ficus may flower and fruit more than once in an year.
Yes Barbets are fond of Ficus fruits I have seen most of the Barbets (Small green, Coppersmith and Malabar) are seen in Ficus trees when they are with fruits. I have seen lots of Coppersmith barbets on Ficus amplissima when it had ripened fruits.
Have these species of Ficus trees on my property at Shahapur : -
F.bengalensis –fruits between April to Nov.-F.arnottiana –bet. Mar. to May.
-F.racemosa –throughout the year.

-F.parasitica var. gibbosa –Nov. to Feb. -F.infectoria – data not available. -F.exasperata- data not available. -F.hispida- data not available. -F.drupacea- around March.-F.tsjahela- data not available. Also found in the vicinity--F.religiosa – around March. -F.amplissima- data not available.These are visited by the Coppersmith Barbet & occasionally the Brown-headed Barbet.Coppersmith Barbet on Pipran [F.arnottiana] as attachments.'s%20fruit_1.JPG?part=0.6&view=1&vt=ANaJVrEpXDMqizTJl0hpOqhKvSkpvgWP8koJ6tslLu5TP90VYXePBS6izi8SGeDNIDkhsdiZhIBr1QKPiycftwOPNQ1OylwfgC3-0g06rC_nV5fvwpo-JE0'%20bark_1.JPG?part=0.5&view=1&vt=ANaJVrEvamaEbnXmcw5Xlj6YgWSyZ0QPXHQXoqJpqShoJHwZiQf2lM4WKXEa-iGU7AHys2bncftVswHhzoMlcSolk31ULUbo-PmgUIT1Oh5HWOEtlG5Dwm4's%20pink%20%20leaf%20petiole_1.JPG?part=0.2&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGazznuLby5vdQS4B6AHuxP24q3eTSfyyVlQyTaJ8qBPgI5ObzITBvKreGty6lLvdQlDrRCwR24-etIgv9rRhJfjvohuNUhlHf0eOh2jAsieYZ2z7A,Pipran%201.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrHteVQd5tleb6TCNSmFAxBB_VEePej_jOrl0nREV4YSrJaOGLm5eQdp6x1JWoHgNxFfKxDv8R-Fc43_rkqYsb12jQoCLi_X_-3WIY_xz18dxpVcyLo,Pipran%202.jpg?part=0.2&view=1&vt=ANaJVrG4gNorWL9vUsnDs5kMtYqIzVzO7JBtjzcVj6lpvd1sZLwDLG14mO0YPYR0ZsiIHVKckh7UtUfCteHI4xZknYHWtfB9GbjdCMsno2lwycxzDiyQ-T0,Pipran%203.jpg?part=0.3&view=1&vt=ANaJVrEB66KncoYU6CRJD33o9lV1SWcXtBg4pMPOhfQKJBR6ogJCwy5azNZFwOf0bXM7LvTYUqsbLiiyPE3QT1aXvyVxxPCtjyCwHZ_oVBkyN8I0GrjPyeM,Pipran%204.jpg?part=0.4&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFMnOMtNk4i_0iylaBbktJFguugYhCZ6Q4aF1jH_-ehEfdXbFhK-jN7u0SA7oOdkDSEIasFqbvgDw-OXmHqF_kse5Y_5kbJ2GZ0jD-eVoG4my1uocA,Pipran%20-%20new%20plant%201.jpg?part=0.5&view=1&vt=ANaJVrHtfNy0xKBZxD102qnDOSgyrGiRf2GMU3a_bXd7xZcZGalND69HPuC1HGCCZ6DP8OkDQi0xvQLUkbBL0At7wi7LfdgEZv-XQQNdNaQChE7D52hprSQ,Pipran%20-%20new%20plant%202.jpg?part=0.6&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGh8SsBcc3LHv7sDJfMXY2qsdVH281vmhm-t8gZ0roKDFUfj8HUF4qECmjsNYDQdxGoKotCSbnSrjnDNU96sciZRQlqlHhjl01KQRaQt1xo5yXv1Z4,Pipran%20leaves.jpg?part=0.7&view=1&vt=ANaJVrE5Vy-v7TF6JNxJnNXW61HHLAb4rdqw1_2cKLVh5v9AkbWdyO5B4jgv9o83yCF27pd_TnY_AAIkY748TYwmCQizQ6MjcDOvo1ecwV_TYCvSiPk17Z0,Pipran%20fruit.jpg?part=0.8&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFMtswu0uq_VEXNCaUWWAXNyzpXel4cjvPFoAJrWq_m7A6wud0Dm9qHsrsC4ODm8j_zIdqStay274TcFYWzJ_J8jV8YFbE6BL-9Kvw0FLcLUMPr4Io

Ficus arnottiana : Attachments (6 + 2 + 8).  13 posts by 7 authors.
I am sharing the pictures of Ficus arnottiana taken in Candolium, North Goa in 1st week of Aug,10.

Thanks ... for sharing this interesting species, which has bee confused with F. religiosa on this group a number of times. There are two key features in the leaves to distinguish: Leaf base is cordate and tail at tip shorter than 2.5 cm in F. arnottiana. In F. religiosa the leaf base is rounded to slightly cuneate and tail at tip much longer, usually longer than 3 cm and contributing about one third of leaf length. The leaves may be undulate and variously thick in both, depending on age. Same may be true about prominence of veins. Of course there difference in habit, often not brought out in photographs. Another authentic photograph of this species is uploaded by ... on FOI I am uploading my photograph of F. religiosa for comparison here.
Nice pics of leaves, stipules and figs. Good series of pics.
Attaching the pics of Ficus arnottiana tree taken at Maharashtra Nature Park, Dharavi, Mumbai in Jan 2009. Marathi name : पायर
Family : Moraceae
I feel the leaves belong to Ficus rumphii. can any body provide images of leaf of F. rumphii too.,Pipran%20leaves.jpg?part=0.7&view=1&vt=ANaJVrG4KMBotgYyw3GhVWDL7EqyF6fJzdO_af5fvdkyLs29QWX56SaqZK30p2sWn5CI4PtkSPl_c613Dle8isYoe9F7VUlWqPg7bGU7Oya3706a4YZBOkE
Sending photographs of a few of my Pipran [Ficus arnotiana] trees for comparison. 8 images.
Have looked at ... photographs again. Don't think it is Ficus rumphii because the base of the leaf is cordate and not truncate.
Yes ... F. rumphii is similar to F. religiosa in leaf base being truncate or rounded, although tail is 1.5-2.5 cm long like F. arnottiana. In above plants leaves are clearly cordate at base, characteristic of C. arnottiana.
Another interesting feature worth comparison is that C. religiosa has three basal veins (one midrib, two lateral), F. rumphii has 5 and R. arnottiana 7, in both latter lowermost pair is very faint.
Thanx alot ... for the F. rumphii pics and thanx  ... for the Diagnostic characters for identification. i used to get confused between F. rumphiii and F. arnottiana
trunk of F. religiosa is darker with reddish brown with scales peeling off where as F. rumphii is much brighter with grey or whitish colour and most often comparatively smoother.
ID request- 10032014-PKA-March-30 : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (6). Small leafless tree seen in Mullayanagiri range near Chikmagalur (Karnataka).
Date/Time: 26-01-2014 / 01:00PM

Nice photos, ...
Could it be Ficus arnottiana ?
I think it is Ficus arnottiana
ANDEC14 Is this Ficus arnottiana? : 7 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3) 
All the F. arnottiana I have seen have red petioles so I am confused
Nelliyampathy, Kerala
November 2014
It looks like F. arnottiana to me.
The photographs are confirmed as Ficus arnottiana (Miq.) Miq.
Agumbe Ghat :: Ficus ¿ rumphii ? :: DV09 : 6 posts by 4 authors. 6 images.
Agumbe Ghat (part of Someshwara Wildlife Sanctuary) ... Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka
Date: 28 DEC 2014 ... Altitude: about 600 m asl at crest, about 250 m asl at foothill
This ficus does not seem F. arnottiana to me - based on habit / habitat. There were no figs at this time.
Not sure if these views of the tree suffice to validate the ID.
There is an interesting post of Renee ji - Ficus arnottiana, where ... has put an informative note: Another interesting feature worth comparison is that F. religiosa has three basal veins (one midrib, two lateral), F. rumphii has 5 and F. arnottiana 7, in both latter lowermost pair is very faint. 
Looking at the cordate base of leaves in my posted plant, and referring to two posts of ...: Hooghly Today : old building AND is this also Ficus rumphii ? ... makes me think that my posted plant may not be F. rumphii.
Please help validate
interesting write up. ficus trees always are a mystery to me. lets see what experts say 
..., to me it looks like Ficus arnottiana only.
But, let's wait for more comments.
Yes, ... it must be F. arnottiana. At least not F. rumphii. I have been used to seeing F. arnottiana in a totally different habitat. The leaves here are missing the hard raised veins - it confused me. Thank you very much.

What is the average height and width (size/ spread) that Ficus arnotianna is expected to attain? 
Would be grateful to learn from the responses.

According to Gamble it is 'A small tree or large shrub ...'.
This is mostly confined to rocky habitats and doesn't grow big. I have seen (in E.Ghats) plants of 3 to 8 m high and with approx. canopy width of some 3-4 m dia.
Let's here from other members too.
... me too visualizing F. arnottiana to be the size as ... describes.,+01-Jan-2020+09:21:55+GMT,+01-Jan-2020+09:21:54+GMT
SK 2275 05 November 2019 : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)- 793 kb, 1 mb & 3 mb. 
Location:  Ranimahal, Palpa
Date: 25 September 2019
Elevation:453 m.
Habit : Wild
Which Ficus ?? 

Attachments (1)- 7 mb. 

Based on leaf tip, Ficus religiosa is out of race.
Ficus arnottiana or Ficus rumphii
In this specimen leaf tip is small like F.rumphii, leaf base is deep sinuated cordate like F.arnottiana
I wd. err towards F.arnottiana

I shall check ...
Ficus arnottiana (Miq.) Miq. ?? Looks good !
Ficus from Thirumalai : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)- 1 mb or more. 
Found this Ficus species in Thirumalai, Eastern ghats 200 MSL.
Help in species ID.

F. arnottiana,
Indian roc fig, 

Ficus arnottiana : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)- 1 mb. 
Found in Auroville Botanical Garden. TN

Amazing sir, seems to sent result,