Ficus

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Images by tspkumar
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Ficus aspera G.Forst. (Cultivated)
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Images by tspkumar
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Ficus benjamina L.
Images by tspkumar
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Ficus drupacea Thunb.
Images by tspkumar
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Images by tspkumar
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Ficus exasperata Vahl
Images by tspkumar
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Ficus hispida L.f.
Images by tspkumar
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Ficus microcarpa L.f.
Images by tspkumar
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Ficus racemosa L.

Images by tspkumar
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Ficus sycomorus L. (Cultivated)

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Ficus virens Aiton

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Synopsis of the Genus Ficus L. (Moraceae) in India Lal Babu Chaudhary*, Jana Venkata Sudhakar, Anoop Kumar, Omesh Bajpai, Rinkey Tiwari and G. V. S. Murthy-   Taiwania, 57(2): 193-216, 2012-  
ABSTRACT: A checklist of all species of Ficus L. available in the present political boundary of India is provided. About 115 taxa (89 species and 26 infraspecific taxa) of Ficus have been recorded here based on all available information. The taxa have been arranged according to the current classification among six subgenera and 12 sections. The maximum number of the species belongs to subgenera Urostigma. For each species, correct nomenclature with first citation followed by several relevant works and important synonyms has been provided along with Indian as well as world distribution. The taxonomic comments have also been provided for many species, if found necessary. Out of the 115 taxa occurring in India, only 10 taxa have been recorded as endemic. One new combination Ficus hirta Vahl subsp. triloba (Buch.-Ham. ex Voigt) Chaudhary has been proposed. In India, the species are distributed throughout the country from South to North up to the Himalayas at about 2,000 m elevations. The maximum diversity of the species lies in the North-East region followed by the Peninsular region and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The province like Meghalaya in the North-East region has very rich diversity of Ficus as far as the number of species is concerned. 
List of 115 taxa is as below:
Ficus abelii Miq.,
Ficus albipila (Miq.) King,
Ficus alongensis Gagnep.,
Ficus altissima Blume,
Ficus ampelas Burm. f.,
Ficus amplissima J. E. Sm.,
Ficus andamanica Corner,
Ficus arnottiana (Miq.) Miq.,
Ficus assamica Miq.,
Ficus arnottiana (Miq.) Miq. var. courtallensis King,
Ficus arnottiana (Miq.) Miq. var. subcostata Corner,
Ficus auriculata Lour.,
Ficus beddomei King,
Ficus benghalensis L.,
Ficus benghalensis L. var. krishnae (C. DC.) Corner,
Ficus benjamina L.,
Ficus benjamina L. subsp. comosa (Roxb.) Panigrahi & Murti,
Ficus callosa Willd.,
Ficus capillipes Gagnep.,
Ficus carica L.,
Ficus caulocarpa (Miq.) Miq.,
Ficus chartacea (Wall. ex Kurz) Wall. ex King,
Ficus concinna (Miq.) Miq.,
Ficus concinna (Miq.) Miq. var. dasycarpa Corner,
Ficus conglobata King,
Ficus copiosa Steud.,
Ficus costata Aiton,
Ficus crininervia Miq.,
Ficus cupulata Haines,
Ficus curtipes Corner,
Ficus cyrtophylla (Miq.) Miq.,
Ficus dalhousiae (Miq.) Miq.,
Ficus diversiformis Miq.,
Ficus drupacea Thunb.,
Ficus drupacea Thunb. var. pubescens (Roth) Corner,
Ficus elastica Roxb.,
Ficus erecta Thunb.,
Ficus exasperata Vahl,
Ficus fergusonii (King) Worthington,
Ficus filicauda Hand. - Mazz. in Anz. Akad. Wiss. Wien,
Ficus fistulosa Reinwdt. ex Blume,
Ficus fulva Reinw. ex Blume,
Ficus gasparriniana Miq.,
Ficus gasparriniana Miq. var. laceratifolia (Levl. & Vant.) Corner,
Ficus geniculata Kurz,
Ficus guttata (Wight) Kurz ex King,
Ficus hedaracea Roxb.,
Ficus heterophylla L. f.,
Ficus heteropleura Blume,
Ficus hirta Vahl,
Ficus hirta Vahl var. malayana Corner,
Ficus hirta Vahl subsp. triloba (Buch.-Ham. ex Voigt) Chaudhary, comb. nov.,
Ficus hispida L. f.,
Ficus hookeriana Corner,
Ficus ischnopoda Miq.,
Ficus lacor Buch.-Ham.,
Ficus laevis Blume,
Ficus laevis Blume var. macrocarpa (Miq.) Corner,
Ficus lamponga Miq.,
Ficus langkokensis Drake,
Ficus maclellandii King,
Ficus maclellandii King var. rhododendrifolia (Miq.) Corner,
Ficus macrophylla Desf. ex Pers.,
Ficus magnoliifolia Blume,
Ficus microcarpa L. f.,
Ficus mollis Vahl.,
Ficus montana Burm. f.,
Ficus neriifolia J. E. Sm.,
Ficus nervosa B. Heyne ex Roth in Nov.,
Ficus nervosa B. Heyne ex Roth subsp. minor (King) Berg,
Ficus nervosa B. Heyne ex Roth subsp. pubinervis (Blume) Berg,
Ficus nigrescens King,
Ficus obscura Blume var. borneensis (Miq.) Corner,
Ficus palmata Forssk. subsp. virgata (Roxb.) Browicz in Rechinger,
Ficus pellucidopunctata Griff.,
Ficus pendens Corner,
Ficus praetermissa Corner,
Ficus prostrata (Wall. ex Miq.) Miq.,
Ficus pubigera (Miq. ex Wall.) Brandis,
Ficus pubigera var. maliformis (King) Corner,
Ficus pumila L.,
Ficus punctata Thunb.,
Ficus racemosa L.,
Ficus racemosa L. var. elongata (King) Barrett,
Ficus racemosa L. var. miquelii (King) Corner,
Ficus recurva Blume,
Ficus religiosa L.,
Ficus retusa L.,
Ficus retusa L. var. nitida (Thunb.) Miq.,
Ficus ribes Reinwdt. ex Blume,
Ficus rigida Jacq.,
Ficus rigida Jacq. var. bracteata (Corner) Bennet,
Ficus rumphii Blume,
Ficus sagittata Vahl,
Ficus sarmentosa Buch.-Ham. ex. J. E. Sm.,
Ficus sarmentosa Buch.-Ham. ex. J. E. Sm. var. impressa (Champ. ex Benth.) Corner,
Ficus sarmentosa Buch.-Ham. ex. J. E. Sm. var. luducca (Roxb.) Corner,
Ficus sarmentosa Buch.-Ham. ex. J. E. Sm. var. nipponica (Franch. & Sav.) Corner,
Ficus semicordata Buch.-Ham. ex J. E. Sm.,
Ficus sinuata Thunb.,
Ficus squamosa Roxb.,
Ficus stricta (Miq.) Miq.,
Ficus subincisa Buch.-Ham. ex J. E. Sm. in Rees,
Ficus subincisa Buch.-Ham. ex J. E. Sm. var. paucidentata (Miq.) Corner,
Ficus subulata Blume,
Ficus sundaica Blume,
Ficus superba (Miq.) Miq.,
Ficus talbotii King,
Ficus tinctoria G. Forst. subsp. gibbosa (Blume) Corner,
Ficus trimenii King,
Ficus tsjahela Burm. f.,
Ficus variegata Blume,
Ficus villosa Blume,
Ficus virens Aiton,
Ficus virens Aiton var. sublanceolata (Miq.) Corner


 
BinomialHabitNotesReferencesDistributionCommon name
Ficus albipila (Miq.) KingTreeEastern Ghats, Moist Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Rani 1985Salem,  Dindigul, Namakkal 
Ficus amplissima J.E. SmithTreeDry Evergreen to Evergreen Forests, also CultivatedFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987All districtsIchi, Kal-ichi
Ficus amplocarpa Govindarajulu & Masilamoney is a synonym of Ficus laevis var. macrocarpa (Miq.) CornerTreeWestern Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Moist Deciduous to Evergreen Forests Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Theni, Namakkal,  Nilgiri  
Ficus angladei Fischer is a synonym of Ficus macrophylla Desf. ex Pers. TreeWestern Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Endemic Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble & Fischer 1957Dindigul 
Ficus arnottiana (Miq.) Miq.Shrub/small treeWestern Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Dry Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Erode, Kanniyakumari, Namakkal, Nilgiri, Salem, Theni, Tirunelveli, Tiruvannamalai, Vellore, Viluppuram, VirudhunagarKal-arasu
Ficus auriculata Lour.TreeWestern Ghats, Cultivated, Native of Indo - Chinese RegionMatthew, 1999Dindigul 
Ficus beddomei KingTreeWestern Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble & Fischer 1957Coimbatore, Dindigul, Nilgiri, Salem, Tirunelveli 
Ficus benghalensis L. var. benghalensisTreeDeciduous Forests, also CultivatedFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987All districtsAal,  Ichi, per-al
Ficus benghalensis L. var. krishnae C.DC.TreePlains,  CultivatedFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Chennai, Madurai, Salem, Theni  
Ficus benjamina L. TreePlains, Cultivated , Native of Malaysian   Region Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Fischer 1921, Mayuranathan 1929All districtsMalai-ichi, Ponichi
Ficus callosa Willd.TreeWestern Ghats, Moist Deciduous to Evergreen Forests Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Nilgiri, Dindigul, Madurai, TirunelveliKoli-aal
Ficus carica L.ShrubWestern Ghats,  Cultivated, Native of  Mediterranean RegionFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Dindigul,  NilgiriSimaiyatti
Ficus dalhousiae Miq.TreeWestern Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Moist Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Coimbatore, Dindigul, Namakkal, Nilgiri, Theni, Tirunelveli, VellorePei-aal, Kal-aal
Ficus drupacea Thunb. var. pubescens (Roth) Corner = Ficus drupacea Thunb. TreeWestern Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Deciduous to Moist Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Matthew 1983Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Madurai, Namakkal, Nilgiri,  Salem, Theni, TiruvannamalaiKal-aal
Ficus elastica Roxb. ex Hornem.TreePlains, Cultivated, Native of Malaysian RegionFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987All districts 
Ficus exasperata VahlTreeWestern Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Dry Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Matthew 1983Coimbatore, Dharmapuri,  Dindigul,  Kancheepuram, Kanniyakumari, Namakkal,  Nilgiri, Salem, Theni, Tiruchchirappalli, Tirunelveli ,ViluppuramIrumbarathan, Maramthinni-atthi
Ficus glaberrima Blume var. bracteata Corner is a synonym of Ficus lawesii King Straggling ShrubWestern Ghats, Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble & Fischer 1957Coimbatore 
Ficus guttata (Wight) Kurz ex King is a synonym of Ficus laevis var. macrocarpa (Miq.) Corner TreeWestern Ghats, Deciduous  ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Coimbatore, Nilgiri, Theni 
Ficus heterophylla L.f.ShrubWestern Ghats & Eastern Ghats,  Deciduous to Moist Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble & Fischer 1957Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Namakkal, TirunelveliKodi-atthi
Ficus hispida L.f.Shrub/small treeDry Evergreen to  Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987All districtsPeyatthi, Sona-atthi
Ficus hookeriana CornerTreeWestern Ghats, Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Nilgiri 
Ficus laevis Blume var. macrocarpa (Miq.) CornerTreeWestern Ghats, Evergreen ForestsMatthew, 1999Dindigul 
Ficus microcarpa L.f.TreeDeciduous Forests, also CultivatedFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987All districtsKal-athi
Ficus mollis VahlTreeDry Evergreen to Dry Deciduous Forests,  on RocksFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987All districtsIchchi, Kal-ichchi, Kaattarasu
Ficus nervosa Heyne ex Roth var. nervosaTreeWestern Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Deciduous to Moist Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Matthew 1983Coimbatore, Nilgiri, Salem, TirunelveliNeer-aal
Ficus nervosa Roth var. minor King TreeWestern Ghats, Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble 1957Nilgiri 
Ficus palmata Forssk. TreeWestern Ghats, High Altitude, Native of Saharo-Sindian Region Dindigul 
Ficus pumila L.ClimberPlains to High Altitude, Cultivated, Native of East  Asiatic RegionFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987All districts 
Ficus racemosa L.TreeDeciduous Forests, also CultivatedFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987All districtsAtthi, Vellaiatthi
Ficus religiosa L.TreePlains, Dry LocalitiesFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987All districtsArasu
Ficus talbotii KingTreeWestern Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Dry Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Matthew 1983Dharmapuri, Madurai, Nilgiri, SalemItthi, Kal-ithi
Ficus tinctoria Forst.f. TreePlains to  High AltitudeFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Erode, Kanniyakumari, Namakkal, Nilgiri, Salem, Theni, Tirunelveli, Tiruvannamalai, Vellore, Viluppuram, Virudhunagar 
Ficus tsjahela Burm.f.TreeWestern Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Moist Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Matthew 1983Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Kanniyakumari, Nilgiri, Salem, Tirunelveli, Tiruvannamalai, Vellore, ViluppuramKal-aal
Ficus virens Ait. var. lambertiana (Miq.) Raizada TreeWestern Ghats & Eastern GhatsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Coimbatore, Kanniyakumari, Nilgiri, Salem, Tirunelveli, Tiruvannamalai 
Ficus virens Ait. var. virensTreeWestern Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Dry Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble & Fischer 1957, Matthew 1983Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Namakkal, Nilgiri, Salem, Tiruvannamalai, ViluppuramKurugatti, Malai-ichchi
Ficus virens Ait. var. wightiana (Miq.) Chithra is a synonym of Ficus virens Aiton TreeWestern Ghats , Moist  Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987Coimbatore, Dindigul, Nilgiri, Tirunelveli 













Ficus lacor BUCH.- HAM (= Ficus virens Aiton as per GRIN)














 
Botanical nameSynonymsFamilyCommon name
Ficus arnottiana Urostigma arnottiana Moraceae Indian Rock Fig
Ficus auriculata Ficus oligodon, Ficus roxburghii Moraceae Elephant Ear Fig
Ficus bengalensis Moraceae Banyan Tree
Ficus benghalensis var. krishnae Ficus krishnae Moraceae Krishna Fig
Ficus benjamina Moraceae Weeping Fig
Ficus callosa Ficus cordatifolia, Ficus cinerascens, Ficus porteana Moraceae Calloused Fig
Ficus carica Moraceae Anjeer
Ficus drupacea var. pubescens = Ficus drupacea Thunb. Ficus mysorensis, Ficus mysorensis var. pubescens Moraceae Mysore Fig
Ficus elastica Ficus cordata, Ficus decora Moraceae Rubber Tree
Ficus exasperata Ficus asperrima, Ficus punctifera Moraceae Brahma's Banyan
Ficus hederacea Ficus fructicosa Moraceae Ivy Fig
Ficus hispida Ficus oppositifolia, Ficus compressa, Covellia hispida Moraceae Hairy Fig
Ficus lyrata Ficus pandurata Moraceae Fiddle Leaf Fig
Ficus microcarpa Ficus retusa, Ficus nitida Moraceae Laurel Fig
Ficus mollis Moraceae Soft Fig
Ficus natalensis subsp. leprieurii Ficus triangularis, Ficus leprieurii Moraceae Natal Fig
Ficus palmata Ficus pseudocarica Moraceae Punjab Fig
Ficus pumila Moraceae Climbing Fig
Ficus racemosa Ficus glomerata, Ficus lucescens, Ficus racemosa var. elongata Moraceae Goolar
Ficus religiosa Moraceae Peepal
Ficus semicordata Covellia cunia, Ficus cunia, Ficus conglomerata Moraceae Drooping Fig
Ficus tinctoria Ficus gibbosa, Ficus parasitica, Ficus swinhoei Moraceae Dye Fig
Ficus virens Ficus infectoria Moraceae White Fig

 

 

Ficus auriculata

Ficus benghalensis

Ficus benghalensis var. benghalensis

Ficus benghalensis var. krishnae

Ficus benjamina

Ficus carica

Ficus carica ssp. carica

Ficus carica ssp. rupestris

Ficus deltoidea

Ficus elastica

Ficus hispida

Ficus johannis

Ficus lyrata

Ficus macrophylla

Ficus microcarpa

Ficus neriifolia

Ficus neriifolia var. nemoralis

Ficus palmata

Ficus pumila

Ficus racemosa

Ficus religiosa

Ficus rubiginosa

Ficus rumphii

Ficus sarmentosa

Ficus semicordata

Ficus subincisa

Ficus tsjahela

Ficus virens


 

Species in annotated checklist of the flowering plants of Nepal :

Ficus abelii 

Ficus altissima 

Ficus arnottiana 

Ficus arnottiana var. arnottiana 

Ficus lacor (= Ficus virens Aiton as per GRIN)
 
 
Floriculture in India By Gurcharan Singh Randhawa, Amitabha Mukhopadhyay (1986)- Details-
Ficus parcellii Veitch ex Cogn. & Marchal is a synonym of Ficus aspera G.Forst.
Ficus retusa L. var. nitida (Thunb.) Miq.,
Ficus roxburghii Steud. is a synonym of Ficus auriculata Lour.  

Gardening in India By George Marshall Woodrow, G Marshall (1999)- Details-
Ficus myorense (? Ficus mysorensis B.Heyne ex Roth is a synonym of Ficus drupacea Thunb.)
Ficus parcellii Veitch ex Cogn. & Marchal is a synonym of Ficus aspera G.Forst.
Ficus roxburghii Steud. is a synonym of Ficus auriculata Lour.  
Ficus stipulata (Ficus stipulata Thunb. is a synonym of Ficus pumila L.)
Ficus volubile (? Ficus volubilis (Dalzell) King is a synonym of Ficus tinctoria subsp. gibbosa (Blume) Corner)


Flora of Davanagere District, Karnataka, India By B. K. Manjunatha, V. Krishna, T. Pullaiah (2004)- Details with keys-

Medicinal Plants in Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah (2002)- Details-
.............

Biodiversity in India, Volume 4 edited by T. Pullaiah  (2006)- Details-

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Ficus

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

Any comments/ corrections are welcome.


Thanks to the team lead by Dr. Chaudhary for this wonderful document: Synopsis of the Genus Ficus L. (Moraceae) in India Lal Babu Chaudhary*, Jana Venkata Sudhakar, Anoop Kumar, Omesh Bajpai, Rinkey Tiwari and G. V. S. Murthy- Taiwania, 57(2): 193-216, 2012


Pl. go through ‎‎Ficus (Moraceae) page with images of species in efloraofindia.

If you find any incorrect identification, pl. let us know. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.
Major credit for all this goes to Sh. Varun Sharma and Sh. J V Sudhakar, who helped a lot in the ids.


Fwd: Query and request : 6 posts by 2 authors.
A request to get about Ficus in Uttarakhand.
Any one in group is aware about number of Ficus species in Uttarakhand, apart from one publication "A Synoptic Account of the Family Moraceae in Uttarakhand - Debasmita Dutta Pramanick, 2017". The publication is based on collected herbarium samples and earlier floral studies from the state, but still not complete, as per my knowledge 4-5 species are still missing mostly from Nainital, Chamoli, Chakrata and Dehradun; viz., Ficus neriifoliaF. mollis, F. geniculata and F. laevis etc. Still have no data about cultivated and ornamental Ficus species except F. pumila.
... may help in this query.

Kindly send the soft copy of "A Synoptic Account of the Family Moraceae in Uttarakhand - Debasmita Dutta Pramanick, 2017". to my email.
I will check once again and help you for number of Ficus species distributed in Uttarakhand.


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