Grewia




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Grewia umbellifera Bedd.

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BSI Flora of India with details & keys (Volume 3- 1993) (Distribution):
Grewia abutilifolia Vent. ex A. L. Juss. (India: Common in moist deciduous forests; Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Tripura, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala; Bangladesh, Myanmar, Indonesia and Malaysia)
Grewia acuminata A.L. Juss. (India: Assam and occasional along edges of coastal forests in the Andaman & Nicobar Islands; Myanmar to Malacca, Malaysia and E. & W. Tropical Africa) (is a synonym of Grewia laevigata Vahl)
Grewia asiatica L. (India: Common in deciduous and semi evergreen forests. Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu; also cultivated; Bangladesh and Sri Lanka)
Grewia bracteata Roth (India: In dry deciduous forests, occasional. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala; Sri Lanka)
Grewia calophylla Kurz ex Masters (India: Frequent in semi deciduous and coastal forests. Andaman & Nicobar Islands; Malaysia)
Grewia damine Gaertn. (India: Frequent in scrub jungles. Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala; Nepal, Pakistan and Tropical Africa)
Grewia denticulata Wallich ex Prain (India: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and Nagaland; Myanmar)
Grewia eriocarpa A.L. Juss. (India: Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, Meghalaya, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and the Western Ghats; Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Myanmar)
Grewia flavescens A.L. Juss. (India: Common in scrub and dry deciduous forests. Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala; Tropical Africa)
Grewia gamblei J. R. Drumm. ex Dunn in Gamble (India: Fairly common in moist deciduous and evergreen forests. Tamil Nadu and Kerala)
Grewia helicterifolia Wallich ex G. Don (India: In deciduous and evergreen forests. Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu; Bangladesh, Pakistan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Australia)
Grewia heterotricha Masters (India: Common in deciduous and semi evergreen forests; Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala)
Grewia hirsuta Vahl (India: Fairly common in deciduous forests. Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal ,Assam, Meghalaya, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu; Bangladesh and Sri Lanka)
Grewia indandamanica J.L. Ellis & L.N. Ray (India: In stunted evergreen hill-top forests; Andaman & Nicobar Islands (North Andaman Saddle Peak))
Grewia lanceaefolia Roxb. (India: Occasional in moist deciduous and evergreen forests. Tamil Nadu and Kerala; Pakistan and Bangladesh)
Grewia nervosa (Lour.) Panigr. (India: Common in semi evergreen and evergreen forests. West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andaman & Nicobar Islands(Andaman Islands); Tropical Asia)
Grewia oppositifolia Buch. - Ham. ex D. Don (India: Common in scrub or dry deciduous forests. Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu) = Grewia optiva J. R. Drumm. ex Burret
Grewia optiva J.R. Drumm. ex Burrett (India: Common in moist deciduous and evergreen forests. Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Sikkim; Pakistan, Nepal and Bhutan)
Grewia orbiculata Rottler (India: Common in dry deciduous forests. Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala)
Grewia orientalis L. (India: In deciduous and semi evergreen forests, fairly common. West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala; Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Indonesia and Tropical Africa)
Grewia pandaica J.R. Drumm. ex Dunn in Gamble (India: In evergreen forests of the Western Ghats. Tamil Nadu(Tirunelveli Hills); rare)
Grewia piscatorum Hance (India: In evergreen forests. Assam and Meghalaya: rare; China)
Grewia rhamnifolia Heyne ex Roth (India: In dry deciduous forests, fairly common. Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu; Sri Lanka) (is a synonym of Grewia carpinifolia Juss.)
Grewia rothii DC. (India: Occasional in deciduous and evergreen forests. Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karntaka and Tamil Nadu; Bangladesh and Tropical Africa)
Grewia sapida Roxb. ex DC. (India: Common in deciduous and evergreen forests. Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, Tripura, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh; Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan and Myanmar)
Grewia scleropbylla Roxb. ex G. Don (India: Common in deciduous and evergreen forests. Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam and Orissa; Bangladesh and Myanmar)
Grewia serrulata DC. (India: Common in moist deciduous and evergreen forests. Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andaman & Nicobar Islands (Andaman Islands); Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Indo-china, Australia, Malesia and Tropical Africa) syn. of Grewia multiflora Juss.
Grewia tenax (Forsskal) Fiori (India: Occasional in scrub jungles. Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh Delhi, Assam, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh: Karnataka and Tamil Nadu; Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Mauritius, Afghanistan, W. Asia and Tropical Africa)
Grewia tiliifolia Vahl (India: Common in moist and dry deciduous, and semievergreen forests, up to 1400 m. Himachal Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and kerala; Sri Lanka and Tropical E. Africa)
Grewia umbellifera Beddome (India: Common in moist deciduous and semievergreen forests. Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala)
Grewia villosa Willd. (Occasional in scrub and dry deciduous forests. Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala; Pakistan, w. Asia and Tropical Africa)

 
In Flora of India vol-3 published by BSI Kolkata P. Daniel & M. Chandrabose has written the account of Tiliaceae. This document (Daniel & Chandrabose, 1993) provides key to all the Indian species of Grewia, their description, flowering- fruiting time and distribution in India and outside India (page 490-517). 
As per this document following wild species of Grewia are known in India-
1-  Grewia abutilifolia Vent. ex A.L. Juss.
2-  G. acuminata A.L. Juss. [synonym of G. laevigata Vahl]
3-  G. asiatica L.
4-  G. bracteata Roth
5-  G. calophylla Kurz ex Masters
6-  G. damine Gaertn.
7-  G. denticulata Wallich ex Prain
8-  G. eriocarpa A.L. Juss.
9-  G. flavescens A.L. Juss.
10- G. gamblei J.R. Drumm. (line diagram given)
11- G. helicterifolia Wall. ex G. Don
12- G. heterotricha Masters
13- G. hirsuta Vahl
14- G. indandamanica J.L. Ellis & L.N. Ray
15- G. lanceifolia Roxb.
16- G. nervosa (Lour.) Panigrahi
17- G. oppositifolia Buch.- Ham. ex D. Don [synonym of G. optiva J.R.Drumm. ex Burrett]
18- G. optiva J.R.Drumm. ex Burrett
19- G. orbiculata Rottler (line diagram given)
20- G. orientalis L.
21- G. pandaica J.R. Drumm.
22- G. piscatorum Hance
23- G. rhamnifolia Heyne ex Roth [not in Plant List 2010] [synonym of Grewia carpinifolia Juss.]
24- G. rothii DC.
25- G. sapida Roxb. ex DC.
26- G. sclerophylla Roxb. ex G. Don
27- G. serrulata DC. (line diagram given) syn. of Grewia multiflora Juss.
28- G. tenax (Forsskal) Fiori (line diagram given)
29- G. tiliifolia Vahl (line diagram given)
30- G. umbellifera Beddome
31- G. villosa Willd. (line diagram given)

Scrutiny of these names in Plant List indicate that all are accepted names except two which are synonyms and their accepted names are provided with them.

No Grewia species is mentioned in Red Data Book of Indian Plants by Nayar & Sastry (1987-90)  


 
 
Binomial Habit Notes References Distribution Common name
Grewia abutilifolia Juss. (?)Shrub or Small TreeEastern Ghats, Moist Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Gamble, 1957; Matthew, 1983Dharmapuri, Salem, Tiruchchirappalli, Viluppuram 
Grewia abutilifolia Vent. ex Juss.ShrubsEastern Ghats, Dry Deciduous ForestsR. Vijaya Sankar, 2007Tiruvannamalai 
Grewia barberi Drumm. is a synonym of Grewia serrulata DC.ShrubWestern Ghats, Dry Deciduous to Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Drumm, 1957Coimbatore, Nilgiri, Tirunelveli 
Grewia bracteata Roth.ShrubDry Evergreen to Dry Deciduous ForestsFl India Vol. 3, 1993All districts 
Grewia damine Gaertn.Shrub or a Small TreeWestern Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Dry Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983Dharmapuri, Nilgiri 
Grewia flavescens Juss.Small TreeWestern Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Dry Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983Dharmapuri, Madurai, Salem, Tirunelveli,  Tiruvannamalai 
Grewia gamblei Drumm.ShrubWestern Ghats, Moist Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983Coimbatore, Nilgiri 
Grewia heterotricha Mast.Climbing ShrubWestern Ghats, Moist Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Gamble, 1957Coimbatore, NilgiriAchangodi
Grewia hirsuta Vahl.ShrubDry Evergreen to Dry Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983All districtsThavannu
Grewia lanceaefolia Roxb. (Grewia lanceifolia Roxb.)ShrubWestern Ghats, Dry Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983Coimbatore, Tirunelveli 
Grewia nervosa (Lour.) Panigr. = Microcos paniculata L.Medium Sized TreeWestern Ghats, Moist Deciduous ForestsFl India Vol. 3, 1993TirunelveliKadambu, Vichulam
Grewia oppositifolia Buch - Ham ex Roxb. = Grewia optiva J. R. Drumm. ex BurretShrubPlains to Dry Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983Dharmapuri, Madurai, Salem, Thanjavur, Tirunelveli, Tiruvannamalai, Vellore  
Grewia orbiculata Rottl.Small TreePlains to Dry Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Matthew, 1983All districtsNei chitti
Grewia orientalis L.Straggling ShrubPlains to Dry Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983All districtsThavidilai, Pandri pidukkan
Grewia pandaica Drumm.Large TreeWestern Ghats,  Evergreen ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983Tirunelveli 
Grewia rhamnifolia Heyne ex Roth is a synonym of Grewia carpinifolia Juss.Straggling ShrubPlains to Low AltitudeFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Matthew, 1983All districts 
Grewia rothii DC.ShrubWestern Ghats, Moist Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983Tirunelveli 
Grewia serrulata DC. syn. of Grewia multiflora Juss.TreeWestern Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Moist Deciduous ForestsMatthew, 1999Dindigul, Nilgiri, Salem, Theni, Tirunelveli 
Grewia tenax (Forsk.) FioriShrubDry Evergreen to  Dry Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Madurai, Virudhunagar , Tiruchchirappalli 
Grewia tiliifolia Vahl. Medium Sized TreePlains to Low AltitudeFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Matthew, 1983Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Madurai, Nilgiri, Virudhunagar , Salem, Tiruchchirappalli, Tirunelveli, Tiruvannamalai, ViluppuramUnu
Grewia umbellifera Bedd.ShrubEastern Ghats, Moist Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Gamble, 1957Nilgiri, Tirunelveli,   
Grewia villosa Willd.ShrubDry Evergreen to Dry Deciduous ForestsFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Madurai, Nilgiri, Tirunelveli,  Tiruvannamalai, Virudhunagar  Kullai

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
Botanical name Synonyms Family Common name
Grewia abutilifolia Tiliaceae Mallow-Leaved Crossberry
Grewia asiatica Tiliaceae Phalsa
Grewia damine Grewia bicolor, Grewia salvifoliaTiliaceae Salvia Leaved Crossberry
Grewia flavescens Tiliaceae Donkey Berry
Grewia hirsuta Tiliaceae Kukurbicha
Grewia laevigata Grewia disperma, Grewia glabra, Grewia sepiariaTiliaceae Two-Lobed Crossberry
Grewia optiva Grewia oppositifoliaTiliaceae Bihul
Grewia orbiculata Grewia rotundifoliaTiliaceae Round-Leaved Grewia
Grewia serrulata syn. of Grewia multiflora Juss.Tiliaceae Kaori
Grewia tenax Tiliaceae White Crossberry
Grewia tiliifolia Tiliaceae Dhaman
Grewia umbellifera Tiliaceae Ghat Crossberry

 
  • Grewia asiatica Linn. (A native of south India, now widely cultivated in the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent and other tropical countries)
  • Grewia damine Gaertn. (Pakistan (Sind, Punjab), India (Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Peninsula), Nepal and tropical Africa)
  • Grewia elastica Royle ( Pakistan eastwards to Burma, between 1000-3000 m) is a synonym of Grewia eriocarpa Juss.
  • Grewia glabra Bl. (Northwestern Himalayas eastwards to Burma, Malaya Islands and Indo-China) is a synonym of Grewia multiflora Juss.
  • Grewia helicterifolia Wall. ex G. Don (From Northwestern Himalayas eastwards to Bangla Desh and Sri Lanka (Ceylon), between 500-1500 m)
  • Grewia microcos Linn. (Pakistan, India, Ceylon, Bangla Dash, Burma, South East Asia and China) = Microcos paniculata L.
  • Grewia optiva Drummond ex Burret (Himalayan regions in Pakistan, Nepal, India, usually between 500 and 2500 m)
  • Grewia sapida Roxb. ex DC. (Pakistan to northern Burma through India, between 300-1300 m)
  • Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Fiori (Tropical and North Africa to Iran, Pakistan, India and Sri Lanka (Ceylon))
  • Grewia villosa Wild. (Pakistan, W & S India, tropical Africa, Arabia, Egypt, Cape Verde Isles and East Indies)

  •  

    Grewia damine Gaertn. (Africa, Himalaya, India)
    Grewia disperma Rottb. (Africa, Himalaya (Nepal, Sikkim), India, Malaysia, ?Australia) is a synonym of Grewia serrulata DC.

    Grewia excelsa Vahl (Africa, Himalaya (Nepal, Sikkim), India) is a synonym of Grewia arborea (Forssk.) Lam.

    Grewia hainesiana Hole (Tropical Himalaya, N. India) is a synonym of Grewia asiatica L.

    Grewia helicterifolia Wall. ex G. Don (Subtropical Himalaya, N. India)
    Grewia hirsuta Vahl (Nepal, India, Ceylon, Burma)
    Grewia optiva J. R. Drumm. ex Burret (Himalaya (Kashmir to Nepal))
    Grewia sapida Roxb. ex DC. (Himalaya (Garhwal to Bhutan), Assam)
    Grewia sclerophylla Roxb. ex G. Don (Himalaya (Garhwal to Bhutan), Assam)
    Grewia subinaequalis DC. (Subtropical Himalaya, India, Ceylon) is a synonym of Grewia asiatica L.
    Grewia tiliaefolia Vahl. (No distribution given) (Grewia tiliifolia Vahl)
     
    Grewia abutilifolia W. Vent ex Jussieu [Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam].
    Grewia acuminata Jussieu [Cambodia, India, Indonesia (Java), Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam].
    Grewia eriocarpa Jussieu [Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].
    Grewia hirsuta Vahl [Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].
    Grewia multiflora Jussieu  [India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan; Australia].
    Grewia piscatorum Hance (No distribution given in India)
    Grewia tiliifolia Vahl [Cambodia, India, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam; E Africa].
     
    Flora of Eastern Ghats: Hill Ranges of South East India, Volume 1 By T. Pullaiah, D. Muralidhara Rao, K. Sri Ramamurthy (2002- Description & Keys-
    Grewia rhamnifolia is a synonym of Grewia carpinifolia Juss.,
      
    Forest Plants of Eastern India By Amal Bhusan Chaudhuri (1993- Description & Keys-
    Grewia glabra is a synonym of Grewia optiva,
    Grewia microcos = Microcos paniculata L.,
    Grewia oppositifolia = Grewia optiva
    Grewia vestita is a synonym of Grewia eriocarpa Juss.)
      
    An Excursion Flora of Central Tamilnadu, India By K. M. Matthew (1995)- Description & Keys-
     
    Flora of Davanagere District, Karnataka, India By B. K. Manjunatha, V. Krishna, T. Pullaiah (2004)-
    Description & Keys-
     
    Gardening in India By George Marshall Woodrow, G Marshall (1999)- Brief details-
     

     
    Grewia 3 posts by 2 authors.

    I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Grewia

    Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

    Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

    If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.

    Any comments/ corrections are welcome.


    I have added the list of all species of Grewia in India based on Flora of India Vol-3.
    Further updated Grewia page.

    I also want to say you that kindly add the two species which described from India.
    1) Grewia palodensis E.S.S.Kumar & al Rheedea 11: 41. 2001.
    2) Grewia kothayarensis Murugan & Manickam Indian J. Forest 31: 121 2008
     

    Pl. go through ‎‎Grewia (‎‎‎Malvaceae) page with images of species in efloraofindia.

    If you find any incorrect identification, pl. let us know. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.


     
     
     
     

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