Ocimum americanum L. (Images by Dr.Gurcharan Singh, B. Rathinasabapathy (Inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade & J.M.Garg))

Ocimum basilicum L. (Images by Dr.Gurcharan Singh (Inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))


Ocimum filamentosum Forssk. (Images by Santhan P. (1,2) & A. Lalithamba (3,4 - Validation by Vijayasankar), (Inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

Ocimum gratissimum L. (Images by Surajit Koley (Identified by J.M Garg), (Inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

Ocimum kilimandscharicum Gürke (Images by Dr.Nidhan Singh (Inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (Images by Dr.Gurcharan Singh (Inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

Ocimum × africanum Lour. (Images by Chitra Shanker (Identified by A.Lalithamba) & Amit Chauhan (Inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade & J.M.Garg))

1. Teeth of lateral fruiting calyx lobes distinct, deltoid or lanceolate; bract without bowl-like gland developing
  2. Throat of fruiting calyx closed by the upcurved 2 median teeth of anterior lip, anterior much  shorter than posterior; mostly shrubs or undershrubs ...... 1.
O. gratissimum
  2. Throat of fruiting calyx open, the 2 median teeth of anterior lip as long as or longer than posterior; mostly herbs with stems woody at base
   3. Calyx tube glabrous or thinly covered with minute glandular hairs inside; nutlets unchanged when wet ........ 2.
O. tenuiflorum
   3. Calyx tube with a ring of hairs at throat inside; nutlets producing mucilage when wet
    4. Flower with pedicel nearly as long as calyx; appendage of posterior stamens hairy ..... 3.
O. kilimandscharicum
    4. Flower with pedicel much shorter than calyx; appendage of posterior stamens glabrous 
      5. Fruiting calyx up to 5 mm long; corolla 4 - 5.5 mm long
         6. Fruiting calyx 2 - 3 mm long; stem internodes with short adpressed or retrose hairs ....... 4.
O. americanum
         6. Fruiting calyx 4 - 5.5 mm long; stem internodes with long, spreading and sometimes retrorse hairs ........... 5.
O. africanum
      5. Fruiting calyx 6 - 8 mm long; corolla 7 - 8 mm long ......... 6.
O. basilicum
1. Teeth of lateral fruiting calyx lobes obscure, fringed with a row of many minute teeth; bract caducous, with   bowl-like gland developing in the scar ........ 7.
O. filamentosum
BinomialHabitNotesReferencesDistributionCommon name
Ocimum americanum L.HerbPlains, Dry LocalitiesFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987All districtsGanjaankorai, Nai thulasi
Ocimum basilicum L. var. basilicumHerbCultivated, Native of Mediterranean RegionFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987All districtsKarpura thulasi, Thiruneetrupatchai 
Ocimum basilicum L. var. pilosum Benth. = Ocimum × africanum Lour. HerbCultivated, Native of Mediterranean RegionFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987All districts 
Ocimum basilicum L. var. purpurascens Benth. = Ocimum basilicum L. HerbCultivated, Native of Mediterranean RegionFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987All districtsKarunthulasi
Ocimum basilicum L. var. thyrsiflorum Benth. Ocimum basilicum L.HerbCultivated, Native of Mediterranean RegionFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987All districts 
Ocimum gratissimum L.ShrubPlains to Low Altitude, Moist LocalitiesFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Matthew 1983Coimbatore, Dindigul, Kancheepuram, Salem, Theni,  Thiruvallur, Tiruchchirappalli, Tirunelveli, VirudhunagarElumichanthulasi, Perumthulasi
Ocimum tenuiflorum L.Under shrubMoist Localities, also CultivatedFlora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987All districtsThulasi, Nallathulasi, Rama thulasi (Green form), Vishnu thulasi (Purple form)

Botanical nameSynonymsFamilyCommon name
Ocimum americanum Ocimum canum Lamiaceae Hoary Basil
Ocimum basilicum Lamiaceae Basil
Ocimum gratissimum Ocimum suave, Ocimum viride, Ocimum viridiflorum Lamiaceae Ram Tulsi
Ocimum tenuiflorum Ocimum sanctum Lamiaceae Tulsi

Ocimum americanum L. (Tropical Africa, Arabia, Pakistan, Kashmir, Himalayas to Nepal, Sri Lanka, Malaysia)
Ocimum basilicum L. (Subtropical and tropical Asia, Africa, SE Asia. Widely cultivated)
Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (Almost pantropical, with an obscure natural range)

Ocimum americanum L. (Madagascar, Tropical Africa, Arabia, W. Pakistan, Himalaya(Kumaun to Nepal), India, Ceylon, Malaysia)
Ocimum basilicum L. (Throughout the warmer parts of Asia, Africa and America; widely cultivated)
Ocimum gratissimum L. (Tropical Africa, Himalaya (Nepal), India, Ceylon, Thailand, Malaysia, Tropical America)
Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (S. W. Asia, Himalaya (Nepal), Bengal, India, Ceylon, Burma, China, Thailand, Malaysia; often cultivated)

Ocimum americanum Linnaeus [India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka; Africa, SW Asia]
Ocimum sanctum Linnaeus [Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam; Africa, SW Asia, Australia] = Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

Bioactive Foods and Extracts: Cancer Treatment and Prevention edited by Ronald Ross Watson, Victor R. Preedy (2010)- Details-

Connecting Indian Wisdom and Western Science: Plant Usage for Nutrition and ... edited by Luisella Verotta, Maria Pia Macchi, Padma Venkatasubramanian (2015)- Details-

Aromatherapy: A Practical Approach By Vicki Pitman (2006)- Details-

Biodiversity in India, Volume 4 edited by T. Pullaiah (2006)- Details-

Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Himachal Pradesh By Narain Singh Chauhan (1999)- Details-

Flora of Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah (2000)- Details with keys-

Cultivation and Utilization of Aromatic Plants  By H. Panda (2005)- Details-

Medicinal Plants in Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah (2002)- details-

Ocimum : 1 post by 1 author.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Ocimum (Pl. click).

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.

Any comments/ corrections are welcome.

Pl. go through Ocimum page with images of species (done by Bhagyashri ji) in efloraofindia.

If you find any mis-identification, pl. let us know. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, it will be really nice.

Also, if anybody is interested to take up the activity of inserting images on efloraofindia pages from efloraofindia posts, pl. let us know.