Enicostema axillare


Common name: Indian Whitehead • Hindi: छोटा चिरायत Chota chirayata, katvinayi, नामे Naame, Nahli, Nawari • Kannada: ಚಿಕ್ಕಾ ಚಿರಾಯತ Chikka chiraayuta • Malayalam: വല്ലാരി Vallari, Vellaruku • Sanskrit: Mamajjakah, नागजिह्वा Nagajihva, Nahi • Tamil: Vallari, Vellarugu, Arukumuli, Chakkiraviraiyanantan • Telugu: Nelagolimidi, Nelagurugudu 
 
Calyx lobes obovate to suborbicular, apex rounded, mucronate, margin widely scarious. East Africa. - 1b. subsp. latilobum (N. E. Br.) A. Raynal 
Calyx lobes triangular or lanceolate, apex acute, margin narrowly scarious: Leaf apex rounded or occasionally subacute (but not acuminate), mucronate; capsule c. 2.5 mm to 4.5 mm. Asia, Africa. - 1a. subsp. axillare.
Leaf blade gradually tapering to an acuminate apex; capsule c. 4 mm to 6 mm. Malaysia. - 1c. subsp. littorale (Bl.) A. Raynal.   


https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/9592bba2b0086d1c/id3906.JPG?part=0.4&view=1&vt=ANaJVrEgozacBcQrC555m6TakDRRm5Oh4TrFXHZt_mhTvEZzJ16CjYcflMdljFmSm_5bZVVBZLeNEiCfOoEf5sAXiBnwfM0UUe_-xTPzPqbRzqiEVtDyRPI
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/9592bba2b0086d1c/id3904.JPG?part=0.2&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFr-r8bO0UjM4koeemfIDhA7aidT3VqFPegnncvl1y7_xeC1HpB-ji8MG13RYgtusMM_t_6CXZX9q4pem4I5_3c1EprsdJk8wFkcDeJ2Lt3KJrlF_E
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/9592bba2b0086d1c/id3902.JPG?part=0.3&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGcSZnvBbqtu39-k5I_7ZjQM_d8bex48wjEfccbvTe0G3LNwujIHCXCb82PyYVG0momq863WjXNHL00arnzwBmSQpcz_YpMhpdqNQXPqIeGBn3_u0M
Small herbaceous plant found in Ahmednagar dist. used as a medicine by the villager.
ht: 15-20 cm, Axillary Flowers in bunches, white. Fruits not seen.
Please identify this plant.

Enicostema axillare of Gentianaceae. A habitat-specific plant generally grows on clay soils around waterbodies, considered very important by local healers.
 
Campanulaceae & Gentianaceae Week: Gentianaceae:: Enicostemma axillare at Mumbai:
This small herb was seen by me at the out skirts of Mumbai.
Bot. name: Enicostemma axillare
Family: Gentianaceae.
Thanks to  ... and ... for validating the ID.
(Response from ...: yes ...
it is Enicostemma verticillare (Retz.) Baill., Hist. Pl. 10: 131, 1891; Almeida, Fl. Mah. 3: 275, 2001.
Synonyms:
E. axillare (Lamk.) A. Raynal, Adansonia 9: 75, 1969; Singh et al,Fl. Mah. St. 2: 405, 2001.

Nice pictures! In Gujarati, it is known as મામેજવો [Mameyjavo]. In Kachchh, where it thrives willingly at this time of the year, I have seen tribal folk using the leaves in a steam inhalation for cough and congestion, and the leaf juice mixed with ginger for alleviation of fever. A decoction of the bitter leaves and black pepper is useful in common cold; have tried this myself with good effect. Since it is a monsoon herb, the leaves are dried and preserved. Was told by a senior Ayurvedic physician from Bhavnagar that Mameyjavo is comparable to Kariyatu [Andrographis paniculata] as a bitter tonic.
I've known this herb as Enicostema littorale, the genus spelt with a single 'm'. I would like to know the correct spelling of the genus since several sources are at a variance.
The genus is Enicostema. There is no such genus as Enicostemma with a double "m" although this erroneous spelling is repeatedly used and leads to unnecessary discrepancies.


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https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/9690cf49a1db99f9/flowers-1.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrEnZxgDk4IKDbJGyCyODgvucbrft2ope2kTv7pJYnLFGdbj99xxZe-lWngptlv7pBjdCoAzarrY0CyhmU3pzG0xW62MNffVEQaz-k7jluIsbkovJT8
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090813SG request for ID : Attachments (3 + 2). 5 posts by 4 authors.
Requesting ID for following plant seen at Dhavlas, Madha, Maharashtra
Photographed on 7/8/13

https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/92c4c1a5ef3f78c4/P9200511.JPG?part=0.3&view=1&vt=ANaJVrF4SdL1EjdxBLY8ZiAVLRyXRl8VmmJwrSlh9y0uJkuuPFxzIIeOzWz_bRTMCZCSzjv0gS-T6DHTOarjsCWjjpyjD8LhyfZl5M40ve7ZPBFQvw_4uQw
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This should be Enicostemma littoralis.
Attached herewith are images from my collection with flowers fully bloomed.
This is somewhat rarely found plant. Good find.
Was this growing wild?
2 images.
Thanks ..., yes it was found in wild while tilling not cultivated land.
Agree with ... It is Enicostema littorale, an important medicinal plant. According to The Plant List, E. littorale is a synonym of Enicostema axillare subsp. littorale. The genus is often (mis)spelt with a double 'm'.
It is a fairly common monsoon herb in Kachchh. Sharing my pictures of this plant in a separate email.
Enicostemma littoralis
A perennial herb from Gentianaceae
It may also be subsp. axillare in view of keys & drawings by Viplav ji in the following thread:
https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topicsearchin/indiantreepix/Enicostema/indiantreepix/_88tuJDNK8s
Leaf apex rounded or occasionally subacute (but not acuminate), mucronate; capsule c. 2.5 mm to 4.5 mm. Asia, Africa. - 1a. subsp. axillare.
Leaf blade gradually tapering to an acuminate apex; capsule c. 4 mm to 6 mm. Malaysia. - 1c. subsp. littorale (Bl.) A. Raynal.
Yes, it is Enicostema axillare subsp. axillare.
Please consider this under E. axillare var. littorale based on narrower acuminate leaves. please validate.
https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/indiantreepix/YRtLCv7zQmw
We don't seem any specimens listed under var. littorale.
Pl. see the discussions in the thread as well as illustration at link


 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/1ee799035dbfc1d9/04_Enicostema%20littorale_variable%20merosity.jpg?part=0.4&view=1&vt=ANaJVrF6_JEkR4itarR_n_e1gj78xZ1EPJfJrCrTnHGR9yJMnn5Rq1emkdHcH01-CCoSSTVaIju8Y9N5MsWtRuh_ENTjHrfove6AKtka3q3cB-DYo8dU5rE
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/1ee799035dbfc1d9/02_Enicostema%20littorale_habit.jpg?part=0.2&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGo_Q1RNsa05Ojzo3q982dH5PzkJmzcKrJwbzOPdRc_TTy28hqzV9wisWcXJxJ_53WPO9XI_IY0jrQe7BVWtXRdAmJq9X5RfEAYnQR8dReGFJU9tAs
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/1ee799035dbfc1d9/03_Enicostema%20littorale_capsules.jpg?part=0.3&view=1&vt=ANaJVrH6BFXmKy0Nl3xBBU3fM4Y6fnAh1XeWP1YlIHKSDKYxr_ZqF51kb5vt-L0V2eVwSW8l5dY_7ezPVgCBiNco3U-yblWQBX_DVG7U_2P6Qwxpvv9aEzw
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/1ee799035dbfc1d9/01_Enicostema%20littorale_flowers.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFz8FtOq7z1-7nPTUXvBIns0RpchMrrNDauCYnLsRoENxQoheOVOIvCVBztup7QcGGhTLgZZLfti84tPcrJ2D0DVnu2B1ClUQy8inIA1oLMYkd7UGs
Enicostema littorale from Kachchh : Attachments (4). 4 posts by 3 authors.
A bitter herb with a wide range of medicinal uses, Enicostema littorale thrives in the sandy soil of Kachchh in the monsoon. It is known as મામેજ [Mamej] in Kachchhi and મામેજવો [Mameyjavo] in Gujarati.
The last picture (with the 5-merous and the 4-merous flower) depicts an unusual (aberrant) instance of variable merosity in this herb; usually, it bears pentamerous flowers only. The flowers and the capsules are tiny, ± 4 mm across. The capsules are crowned with the marcescent corolla as can be seen in the third picture. The stem is quadrangular. Leaves opposite-decussate, narrow, sessile, and three-nerved; leaf size: 8 cm x 1.2 cm. This herb is around 20 cm tall.
According to The Plant List, E. littorale is a synonym of Enicostema axillare subsp. littorale. The genus is often (mis)spelt with a double 'm' - Enicostemma - in many published sources.
Photographed in June 2013 in Koday, South Kachchh.

Thank you for sharing these wonderful images. I feel these plants from Kachchh are more 'bold' if
I have to describe them. The leaves seem to be little broader and is there a fine white lining along the margin? If yes they are missing from plant images I had shared earlier.
Thanks for your comments, ... The leaf margin is very finely ciliate and the chalky border is indeed prominent. I think it is quite pronounced in the first picture posted by ... though not quite evident in your images. Have attached another picture clicked in July 2012 near Chobari, East Kachchh for your reference.
Nice photographs and a very good presentation on plant details.
Thanks, ..., for the wonderful post.
Since we seem to have both the following:
It will be important if anyone tell the difference between the two.
From what I've been able to gather, the genus Enicostema was revised in 1969 by the French botanist Aline Marie Raynal who published a new combination Enicostema axillare (Lamarck) A. Raynal, comb. nov., and divided it into three subspecies - i] the nominate subsp. axillare, ii] subsp. latilobum (N. E. Br.) A. Raynal, stat. nov., and iii] subsp. littorale (Blume) A. Raynal, stat. nov.
Her paper - Révision du genre Enicostema Blume (Gentianaceæ) - is in French and was published in the journal 'Adansonia', ser. 2, vol. 9 (1), 1969, p. 57-85. Am giving an English translation of her key to the subspecies of E. axillare herewith:
Calyx less than 2/3rd of the total flower length and often smaller; calyx lobes lanceolate, triangular or obovate, less than 4 times longer than wide. Anthers very briefly apiculate. Old World. - 1. E. axillare (Lam.) A. Raynal
Calyx lobes obovate to suborbicular, apex rounded, mucronate, margin widely scarious. East Africa. - 1b. subsp. latilobum (N. E. Br.) A. Raynal
Calyx lobes triangular or lanceolate, apex acute, margin narrowly scarious:
Leaf apex rounded or occasionally subacute (but not acuminate), mucronate; capsule c. 2.5 mm to 4.5 mm. Asia, Africa. - 1a. subsp. axillare.
Leaf blade gradually tapering to an acuminate apex; capsule c. 4 mm to 6 mm. Malaysia. - 1c. subsp. littorale (Bl.) A. Raynal.
Have attached a couple of plates depicting certain distinctive morphological features of these subspecies from her paper. In light of this information, it is quite clear that my photographs are that of Enicostema axillare subsp. axillare.


https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/92c4c1a5ef3f78c4/P9200513.JPG?part=0.4&view=1&vt=ANaJVrHx2uiPm-t_bDIvccOXy-7J8xACn4IPswOS0KTEGnyq0a3ALvaRlYN4mHWML2KUc9cf4cIJ3OrRJIP1yTv3lJoElri5HZkROwhPINei_5d8BmjTd4E
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https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/92c4c1a5ef3f78c4/P9200509.JPG?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrHZoujI5gOtYU95KeD9OoTIhupe0cMJiozXNHQk_X2JuGW01pQfaFmj3SmAG6Zo9XdIFs9SUPP5uEhSDqFfif85dRQ4qUDEohRgmaA6GbZe5KBPUDQ
Campanulaceae & Gentianaceae Week: Gentianaceae: Enicostemma littorale:
Enicostemma littorale : Gentianaceae
Photographed in Talegaon.
Nice catch ... Last year i had spotted this herb here in Mumbai. Will share the same shortly.
It may also be subsp. axillare in view of keys & drawings by ... in the following thread:
https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topicsearchin/indiantreepix/Enicostema/indiantreepix/_88tuJDNK8s
Leaf apex rounded or occasionally subacute (but not acuminate), mucronate; capsule c. 2.5 mm to 4.5 mm. Asia, Africa. - 1a. subsp. axillare.
Leaf blade gradually tapering to an acuminate apex; capsule c. 4 mm to 6 mm. Malaysia. - 1c. subsp. littorale (Bl.) A. Raynal.
Pl. confirm.


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https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/f1619df044af2994/DSC_0056.JPG?part=0.3&view=1&vt=ANaJVrF2MwkeuMfjD0fm-MaYV9ZTMDUEFcM3EdjLXqvLynw-vN2OIQa6ggfn8GYZ1un05FDm8qpXQWcWw8xAd7tF2V1LtdBsUCidJ-nXJvRfBbPRaCaj1W8
Enicostema axillare subsp. littorale (Blume) A.Raynal (= Enicostema litorale Bl.), Gentianaceae,
a weed in moist areas near Hosur, Tamilnadu
This is Enicostema axillare subsp. axillare. Please refer to my last post in the thread
My photographs of this plant can be seen in the first post of the thread linked above.


This small herb was seen by me at the out skirts of Mumbai.   
Bot. name:  Enicostemma axillare
Family:   Gentianaceae.
Thanks to ... and ... for validating the ID.
(Response from ...: yes ...
it is Enicostemma verticillare (Retz.) Baill., Hist. Pl. 10: 131, 1891; Almeida, Fl. Mah. 3: 275, 2001.
Synonyms:
E. axillare (Lamk.) A. Raynal, Adansonia 9: 75, 1969; Singh et al, Fl. Mah. St. 2: 405, 2001.   


https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/b55f47c789a18163/P9200514.JPG?part=0.5&view=1&vt=ANaJVrF9B50RIYEFOPvX9TCncSLADFVbk9Hu6LqMk7SgVlsZz6elajIdkJcaI-pVBr0ff779GwloMakLu4_UQrOPvnm8eRwfpSgAqfnEhMjI42v0iuG0sJ4
 
Plant for ID (mixed thread): 2 correct images. 
would like to request for identification of attached plant images.
This was photographed in Talegaon - Maharashtra.
Is there white resin coming out from the leaves when breaking ? If yes then it could be Ficus. otherwise may not. 
Beautiful pictures of Enicostemma littorale, a very important medicinal plant.
As said by ... This is Enicostemma littorale Blume
Family: Gentiaceae
It is regarded as an anti diabetic drug
i don't think its any kind of Ficus.
It is a short plant that was growing in a meadow. 
It may also be subsp. axillare in view of keys & drawings by ... in the following thread:
https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topicsearchin/indiantreepix/Enicostema/indiantreepix/_88tuJDNK8s
Leaf apex rounded or occasionally subacute (but not acuminate), mucronate; capsule c. 2.5 mm to 4.5 mm. Asia, Africa. - 1a. subsp. axillare.
Leaf blade gradually tapering to an acuminate apex; capsule c. 4 mm to 6 mm. Malaysia. - 1c. subsp. littorale (Bl.) A. Raynal.
 
 
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I'd requested for this plant : 7 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)- 2 & 3 mb. 
I'd requested for this plant
18 October 19
Agra, U.P
Enicostema axillare
Please check this page  https://sites.google.com/site/efloraofindia/species/a---l/g/gentianaceae/enicostema
Yes. is this an isolated single plant or a whole population pops up?

Several plants are growing at same place.

did you take pictures of that habitat? can we see it. please
No but will share it soon after taking image.

 
  
References:
Indian Gentianaceae: A Check-list By Sunita Garg (Enicostema axillare (Lam.) A.Raynal subsp. axillare
Flora of Medak District, Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, Chintala Prabhakar, B. Ravi Prasad Rao (Enicostema axillare (Lam.) A.Raynal spp. axillare)
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