Chamaecrista


Key to Indian Species of Cassia Complex (Cassia, Chamaecrista, Senna)
1aThe longest filament (or filaments of three anterior stamens) sigmoidally curved, longest more than 2.5 cm long 2
1b The longest filament straight, less than 1 cm long 8

8a Ovary stalk less than 0.9 mm long, fruit less than 9 cm long; braceoles present; legume elastically coiling 9
8b Ovary stalk more than 0.9 mm long, fruit more than 9 cm long; bracteoles absent; legume not elastically coiling 14

9a Leaflets 2 pairs; one linear gland present between each pair or only one pair of leaflets; leaflets broader than 1 cm; stamens 5(2-7) Chamaecrista absus
9b Leaflets more than 2 pairs; glands present on petiole below leaflets; Leaflets linear, narrower than 1 cm; stamens 10 or 4-5 10
     
10a Gland on petiole stalked, just below the lowest pair of leaflets 11
10b Gland on petiole sessile 12
     
11a Stamens 5; pedicel less than 7 mm long; sepals 5-6 mm long Chamaecrista pumila
11b Stamens 10; pedicel 10-15 mm long; sepals 6-8 mm long Chamaecrista kleinii
     
12a Leaflets usually in 30-60 pairs Chamaecrista mimosoides
12b Leaflets usually in less than 30 pairs 13
     
13a Stamens 4-5; leaflets 5-10 mm long; stem with short curved hairs leaves less than 6 cm long Chamaecrista nomame
13b Stamens 10, sometimes 7; leaflets 8-14 mm long; stem with spreading hairs; leaves longer than 6 cm Chamaecrista leschenaultiana


images by J. M. Garg

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Chamaecrista auricoma (Benth.) V.Singh (Bangladesh (N); Bhutan (N); India (N) ; Andhra Pradesh; Arunachal Pradesh; Kerala; Tamil Nadu; Uttar Pradesh ; Nepal (N); Pakistan (N); Sri Lanka (N) as per ILDIS)

images by Anurag N. Sharma

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Chamaecrista kleinii (Wight & Arn.) V.Singh (India (N); Andhra Pradesh; Bihar; Gujarat; Himachal Pradesh ; Karnataka ; Kerala ; Maharashtra ; Punjab; Rajasthan; Tamil Nadu ; Uttar Pradesh; West Bengal; Sri Lanka (N) as per ILDIS)


 
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Chamaecrista leschenaultiana (DC.) Degener (Cambodia (N); China (N) ; Anhui ; Fujian ; Guangdong ; Guangxi ; Guizhou; Jiangxi ; Sichuan ; Yunnan ; Zhejiang; India (N); Indonesia (N) ; Irian Jaya (N); Jawa (N); Laos (N); Malaysia (I) ; Peninsular Malaysia (N); Ryukyu Is (U) ; Singapore (N); Taiwan (N); Thailand (N); Vietnam (N); Papua New Guinea (N); Bismarck Archipelago (N); Ogasawara-Shoto (I); Solomon Is (N) as per ILDIS)

images by Dr. Gurcharan Singh

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Chamaecrista mimosoides (L.) Greene (India (N):  Andhra Pradesh; Arunachal Pradesh; Assam ; Bihar ; Dadra-Nagar-Haveli ; Delhi ; Goa; Gujarat; Haryana; Himachal Pradesh; Jammu-Kashmir; Karnataka ; Kerala ; Madhaya Pradesh ; Maharashtra; Manipur ; Meghalaya; Mizoram; Nagaland ; Orissa; Pondicherry ; Punjab; Rajasthan; Sikkim ; Tamil Nadu; Tripura; Uttar Pradesh; West Bengal and other countries as per ILDIS)



 
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Chamaecrista nigricans (Vahl) Greene (India (N); Andhra Pradesh; Karnataka; Kerala ; Maharashtra; Tamil Nadu; Angola (N) ; Benin (N); Burkina (N) ; Cameroon (N) ; Central African Rep. (N) ; Chad (N) ; Ethiopia (N); Gambia The (N); Ghana (N); Guinea Bissau (N); Kenya (N); Mali (N); Niger (N) ; Nigeria (N); Senegal (N); Sudan (N); Tanzania (N); Uganda (N); Zaire (N); Saudi Arabia (N); Yemen (N) as per ILDIS)

images by Dr. P. Santhan

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Chamaecrista pumila (Lam.) K.Larsen (Bangladesh (I); Cambodia (N); China (N); Guangdong; Yunnan; East Timor (N); India (N); Andhra Pradesh ; Arunachal Pradesh; Assam; Bihar; Dadra-Nagar-Haveli ; Daman; Delhi ; Diu ; Goa; Gujarat ; Haryana; Himachal Pradesh; Jammu-Kashmir ; Karnataka; Kerala ; Madhaya Pradesh; Maharashtra; Manipur ; Meghalaya; Mizoram; Orissa ; Pondicherry ; Punjab; Rajasthan; Sikkim; Tamil Nadu; Tripura; Uttar Pradesh; West Bengal ; Yanan; Indonesia (N); Jawa (N); Laos (N); Lesser Sunda Is (N); Pakistan (N); Thailand (N); Vietnam (N); Australia (N) ; Northern Territory ; Queensland; Western Australia; Andaman Is (I); Laccadive Is (I); Maldives (I); Nicobar Is (I) as per ILDIS)


 
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Key to Indian Species of Cassia Complex (CassiaChamaecristaSenna)
1aThe longest filament (or filaments of three anterior stamens) sigmoidally curved, longest more than 2.5 cm long 2
1b The longest filament straight, less than 1 cm long 8
     
2a Flowers yellow or golden yellow 3
2b Flowers pink, reddish to white 4
     
3a Leaflets less than 10 pairs, longer than 5 cm, glabrous on both surfaces Cassia fistula
3b Leaflets 10 or more pairs, shorter than 5 cm, puberulent on both surfaces; petals 11-15 mm long Cassia moschata
     
4a Filaments of 3 longer stamens not swollen in the middle; pedicels less than 2 cm long; petals 10-15 mm long 5
4b Filaments of 3 longer stamens swollen in the middle; pedicels more than 2.5 cm long; petals usually longer than 15 mm 6
     
5a Pod more than 35 cm long with pulp inside, usually broader than 2.5 cm Cassia grandis
5b Pod less than 35 cm long with dry pith inside, usually narrower than 2.5 cm Cassia roxburghii
     
6a Stipules reniform, about 2.5 cm broad, cuspidate; leaflets velvety on both surfaces; ovary glabrous Cassia renigera
6b Stipules less than 2 cm broad; leaflets glabrous or silky beneath only; ovary hairy 7
     
7a Stipules 12-15 mm long, leafy; leaflets usually rounded or obtuse at tip; calyx dark red; petals 2.5-3.5 cm long, pink to dark red Cassia javanica ssp. javanica
7b Stipules 5 mm long, narrow, not leafy; leaflets acute at tip; calyx Green; petals 1.2-2.5 cm long, pink to nearly white, turning yellow Cassia javanica ssp. nodosa
     
8a Ovary stalk less than 0.9 mm long, fruit less than 9 cm long; braceoles present; legume elastically coiling 9
8b Ovary stalk more than 0.9 mm long, fruit more than 9 cm long; bracteoles absent; legume not elastically coiling 14
     
9a Leaflets 2 pairs; one linear gland present between each pair or only one pair of leaflets; leaflets broader than 1 cm; stamens 5(2-7) Chamaecrista absus
9b Leaflets more than 2 pairs; glands present on petiole below leaflets; Leaflets linear, narrower than 1 cm; stamens 10 or 4-5 10
     
10a Gland on petiole stalked, just below the lowest pair of leaflets 11
10b Gland on petiole sessile 12
     
11a Stamens 5; pedicel less than 7 mm long; sepals 5-6 mm long Chamaecrista pumila
11b Stamens 10; pedicel 10-15 mm long; sepals 6-8 mm long Chamaecrista kleinii
     
12a Leaflets usually in 30-60 pairs Chamaecrista mimosoides
12b Leaflets usually in less than 30 pairs 13
     
13a Stamens 4-5; leaflets 5-10 mm long; stem with short curved hairs leaves less than 6 cm long Chamaecrista nomame
13b Stamens 10, sometimes 7; leaflets 8-14 mm long; stem with spreading hairs; leaves longer than 6 cm Chamaecrista leschenaultiana
     
14a Leaves without glands 15
14b Leaves with glands on rachis or petiole 23
     
15a Pod cylindrical or 4-angled; leaflets 10-16 pairs, 3-9 cm long; pod 15-30 cm long, 1 cm thick Senna spectabilis
15b Pod compressed 16
     
16a Leaflets 5 cm or more long; pod winged Senna alata
16b Leaflets less than 5 cm long; pod not winged 17
     
17a Pod elliptic-oblong to falcate, less than 7 cm long 18
17b Pod linear-oblong, longer than 7 cm 20
     
18a Leaflets narrower usually less than 10 mm broad, acute; pod 3-7 cm long, oblong to subfalcate, valves not crested Senna alexandrina
18b Leaflets broader usually broader than 10 mm, obtuse; pod 3-6 cm long, falcate, valves with longitudinal ridge of raised crests 19
     
19a Raceme 10-25 cm long, longer than subtending leaves; sepals 9-13 mm long; petals 12-20 mm long Senna italica ssp. italica
19b Raceme less than 10 cm long, shorter than subtending leaves; sepals 6-8 mm long; petals 8-9 mm long Senna italica ssp. micrantha
     
20a Pod 15-30 cm long, 1-2 cm broad; stipules minute, subulate, less than 3 mm long Senna siamea
20b Pod shorter than 15 cm; stipules minute or larger 21
     
21a Inflorescence subspicate; pedicel 5-7 mm long; stipules foliaceous, 1.5-2.5 cm long; shrub; pod pilose Senna didymobotrya
21b Inflorescence paniculate; pedicel longer than 10 mm; pod glabrous 22
     
22a Shrub; stipules minute, less than 3 mm long; leaves 10-15 cm long; pod 7-12 cm long Senna montana
22b Tree; stipules foliaceous, about 9 mm long with filiform tip; leaves 15-30 cm long; pod 12-15 cm long Senna timoriensis
     
23a Glands on rachis between pairs of leaflets, none on petiole 24
23b Gland on petiole, none on rachis between pairs of leaflets 38
     
24a Pod terete or subterete, broader than 10 mm 25
24b Pod compressed or if terete then less than 8 mm broad 27
     
25a Leaflets 2 pairs; gland between lower pair of leaflets; petals 2-3 cm long Senna bacillaris
25b Leaflets 3-5 pairs; petals 1-2 cm long 26
     
26a Gland only between lowest pairs of leaflets; leaflets rounded or subacute Senna bicapsularis
26b Glands between leaflets of each pair; leaflets acuminate Senna septemtrionalis
     
27a Stipules reniform, broader than 7 mm, persistent Senna auriculata
27b Stipules linear less than 5 mm broad, caducous 28
     
28a Leaflets 12 or more pairs Senna multijuga
28b Leaflets less than 12 pairs 29
     
29a Pods 1-2 cm wide 30
29b Pods less than 1 cm wide 33
     
30a Glands clavate or sessile, between all or most pairs of leaflets, pod tomentose or glabrous 31
30b Glands clavate usually between lowest two pairs of leaflets; pod glabrous 32
     
31a Young branches tomentose; leaflets 4-8 pairs, densely tomentose especially beneath, oblong to elliptic, 2-3 cm long, glands sessile; pod 10-14 cm long, tomentose, 50-90 seeded. Senna glandulosa
31b Young branches glabrous; leaflets 3-5 pairs, almost glabrous, ovate to ovate elliptic, 4-11 cm long; glands clavate or conical; pod 6-10 cm long, glabrous. Senna floribunda
     
32a Leaflets 4-6 pairs; leaves 15-30 cm long; stalk of pod 10-20 mm long Senna sulfurea
32b Leaflets 6-9 pairs; leaves 10-15 cm long; stalk of pod 5-7 mm long Senna surattensis
     
33a Leaves with 5-15 pairs of leaflets, generally clustered 3-5 together at nodes; leaflets 4-10mm long; pod 8-15 cm long. Senna polyphylla
33b Leaves with 2-7 pairs of leaflets, occurring singly at nodes; leaflets longer than 15 mm 34
     
34a Leaflets 4-7 pairs, 2-3 cm long; flowers in pairs in leaf axils; pod 6-8 cm long Senna pallida
34b Leaflets 2-5 pairs; flowers more than two in short racemes 35
     
35a Leaflets ovate or oblong, not obovate; Leaflets 2-3 pairs, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 2.5-5 cm long; pod 7-9 mm broad Senna corymbosa
35b Pods obovate; leaflets 3-5 pairs. 36
     
36a Leaflets 4 pairs (3-5); glands between all or lowest pair of leaflets; pod 3-5 cm long, 5-10 seeded Senna uniflora
36b Leaflets 3 pairs glands between lowest 1-2 pairs; pod longer than 10 cm; more than 20 seeded 37
     
37a Glands 2, between lowest two pairs of leaflets; sepals glabrous; petals 8-12 mm long; anthers of three large stamens rounded at tip; pedicel 12-15 mm long in fruit Senna tora
37b Gland only one between lowest pair of leaflets; sepals hairy; petals 12-15 mm long; anthers of three large stamens narrowed at tip; pedicel 30 mm long in fruit Senna obtusifolia
     
38a Plants hirsute; leaves with 3-5 pairs of leaflets; gland subclavate, near the base of petiole; pod 12-15 cm long, 3-7 mm wide, hirsute, linear, curved Senna hirsuta
38b Plants glabrous or subglabrous; Leaves with 4-10 pairs of leaflets; gland clavate or hemispheric; fruit shorter than 13 cm, glabrous at maturity 39
     
39b Gland at base of petiole, sessile, hemispherical; leaflets 3-6 pairs; pod 10-13 cm long, compressed, glabrous, often slightly curved, 20-30 seeded, torulose when mature Senna occidentalis
39b Gland situated 3-10 mm above the base of petiole, clavate; leaflets 3-12 pairs; pod 5-10 cm long, somewhat inflated, puberulent when young, glabrous when mature, not curved, 30-40 seeded, not torulose when mature 40
     
40a Leaflets 4-12 pairs, 4-9 cm long, acute or mucronate, branches not purple; pod 9-10 cm long   Senna sophera var. sophera
40b Leaflets 3-5 pairs, less than 3 cm long, obtuse at apex; branches slender, purple; pod 5-8 cm longSenna sophera var. purpurea

Cassia

  1. Cassia bakeriana Craib.
  2. Cassia fistula L.
  3. Cassia grandis L.f.
  4. Cassia javanica var. javanica
  5. Cassia javanica var. nodosa (Cassia nodosa Buch.-Ham.; C. javanica var. indochinensis Gagnep.)
  6. Cassia moschata Kunth
  7. Cassia x nealiae Irwin & Barneby
  8. Cassia renigera
  9. Cassia roxburghii DC. (Cassia marginata Roxb.)

Chamaecrista

  1. Chamaecrista absus (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia absus L.)
  2. Chamaecrista kleinii (Wight & Arn.) V.Singh (Cassia kleinii Wight. & Arn.)
  3. Chamaecrista leschenaultiana (DC.) Degener (Cassia wallichiana DC.)
  4. Chamaecrista mimosoides L. (Cassia mimosoides L.)
  5. Chamaecrista nomame (Sieber) H.Ohashi (Cassia hochstetteri Ghesq.)
  6. Chamaecrista pumila (Lam.) K.Larsen (Cassia pumila Lam.)

Senna

  1. Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Cassia alata L.)
  2. Senna alexandrina Mill. (Cassia senna L.)
  3. Senna auriculata (L.) Roxb. (Cassia auriculata L.)
  4. Senna bacillaris (L.f.) IRWIN & Barneby (Cassia bacillaris L.f.)
  5. Senna bicapsularis (L.) Roxb. (Cassia bicapsularis L.)
  6. Senna corymbosa (Lam.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia corymbosa Lam.)
  7. Senna didymobotrya (Fresen.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia didymobotrya Fresen.)
  8. Senna floribunda (Cav.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia floribunda Cav.)
  9. Senna hirsuta (L.) Irwin & Barneby (Cassia hirsuta L.)
  10. Senna italica Mill. subsp. italic (Cassia obovata Collad; C. obtusa Roxb.)
  11. Senna italica subsp. micrantha (Brenan) Lock (Cassia italica subsp. micrantha Brenan)
  12. Senna montana (Roth) V. Singh (Cassia montana Roth; Cassia setigera DC.) 
  13. Senna multiglandulosa (Jacq.) Irwin & Barneby (Cassia tomentosa L.f.)
  14. Senna multijuga (Rich.) Irwin & Barneby (Cassia multijuga Rich.)
  15. Senna obtusifolia (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia obtusifolia L.)
  16. Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Cassia occidentalis (L.) Rose)
  17. Senna pallida  (Vahl) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia biflora L.)
  18. Senna polyphylla (Jacq.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby  (Cassia polyphylla Jacq.)
  19. Senna septemtrionalis (Viviani) Irwin & Barneby
  20. Senna siamea (Lam.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia siamea Lam.)
  21. Senna sophera (L.) Roxb. (Cassia sophera L.)
  22. Senna sophera var. purpurea (Lindl.) V.Singh (Cassia purpurea Roxb. ex Lindl.)
  23. Senna spectabilis (DC.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia spectabilis DC.)
  24. Senna sulfurea (Collad.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia sulfurea Collad; C. glauca Lam.)
  25. Senna surattensis (Burm.f.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia surattensis Burm.f.)
  26. Senna timoriensis (DC.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia timoriensis DC.)
  27. Senna tora (L.) Roxb. (Cassia tora L.)
  28. Senna uniflora (Mill.) Irwin & Barneby (Cassia uniflora Mill.)
 
References: 
 
Chamaecrista absus,
C. auriculata (now Senna auriculata)
Cassia fistula,
C. italica (now Senna italica),
Chamaecrista kleinii,
C. occidentalis (now Senna occidentalis),
Chamaecrista pumila,
Cassia siamea (now S. siamea),
C. senna (now Senna alexandrina)
C. sophera (now Senna shophera)
C. tora (now Senna tora)

 

Pl. go through Chamaecrista ‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎(Fabaceae (Leguminosae)) page with images of species in efloraofindia.

If you find any incorrect identification, pl. let us know. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.


   

Pl. go through Chamaecrista (Fabaceae (Leguminosae)) page with images of species in efloraofindia.

If you find any incorrect identification, pl. let us know.

If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website) to indiantreepix@googlegroups.com, it will be really nice.