Euphorbia thymifolia

 
Gulf Sandmat, Thyme leaves spurge, chickenweed, dwarf spurge, gulf sandmat, red caustic creeper • Hindi: छोटा दुधी chhota-dudhi, दुद्धी duddhi • Marathi: धाकटी दुधी dhakti dudhi, लहान दुधी lahan dudhi • Tamil: சிற்றம்மான்பச்சரிசி cirramman-pac-carici • Malayalam: നിലപ്പാല nilappaala • Telugu: నానపాల nanapala, రెడ్డివారి నానబ్రాలు reddi-vari-nana-bralu • Kannada: ಬಿಳಿ ಚಿತ್ರಫಲ bili chitraphala, ಕೆಮ್ಪು ನೆನೆ ಹಕ್ಕಿ kempu nene hakki • Bengali: dudiya • Konkani: दुधुणी dudhuni • Sanskrit: दुग्धिका dugdhika, गोरक्षदुग्धी gorakshadugdhi, लघुदुग्धिका laghudugdhika, नागार्जुनी nagarjuni, रक्तबिन्दुच्छद raktabinducchada;  

Three prostrate species are rather close. I found the following keys in Flora of India:

30 a. Plants prostrate, only branches or tips of branches decumbent; cyathia solitary, paired or 3 together ... 31
b. Plants erect, decumbent or ascending; cyathia more than 3 in glomerules … 33
31 a. Stems and branches pinkish grey; mature capsules remaining within the involucre ... 32. E. thymifolia
b. Stems, branches and leaves green, glaucous-green, purplish green or blackish green; mature capsules protruding out from the involucre 32
32 a. Stems, branches and leaves blackish or purplish green; capsules acutely keeled, with ciliate hairs confined to keels only ... 26. E. prostrata

b. Stems, branches and leaves green to glaucous-green; capsules obtusely keeled, glabrous or sparsely hairy all over the surface ... 13. E. heyneana
33 a. Plants glabrous; leaves linear-lanceolate, 3 - 6 mm wide, glabrous to sparsely pilose ... 17. E. hyssopifolia 



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Euphorbia sp. for ID: AVD1- 01052014 : 6 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (7).
Please help me identifying the Euphorbia sp. attached herewith.  
Habitat: River bank.
Habit: Prostrate Herb. Branches radiating from centre in all directions.
Leaves: Elliptic - oblong, serrulate, less than 0.5 cm, glabrous,opposite
Stem: covered by soft hairs. 
Initially I felt this is E. parviflora. But the overall appearance is different from E.parviflora.
Very interesting.. will be happy to know the id..
This is some species of Euphorbia, i think
Euphorbia thymifolia based on the fruits being partially included within the cyathia walls at maturity. This is a rare morph where the plants lack the reddish pigmentation.

 
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Euphorbiaceae Fortnight : For ID : Muscat,Oman : 061113 : AK-23 : Attachments (2). 4 posts by 2 authors.
A tiny herb growing in the grass.
Help in id please
Could this be Euphorbia thymifolia?
Experts kindly validate.
Euphorbia prostrata or E. thymifolia.
Thanks for a possible id.
I will take more pictures if possible.
E. thymifolia based on the leaf shape and the general shape of cyathia plus fruits.
May I request you for high resolution images, for detailed examination.
Here is the original image.
Attachments (1)- 3 mb.
Yes, may be E. thymifolia 
This appears to be E. thymifolia L.


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oct2015sk05/05 - Euphorbia granulata Forssk. : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (6)
A new set, with a bit more clear photographs recorded on 09-08-2015.

This is actually E. thymifoliaNote how the fruits are partially included within the cyathia at maturity.


 
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id of this Euphorbia sp : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)
Pl help me to identify this Euphorbia sp.
Prostrate, branch, hispid, cyathia upto 3-5 in the axile, leaf prominently serrate, cyathia hairy,  4 glands, appendages not prominent.
Observed at Radhapuram, Tamil Nadu.

This appears to be E. granulata in all respects except that I do not see the conspicuous gynophore. The styles are united at base into a column, unlike E. granulata (having free styles). 
I am awaiting the expert opinion from ... 

This appears to be Euphorbia granulata Forssk. 
Please check the characters in my revision.

This appears to be E. thymifolia as well. Note the fruits included within the cyathia at maturity. The straight hairs on new growth are a little atypical, but notice that hairs on lower parts of the stem are more typical. It appears that this plant may not be getting as much sun as it would like. This often effects the color and growth of the plants
 
 
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SK 2448 10 February 2020 : 10 posts by 4 authors. 5 images- 6 to 7 mb each.
Location :  Koh Chang, Thailand
Date: 09 December 2019
Elevation : MSL
Habitat : Wild
Different than Euphorbia prostrata ??

To me appears close to images at efi page on Euphorbia prostrata    

The plant is Euphorbia thymifolia. Note how the fruits are held closely and even included within the cyathia at maturity.
Thank you ... for the ID.
Euphorbia thymifolia L.
This appears to be Euphorbia thymifolia L.


Euphorbia serpens
Hindi : Dudhi
Sonepat, Haryana, May 09.

To me appears more closer to Euphorbia heyneana rather than Euphorbia serpens as per images and details herein.
This appears to be E. thymifolia
 
 
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https://groups.google.com/group/indiantreepix/attach/94c5154023b8275c/Prostrate%20herb%202.JPG?part=0.2&authuser=0&view=1
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ANJUN18/19 Euphorbia sp. for identification : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Date: May 2015
Place: Hebri, Karnataka

Habit: Prostrate herb

This is Euphorbia thymifolia L.

https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/proxy/xOTy60hLalHGKb6RfU4RQzF8UJ61g5f6f9v3W69ligVHWGStbwHdXrEDiCuBnANf6LMz9RgIMZVO5i-CcQxfuPJQRiczdfY5Fro2MdQzjrp6=w5000-h5000
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Euphorbiaceae fortnight :: Euphorbia thymifolia in Mumbai :: DV16 : 2 images. 3 posts by 2 authors. Euphorbia thymifolia L. in untended lawn, Mumbai on 21 JUL 08

 

https://groups.google.com/group/indiantreepix/attach/23bb42ba0dfeeea4/DSCN9655_original_crop.jpg?part=0.3&authuser=0&view=1
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July2015sk17/19 -- small Euphorbiaceae herb : 18 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (5)
Noticed this small herb beside our kitchen drainage. There are 3 or 4 individual of this species, each having around 3 to 4 cm length. Unfortunately the other camera I have is now out-of-order!
I regret bad picture quality, but the plant itself has tiny flower and fruit. The features are, as far as I can make out of the attached photographs, (i) opposite sub-sessile leaves (ii) leaves are about 5mm in length (iii) leaf apex serrate.
Any probability?
From the photographs it appears that the plant is erect and ascending and not prostrate or procumbent. Please confirm this point. We will soon comment on it.  I am awaiting reply of ...
In the mean time please take good photographs, collect a sample and press and dry it up in a news paper or blotter in such a manner that both surfaces of the leaves are visible.
https://groups.google.com/group/indiantreepix/attach/32d43a4f59bbd28/P1160421_original_crop.jpg?part=0.3&authuser=0&view=1
 
Today I have photographed a few shot of the species again, one or two individual, each within 3 cm height is erect as can be seen in the first photograph. But the community (my assumption, I didn't disturb the herb) is decumbent aqs can be seen in the 2nd image.
I also attach herewith cropped part of two original pictures for the highest detail my camera could take.
The herb is growing in sandy soil, produced by debris of building materials like sand, concrete dust, small gravels etc. But the place is always damp.
Attachments (5)
Please check whether it can be a form with stunted growth.
Your link leads on to Euphorbia cristata which it is not and the same has not been recorded from West Bengal so far.
I can not think of any other genus.
I was also thinking of stunted growth, a stunted form of Euphorbia thymifolia L.?  ... threads are so different looking. that I thought it must be some other species.
In fact I failed to find any particular feature in my photographs. Instead, I searched matching images and discarded E. granulata, came across the similar looking image of E. cristata in 'indiabiodiversity' site!
This small herb seems to be interesting.  It is closely related to Euphorbia serpens, differing in the serrate margins of leaves, rounded to obtuse (rather than retuse) at apex. I do not see the root primordia at the nodes which are usually present in E. serpens. Further differences, if any, can be ascertained by examining the flowers and fruits under a microscope.
Superficially similar to E. cristata in its foliage but the whole plant (habit) is much smaller. with smaller, glabrous leaves, trinerved at base.
Further critical studies are therefore very desirable to establish its status.
I do not have a simple microscope, have a compound one but do not know how to examine an entire flower under it. I will try to examine for more features with a magnifying glass and would inform you if I find any.
I request you to please examine and identify one my old thread of a different species.
Thank you very much. It is always a learning session under your guidance.
You need a binocular dissecting microscope.
The other thread is giving the identity of Euphorbia heyneana subsp. heyneana (syn. E. micorphylla B.Heyne ex Roth). Your present plant is even closer to that but in that case the habit is prostrate and a cyathial stalk present. Here I see clearly ascending or erect habit and no cyathial stalk is visible.
Yes, Sir, this species (in this thread) is ascending or erect. The problem is cyathium is so small that my camera fails to produce detail. Since it is the flowering time of this species I will try to find it somewhere else so that we can conclude that it is a stunted or deformed state of a certain species.
For the time being, the following name may be assigned to it, although I am not satisfied but without further details it is impossible to clarify its status:
Euphorbia heyneana Spreng. subsp. nilagirica (Miq.) Panigrahi which has erect or or ascending habit and the same is an endangered endemic confined to the Nilgiri hills of Tamil Nadu.
Thank you Sir. One earlier thread by Aarti Ji looks somewhat similar to species. Presently I mark it with E. heyneana.
This plant is definitely E. granulata Forssk. In this species leaves are sometimes serrulate and root primordia are sometimes not developed. It does fit into any other species.
I am grateful to you and ...
Based on the webpage http://www.euphorbiaceae.org/pages/about_euphorbia.html I am trying to understand Euphorbia inflorescence. I am attaching a plate of this species. I can understand which one is capsule. Both Flora of China and Pakistan inform that in this species cyathium is single. Then what are those red-marked structures shown in the plate?
Attachments (1)
Those red-marked structures appear to be glands of the involucre cup.
Thank you very much Sir. It appears to me that these glands do not have appendages, or if present appendages are very minute. Flora of British India recorded, "glands usually without a limb." It means limb of a gland is same as appendage of a gland. Please correct me if I am wrong.
In cyathia of Euphorbia, the glands sometimes do not have appendages (also called limbs by earlier authors).
Sometimes they are very minute. In most species of subgenus Chamaesyce the appendages are distinct, prominent and petaloid.

I am very grateful to you for taking patience and care of my queries. I look forward to learn more on this family from you and ... in near future.

Forgive me sir, but I must respectfully disagree that this is E. granulataNote that the fruits are partially included within the cyathia at maturity. This is the classic distinguishing characteristic of E. thymifolia. The fruits of E. granulata are well exerted at maturity. Furthermore, all the material of E. granulata I have seen have hairs that are straight and spreading, not appressed as in E. thymifolia.
Just to clarify, this also includes fruits that appear exerted but come out near the base of the cyathium as in the case of the close-ups. Some more typical examples can be seen in the cyathia on the right branch in the second photo. The important characteristic is actually the length of the gynophore, which typically manifests itself by being partially included at maturity. Sometimes the fruits do manage to escape from the involucre, but it is only by growing through a deep cyathial sinus on the side of the involucre making the fruit base appear as if it is adhered perpendicularly to the side of the cyathium rather than coming out the apex or curving through a relatively shallow cyathial sinus such that the fruit is either parallel or at an acute angle to the cyathium.

This appears to be Euphorbia heyneana Spreng (syn.: E. microphylla B.Heyne ex Roth, non Lam.), common in wet grasslands throughout India.


 
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Euphorbia herb for id : Chennai : 23/09/2017 : MV : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
Euphorbia herb for id, please
Location: Chennai
Date: 23/09/2017

Please see comparative images in efi website. 
Link 
https://sites.google.com/site/efloraofindia/species/a---l/e/euphorbiaceae/euphorbia
This appears to be Euphorbia thymifolia L. 
The purple patch on the leaves is an ecological variation depending on soil conditions where they grow. This is observable in many species of the Chamaesyceae subgenus.


https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/867dcf536072acae/4._Euphorbia_thymifolia_L_with_E._hirta_IMG_4342.jpg?part=0.4&view=1&vt=ANaJVrHOwyE6hrit79VZAdUM79Hn3c-cTz8hVm13-1f0JiZYLuigmJ53HyFeBtm7cVvFwWeyBWsKsJbFvXz-72rvSduZzon0-roEPmwDoF1ng5dVqiKoVbk
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https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/867dcf536072acae/5._Euphorbia_thymifolia_L_IMG_4337.jpg?part=0.5&view=1&vt=ANaJVrELo2J4yzjJfa4jCXVbaNB_vp4zbdRkH8NjHDOy0BwMOGIiAaSRR2v4ZT7M0dfc4ZMYkU9tsgKhGC8kTc9x7haQYrepmH8iN1nq7PdwHSQ44FxCvZM
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Attached images may be Euphorbia thymifolia L. growing with Euphorbia hirta L.. Please validate.
Date :08.11.2013
Location: Kamrup district
Family : Euphorbiaceae 
In Euphorbia thymifolia the ovary ripens within the cyathium while in E. prostrata the fruit bursts outside the cyathium. 
From your photos, it is therefore E. prostrata.
Looks different from E. prostrata as per keys:

Three prostrate species are rather close. I found the following keys in Flora of India:

30 a. Plants prostrate, only branches or tips of branches decumbent; cyathia solitary, paired or 3 together 31
b. Plants erect, decumbent or ascending; cyathia more than 3 in glomerules 33
31 a. Stems and branches pinkish grey; mature capsules remaining within the involucre ... 32. E. thymifolia
b. Stems, branches and leaves green, glaucous-green, purplish green or blackish green; mature capsules protruding out from the involucre 32
32 a. Stems, branches and leaves blackish or purplish green; capsules acutely keeled, with ciliate hairs confined to keels only ... 26. E. prostrata
b. Stems, branches and leaves green to glaucous-green; capsules obtusely keeled, glabrous or sparsely hairy all over the surface ... 13. E. heyneana
33 a. Plants glabrous; leaves linear-lanceolate, 3 - 6 mm wide, glabrous to sparsely pilose ... 17. E. hyssopifolia 
Can it be E. heyneana?


Or rather may be Euphorbia thymifolia
 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/8e686c5e950b1a58/Euphorbia%20prostrata,%20cythium%20@%20Kanheri%20DSC08318.jpg?part=0.2&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFmtZ1cmph6jDl8yWX2gVgEiDPj6utLXiI0h4opmZswlL7HRLyM2L72Nf6AtDEtELmLL0_vfV1e91H_Y1t6o_1CuICM-t6pjPyMlsCvv_iWXFFvqTA
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Euphorbiaceae Fortnight : Euphorbia prostrata Aiton; SM2 : Attachments (3). 3 posts by 2 authors.
Euphorbia prostrata Aiton
Yes,
Looks different from E. prostrata as per keys:

Three prostrate species are rather close. I found the following keys in Flora of India:

30 a. Plants prostrate, only branches or tips of branches decumbent; cyathia solitary, paired or 3 together 31
b. Plants erect, decumbent or ascending; cyathia more than 3 in glomerules 33
31 a. Stems and branches pinkish grey; mature capsules remaining within the involucre ... 32. E. thymifolia
b. Stems, branches and leaves green, glaucous-green, purplish green or blackish green; mature capsules protruding out from the involucre 32
32 a. Stems, branches and leaves blackish or purplish green; capsules acutely keeled, with ciliate hairs confined to keels only ... 26. E. prostrata
b. Stems, branches and leaves green to glaucous-green; capsules obtusely keeled, glabrous or sparsely hairy all over the surface ... 13. E. heyneana
33 a. Plants glabrous; leaves linear-lanceolate, 3 - 6 mm wide, glabrous to sparsely pilose ... 17. E. hyssopifolia 
Can it be E. heyneana?


Or rather may be Euphorbia thymifolia
The three photos show that they are E. thymifolia, as the capsules are hairy throughout and ciliate along the keels as in E. prostrata.
Definitely E. thymifolia. Note that the cyathial walls partially cover the dorsal side of the fruits at maturity.



References:
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