Ephedra intermedia


The character states distinguishing Ephedra var. glauca and E. var. tibetica from typical E. intermedia may all be observed together in a single population; the species is therefore not divided here (Fu et al. 2010) as it is in The World Checklist of Selected Families (RBG Kew 2009). 
Native: Afghanistan; China (Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hebei, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Tibet [or Xizang], Xinjiang); India (Himachal Pradesh, Jammu-Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh); Iran, Islamic Republic of; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Mongolia; Nepal; Pakistan; Russian Federation (Altay, West Siberia); Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan 
(From  IUCN Red List (LC) on 11.12.13)

Ephedra intermedia is found in deserts, grasslands, floodlands and river valleys, slopes and cliffs, and sandy beaches. It grows at elevations of 100–4,600 metres (330–15,100 ft), in rocky or sandy dry habitats.
The plant grows to 1 metre (3.3 ft) tall. The strobili are dioecious, either male or female on any one plant, so both male and female plants are needed for seeds.
(From Wikipedia on 11.12.13)

Ephedra pachyclada Boiss. ??? : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3) 
Sharing some pictures I guess is a Ephedra pachyclada Boiss. shot at Leh on 22 August 2016.
I don't think it matches with Ephedra gerardiana  
Ephedra identification is often challenging- especially as most of the specimens encountered have no flowers or fruit. The joint-pines are adapted to the low-rainfall of Tibetan borderlands. The leaves are reduced to scales on the stems (helping reduce the loss of water through transpiration), which are green for photosynthesis. 
E.geradiana is understood to be the common, widespread species along the Himalaya (or more accurately, along the borderlands of Tibet).  I agree that the images do not match E.geradiana
3 species are recorded from Ladakh: E.geradiana, E.intermedia and E.regelii according to Dickore & Klimes. Stewart records all three. 
As for E.pachyclada, he states that Riedl. does not report this from Pakistan or Kashmir. However, Kitamura reported it from the Chaman Pass on the Baluchistan-Afghan border. Boiss. reported it from "W.Tibet", probably Ladakh.
I consider the range of the species is poorly known. '
Fortunately, I have a much better (but far from perfect) idea about the three main species in Ladakh than I did just a few months ago but still consider myself a novice with Ephedras. The images are not of E.regelii. I currently think they most likely are within E.intermedia but will consider E.pachyclada. Can anyone say with confidence which species and how one differentiates between E.intermedia and E.pachyclada?
But how reliable is this key? Cannot make out any wart-like projections on the stems in the close-up image but cannot see the characteristics describe for E.pachyclada either.....
Comparing the images from the book from Flora of Ladakh  I guess it matches more with Ephedra intermedia Schrenk & C.A.Mey.
Some more images from net for verification !
Attachments (3)

Attachments (1) 
Ok. I just noticed this has been listed in efi site.
NSD - 6, July-2018, Ephedra intermedia
: 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)- 6 Mb and 877 kb  
Ephedra intermedia Schrenk& C.A.Mey.
Family: Ephedraceae
Hunder, Nubra valley, Laddakh, J&K, India. 9 June 2018