Images by Narendra Joshi, Gurinder Goraya & Suresh Rana (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (for complete discussions & more images, pl. click on the links) 



  • Ephedra ciliata Fisch. & Mey (syn. of Ephedra foliata Boiss. ex C.A.Mey. as per The Plant List)
  • Ephedra gerardiana Wall.ex Stapf
  • Ephedra intermedia Schrenk & Meyer
  • Ephedra monosperma C.A. Meyer (Distribution not in India)
  • Ephedra pachyclada Boiss.
  • Ephedra procera Fisch. & Mey. (Often considered as a subspecies or variety of the Mediterranean E. major Host.)
  • Ephedra przewalskyi Stapf (Distribution not in India)
  • Ephedra regeliana Florin (Distribution not in India)
  • Ephedra sarcocarpa Aitch. & Hemsl. (Distribution not in India)

    Indigenous Drugs Of India By Chopra R N, I.C. Chopra (1958/ 2006) (Description, distribution etc.- 


    Dr. K. M. Nadkarni&s Indian materia medica. 1, Volume 2 edited by K. M. Nadkarni  (1954/ 1994) (p. 495- distribution etc.-
    Ephedra nebrodensis Tineo synonym of Ephedra major subsp. major,
    Ephedra vulgaris Willk. synonym of Ephedra major subsp. major,

    Pl. go through Ephedra (Ephedraceae) page with images of species in efloraofindia.

    If you find any incorrect identification, pl. let us know. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, or identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.

    My post on Ephedra has been identified Ephedra intermedia ??
    Yeah, kept as such based on the feedback in
    Ephedra pachyclada Boiss. ???