Trema orientalis

Trema orientalis (L.) Blume , Mus. Bot. 2: 62 1856. (syn. Celtis glomerata Hochst.; Celtis guineensis Schumach.; Celtis madagascariensis Bojer (ambiguous synonym); Celtis orientalis L. (ambiguous synonym); Celtis rigida Bl.; Sponia affinis Planch.; Sponia africana Planch.; Sponia andaresa Comm. ex Lam.; Sponia argentea Planch. (ambiguous synonym); Sponia burmannii (Bl.) Planch.; Sponia commersonii Decne. ex Planch.; Sponia guineensis Planch.; Sponia nitens Hook. fil. ex Planch.; Sponia orientalis (L.) Decne. (ambiguous synonym); Sponia orientalis var. affinis (Planch.) Baker; Sponia orientalis var. commersonii (Planch.) Baker; Sponia rigida (Bl.) Decne. (ambiguous synonym); Sponia scaberrima (Bl.) Miq.; Sponia strigosa Planch.; Sponia wightii Planch.; Trema affinis (Planch.) Bl.; Trema africana (Planch.) Bl.; Trema argentea (Planch.) Bl.; Trema burmannii Bl.; Trema commersonii (Planch.) Bl.; Trema grevei Baill.; Trema grisea Baker; Trema guineense (Schumach. & Thonn.) Ficalho; Trema nitens Bl.; Trema orientalis var. argentea (BI.) Lauterb.; Trema orientalis var. rigida Lauterb.; Trema rigida Bl. (ambiguous synonym); Trema scaberrima Bl.; Trema sieberi Bl.; Trema strigosa (Planch.) Bl.; Trema wightii (Planch.) Bl.);           

South Africa (Limpopo, North-West Prov., Mpulamanga, KwaZulu-Natal, E-Cape Prov.), Swaziland, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Mali, Burkina Faso, Benin, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Central African Republic, Bioko Isl. (Fernando Poo), Annobon Isl., Sao Tome, Principe Isl., Gabon, Congo (Brazzaville), Equatorial Guinea, D.R. Congo (Zaire), Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Caprivi Strip, Namibia, Australia (N-Northern Territory, Queensland: Cape York to Bundaberg), Java, Seychelles, La Runion, Mauritius, Madagascar, Comoros (Mayotte, etc.), peninsular Malaysia (Main Range and near Kuala Lumpur), Sri Lanka, India, W-Himalayas, Nepal, Myanmar [Burma] (Bago, Chin, Sagaing, Taninthayi, Yangon), Thailand, Laos, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea, Bismarck Arch. (New Britain), Sumatra, Lesser Sunda Isl., Vietnam, Andamans (South Andamans), Nicobars (Central Nicobars, Great Nicobar Isl., Little Nicobar Isl.), Bangladesh, Solomons, American Samoa (Tutuila, Ofu, Ta'u), Bonin Isl. (Chichijima, Keetaajima, Nakohdojima, Anijima, Otohtojima, Nishino-shima, Hahajima, Mukhojima, Imohtojima), Volcano Isl. (Kita-Iwojima, Iwojima, Minami-Iwojima), Gilbert Isl., Marshall Isl. (Eniwetok), Northern Marianas (Maug, Asuncion, Agrihan, Pagan, Alamagan, Guguan, Sarigan, Anatahan), Palau Isl. (Babeldaob, Koror, Ngarakabesang), Southern Marianas (Saipan, Tinian, Rota, Guam), Wake Isl., Saudi Arabia (Asir), Oman (Dhofar), N-Yemen, China (Fujian, SW-Guangdong, W-Guangxi, SW-Guizhou, Hainan, Sichuan, Yunnan), Taiwan, Tibet, Japan (Yakushima Isl., Tanegashima Isl.), Ryukyu Isl., Hawaii (I) (Kauai (I), Oahu (I), Molokai (I), Lanai (I), Maui (I), Hawaii Isl. (I)) as per Catalogue of life;
 
Indian charcoal tree, Indian Nettle, Indian nettle tree, oriental nettle, pigeon wood, poison peach, Wight's sponia • Bengali: জীবন jiban • Hindi: जीवन jivan, जीवन्ती jivanti, क्षयनाशिनी kshayanashini, पार्वतीparvati, प्राणक pranak • Konkani: खर्गुल khargul • Malayalam: അമരാത്തി amaraaththi, ആമത്താളി aamaththaali, പൊട്ടാമ pottaama,പൊട്ടാമരം pottaamaram • Marathi: घोळ gol, कापशी kapshi, खरगोळ khargol • Sanskrit: जीवनी jivani, jivanti, प्राणक pranaka • Tamil: பேய்முன்னை pey-munnai • Telugu: బొగ్గు చెట్టు boggu chettu, చారపప్పుచెట్టు charapappuchettu, మొరలిmorali, ప్రుయాలవృక్షము pruyalavriqshamu;
 
Birds love to be around when there is flower (insectivorous) and fruit (frugivorous). An ideal plant as avenue tree; It is very fast growing and useful for producing charcoal;   
  


 
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Request for ID : 280511 : AK-2: Taken at Khandala, Maharashtra on the 24th of March, 2011. 
Its Trema orientalis (L.) Blume 
 
 
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ID REQUEST 03062011 PJ3 :  Id  requested for the following attachment.
Date/Time-: 18/05/11   -    13:30
Location- Place, Altitude - Kaiga , Uttar Kannada ,Karnataka, 380 mtrs
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type-   wild
Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb- tree
Height/Length- 12 mtr
Trema orientalis. The stem-bark is one of the several adulterants for Ashoka (citation needed!).
Yes, Trema orientalis from me too. Family: Ulmaceae. Grown as an avenue tree.
Yes this is Trema orientalis (L.) Blume of  Cannabaceae family. 


 
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SYMBIOSIS 60: Trema  orientalis is a common tree at Cooch Behar. The tree is commonly known as Indian Nettle Tree. In Bangla it is known as Chikan/Jiban. It is known as Gio in Hindi. The fruits are very small and these are relished by number of birds. Attaching an image of Bluethroated Barbet eating the fruits of Trema. 


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Trema orientalis (L.) Blume from Hooghly:  
Attaching images of Trema orientalis (L.) Blume.
Species : Trema orientalis (L.) Blume.
Bengali name : CHIAN GACH or JIBAN GACH
Habit : Habitat : wild shrub or small tree
Date : 18/8/12, 2.04 P.M.
Place : Hooghly
Links visited :

Yes, ..., your ID is right.
Trema orientalis (L.) Blume
Syn: Celtis orientalis L.; Sponia wightii Planch. Good set of photographs. 
Yes it is Trema orientalis, that birds love to be around when there is flower (insectivorous) and fruit (frugivorous). An ideal plant as avenue tree.
I have also read about the birds feeding on its fruits, a book specially mentions red vented bulbuls among others.
 
 
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ID reqd PM 290112 001: Photographed this small tree at Matheran on 27th Jan., 2012, ID help pls.
This could be Trema orientalis of Cannabaceae family
Share ... view.


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Trema orientalis: 4 images. Sharing few photographs of Trema orientalis (Family: Cannabaceae).
Location: Darya Ghat (Enroute Dhakoba).
Date/Time: 11-01-2013 / 11:40AM
Habitat: Wild
Plant Habit: Tree.

Really very nice closeup shots of the flower. I have seen tree with pink/red flowers. Can it be a variation or diff. Species?
Yes it is Trema orientalis.
To me it seems to be Trema orientalis. This tree is very common at this place (Cooch Bihar, West Bengal).
And birds relish its fruits.

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identification no190913sn1 : Attachments (3). 3 posts by 3 authors.
Kindly help in identification.
date/time:oct12
location: ambyvalley rd., lonavala, mulshi, pune
habitat:wild
plant habit:tree
height:about 7-8ft.
Trema orientalis
Trema orientalis

Fwd: Need help with indian nettle tree : 4 posts by 3 authors.
Do you have any idea where I can get Indian nettle saplings/ seeds for our guest house in Mudumalai (moist decidious) and Bangalore farm land (Dry decidious)
I think he mean Trema orientalis for Indian nettle tree.
... may try his luck in nurseries around Lalbagh (Siddapura area). They sell varieties of seedlings of plants and tree species. Also check inside the Lal bagh (Government nursery) located near the rock. Furthermore, there are many forest nurseries nearby Bangalore. Check with the Forest deparment officers also. They are helpful.
Thanks for your advise.
The nurseries around Lalbagh area have silk cotton white. I am looking for silk cotton red which is more bird friendly
Also Indian nettle / charcoal tree is not in the radar of FD / other nurseries as nobody actually buys them. Hence I am on the lookout for other sources. The Indian nettle trees die after 5 to 7 years due to some stem borer or rotting near the base of the stem. So people dont grow these trees except estate people who use it for shade as it grows quickly. Again this tree is very bird friendly and the we see lot of pompodor and green footed green pigeons on them along with other fly catchers. But unfortunately all the trees which germinated from ow dung broght from another area and grew 7 years are dying. New saplings are not coming as we are in a moist deciduous / semi evergreen area of Mudumalai. Not sure how to make the plant regrow again in our area.
Good to find that you are interested in planting native trees which attract birds. One way of going about it is to plant pioneer trees of moist deciduous forests and then to plant umbrella species which are fig trees of those areas. Could ask Ncf at Valparai or Frlht at Bangalore for advice and saplings.
 
 
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ID Please - plant found near Bangaon , 24 - Pgs (N), West Bengal - attracts many birds to its fruits!!
local people call the plant in bengali as "Jibon Gach"
Trema orientalis (L.) Blume [Cannabaceae].
 
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Tree from Lodi Garden : 4 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (5).
please ID this tree from Lodi Garden, Delhi. It is a medium height tree.
A chance for Muntingia calabura L.?
 I don't think this is Muntigia calabura.
Could it be Trema orientalis?
Family: Cannabaceae

may be Trema orientalis ? need confirmation. ...
 
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Tree For ID : Way To Nasik : 21Sep14 : AK-27 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3).
Tree seen on a mountain slope, on way to Nasik.
Pictures taken on 1/8/14.
Trema orientalis?
Please confirm id.
Yes it is Tremma orientalis
 
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ANDEC71 Please identify this tree : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (5)
Nelliyampathy, Kerala
November 2014

Trema orientalis (L.) Blume
Yes, Trema orientalis ..


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https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/61060460b2c2f1d/DSC_0487.jpg?part=0.6&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFk4ONIKywc6hF8WyBjFCa0oxqDN78uUXwCJhkg9qbAexLTHHFU2uQCYicO0g7X7eqDag78HgaEi1PyYVVgGfkFxReUz_16L0RjZuFp9HyptvLOVYo
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/61060460b2c2f1d/DSC_0486.jpg?part=0.5&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGf_ftSk9E3hjVuwC0USCc_Oo3I_DqR0o9Aqd2vN9nhdXUpXj-GX6weh5Wxwdc2VWG7jsGVOh_1qjTnXDLx60wOyYbxb271zefwtXfIvNE2TdYTtpY

ANDEC84 Trema orientalis : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (6)
Someshwara Wildlife Sanctuary, Karnataka
28th December 2014


https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/c710666501d99601/IMG_3457.jpg-foi.jpg?part=0.2&view=1&vt=ANaJVrH5HiGVVdxP3sMvxS6Ssewp26a9QdbyD3DYqtqegEf-G9A3lQt5NCgxyspjYxdWPCpG88njsBNeHUgbxXtrBdk9RvXJTvb4iLLJMftKjgxoo8ey7-Q
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/c710666501d99601/IMG_3459.jpg-foi.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGP2M7sOZ0FUUCMVERwl5p7Pp78IuoFdU-AUV8HCsQR5bfkSnOVJhFBKozN3F1ILuexvhDUT2Ml_rRboBa5T0jHYYWJnAebi0e_U0-kNgDWvWV4Aw0

Trema orientalis----for sharing and validation : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
Pics of Indian Charcoal Tree taken at Aambyvalley rd., Lonavala, Pune in Dec.14
Yes it is.


https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/36e64b0695183/IMG_9928.JPG?part=0.2&view=1&vt=ANaJVrEaXxqR4QYa9DbjLIkSWdJmMEbKwaReRbRPtntJwzV58HypK8P8LwN4-3noWEuKob1lBpqNZjdaVJrOhUqH4slsHu6LVCiIBhWOiJoNQfDqtfTOe6U
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/36e64b0695183/IMG_9925.JPG?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrEnGS8gT7-qGxPxzwP-TseGp27RXGXOLG-_dToGmOPTYSw8Yv1VmioICIaGsjg32sHX4RLzPwjBTB3TYIBtYKaROvwKhipCNkLyZQxW1sHRbwpujHg
Please ID : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2) 
Please ID the plant. I don't have any picture of flowers of fruits
Place - Mohali, Punjab
Date of Click - 29th June, 2016
Temperature- 37degrees
Humidity - almost 75% 
The leaves and bark suggest Trema orientalis, nothing more from me...

second picture reminds me of a Pablo Picasso pencil sketches of studies he did before painting a canvas in color.
ps don't just look at the small pic, look at the whole if you want to see the picasso tree trunk


https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/307891f174df3/Image%20012.jpg?part=0.12&view=1&vt=ANaJVrHXXRJirVLzvsRMan-Xe0jkX0erYpz05q24i3W-CPHjKfKeSCxKNMo7IENK_ChXYEAr99Z3307Also_SaPI211Kc_SkkPLJqAJf361aBPEMIikJehA
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/307891f174df3/Image%20005.jpg?part=0.5&view=1&vt=ANaJVrHsvRqd5I5YYoM2hMse2-LrPHxsWF6wWq80qCSdMnix6TrWHbu143LLiAjdK9mt5lA_9A-xuQCEOzCGSBhgN88FIwYF8IG2d6zNASYWA_N5_G1opRk
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/307891f174df3/Image%20004.jpg?part=0.4&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFxLOx83iaUzPjdQlk2nH6_-YkdDQS4k25-ptYOXV7XncQgzHUBFIXEf3Jqt4clfAsZom4jLMwVrD-A7B9X95B2Pj497G5unGAHQuN61WG_UaMx52c
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/307891f174df3/Image%20003.jpg?part=0.3&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGp9mJVaWXn-oLgHfkq9Daxxu5HkP5DOT9AjLRRzDFwfTMvRWozyrzTqvfRgW5maYXiSn1Oq5I_0TkSNaZFP6CdFOxhXDQt7xYE-sSOWLMTeFcCJ9E
GRAM2016 Could this be Trema orientalis?
: 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (14)
Pictures were taken at Kasara, Maharashtra in Aug 2016.
Yes, most likely...!! nice images


https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/5c8edb5affbc/Image%20011.jpg?part=0.11&view=1&vt=ANaJVrF8Cf89wyWR1gA1qGUJCFAZszAp1RjLKy_KA1gqwiQP_nmnThafSQFovqZTzaE6zZVWNqckXWqSZe2aoVyHkcInHOL1owq8d193CIFLZOrvGw48mCQhttps://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/5c8edb5affbc/Image%20010.jpg?part=0.10&view=1&vt=ANaJVrG1lwsRv1d5ZKQSJEhryFfKEn6sV30zmibegYTJguR7ZSNHCHcHnB5LfPxlw2veuSz8ypxr4Nk5i7QnaYURuJO43kYzc_KMi80yfIiXQCH95SEu5iYhttps://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/5c8edb5affbc/Image%20002.jpg?part=0.2&view=1&vt=ANaJVrHwXXspNwgq9_SDCvH0iKQY_CAIL_RItRxVetH-Iq25-orRMI20TxKvRuxwEo2foUA96kogz_mwNz9UKS06PGiypjN8rsjBP0oMwT--Beye7yDANmchttps://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/5c8edb5affbc/Image%20006.jpg?part=0.6&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFFgxNLJLDlGkWVViZyK8VPnq-9T-arDxZNoEMK-eDzoiobjOnReMEsvPCaDy9UFaAlzAZvJpzr_dvb-i-zgUp6UUmsZp24-glPROmhINpyTtpuTB8https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/5c8edb5affbc/Image%20008.jpg?part=0.8&view=1&vt=ANaJVrEvTtCjQUwRiwtvXClIZ1WwN8t6Tz2qDllMf1dViqb_52qlC7_ZzdaULgVaiieHjoEEQGxtNfQ-uQKtKXPka6xl849IB3S62Nw1ZdsaIt4bIwGEVEQhttps://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/5c8edb5affbc/Image%20007.jpg?part=0.7&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGEtTe8lsMonpbTS5Y8GoL1UN2nUlYAmd3XZh4N0oniS_joTP1RjtG4MINyCX8l7LOAQJfOYFYEzY3Mvr-hTsnFql4MI-qXYbwL1guW34E1cpuWv8A
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/5c8edb5affbc/Image%20001.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrHJnOazLtt8TfoCfsfaDk-e9Un3KlnD4MQ44JepDu8jpAPrew8EcwsbUDeL8ql8O_gCsFLQXiRCKi_oLYXHl8JmbwKtN4LqlG5bv2YgL2R_q11iEUMhttps://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/5c8edb5affbc/Image%20013.jpg?part=0.13&view=1&vt=ANaJVrEepr0LOfpFnSQ3yvWfytKEHXH0uXguGrgoEjLfpX8uSyfLE40M0VoK88p9wCMyJkZhZW_mUiHIG3pQjGGAxz0P3nAmH7yX1p-O34rdcDXmck4rZZk
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GRAM 2017 Trema sp.? : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (14)
Could this be Trema orientalis
Pictures were taken at Kasara in the Sep 2016
Affirmative. This is the Indian Charcoal Tree [Trema orientalis].
Yes, very nice images!!


https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/77dd6e14c701e/IMG-20170430-WA0004.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGS2Lrl1uQ4NkdyOKPJtZDDA8KLl_Wnf6tXxbvgfcpgoLjqS003MEppqe3LeHxte2-eFCWFhY5Qr7gdW-rN0RslLT0FDHxhXBmanNPSxOTHT4k7fEU
ID request 30042017PC2 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
Kindly identify this tree growing in Goa. I do not have amy more photos of the plant.
Please check for Trema sp. (Cannabaceae).
Trema in eFI.

Trema orientalis.


https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/345912400e5c9/Trema%20orientalis%201.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGkoYeHCmFAZes-cdKJO8oHsHZqZxHM4i4DHVs3VA9JkH67CpXVYshCKnMGrIjVtsFZcJjT0GXzBnINptG2iVJifu1RkEBEUW0NHpK88MPfT1jnafs
Fwd: TREMA ORIENTALIS : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Trema orientalis (CHARCOAL TREE/ JIBANTI/ JIBON)

  
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/69b5dad046fdf/DSCN6034_Sc_Cr_Male.jpg?part=0.4&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGC3nKdHsbw6GsfLfNPfQzSGXgsi4bU_Pfyjy8LbpUttUKMk9SJHk1xR4JymhLy5WrhJABX2BEJzDRhoDmMoz1J4wWcrBf5UOR95Ou7ASjJR3tZVOk
 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/69b5dad046fdf/IMG_20181216_091440_Sc_Cr.jpg?part=0.5&view=1&vt=ANaJVrHwmpFR7EqM_juztP9E4sPxJBw5_MljCiF7EzCdUo2h4XvTON3wDAQvw4x7G8GHkLlk5z3-Y8hFsecGlLAXFlCi1C-O5sA-wH6_hl-Pmn5mzIoOhZE
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/69b5dad046fdf/IMG_20181216_091044_Sc.jpg?part=0.3&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFyzUC4VvJLRVHpV-DiNShGthcNB0ARg7Mf5lkyQYJNstYM_2atZ-O57e3roOZZSIFsvV2JkLI-r1m4kg8-60Zd41URcyzEJbZswPe9_zUGNA6NHJM
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/69b5dad046fdf/IMG_20181216_091511_Sc.jpg?part=0.2&view=1&vt=ANaJVrEqiKhiT48wd3DybJ3Z9e-xByVKSssV_2D6tA-2oK1jR4ImkI3hWnXDGhRbbUJtcjbqGdv8STUJgyaDhj7t_6kjQkzHxrm-yeAcvLmTa0JUmH9ce8s
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/69b5dad046fdf/DSCN6059_Sc_Crp_Male.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFIq7nV0neE6lwYOGaR7mD8eyM9QNmhIbtOqKLzX7kR2aBtIbho8OV7hEDZzOknN-5lX_xwl1U5Ja7fQmvZZFaJs150icpO6jy--zEUDTjaRFy-lQk
Trema male flowers : 12 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (5)- around 800 kb each. 
Please find attached pictures of Trema sp. at Matheran Mid Dec 2018.
The attached flowers seems male flowers of Trema orientalis, is it correct?

These are flowers of Trema orientalis, but I am not sure whether they are male flowers. Hopefully someone will comment.
In my flickr collection, I have only these flowers.
Thanks ... Went through your collection of beautiful very clear flowers of Trema orientalis.
yes you are 100% correct
Female flowers of Trema orientalis, April 2015, Surat
4 images.
Thanks ... for showing the female flowers of Trema orientalis.



 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/d501e993798/Symbiosis%201337.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGy6ei2X5884sKjEptn89cH4ibfySK0zTue4GqUY9NCiabQLkml7nn8dAML_JaVsO8hUh0qVq7bGlm1PtUpkhP_DWa3jJOxSTHE6l2h-6pVuW2k4V4
SYMBIOSIS : 1337 : 8 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Red whiskered Bulbul feeding on fruits of Trema orientalis.

nice, though its red whisker not really visible her. I know it can be tricky and very narrow, and may be the red os overpowered by its dark brown feathers. yet would you by any chance have a visible red whisker picture?
 
 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/99bfda1055938/Symbiosis%201370.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrEqPo5WJaVmZaHxOso4USK78p8x4ZYJX1FwoHxLJcZYWGfAxUsz64l3uMR7PDcOy9_gELYKIvlQ145D1YPezKRNG5iLKuRQUYTLTMG7qudXHNZdrmM
SYMBIOSIS : 1370 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Blue throated Barbet feeding on fruits of Trema orientalis.

 
 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/9bf5f1f3cff75/Symbiosis%201371.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrEoNkjRL-j9XFWR20Bxs2yvjG5YsyclV8MV-G8NLPUWi2lA27FK0Rty7lt8R81dwq0TNgSHjLHGrSWsWIAVKuicbrtJwJEdJKn2gfm57DR5kY16LZA
SYMBIOSIS : 1371 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Asiatic Pied Starling feeding on fruits of Trema orientalis.

 
SYMBIOSIS : 1436 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Black Hooded Oriole feeding on the fruits of Trema species.

 



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