Oroxylum indicum


or-oh-ZY-lum -- from the Greek oros (mountain) and xylon (wood) ... Dave's Botanary
IN-dih-kum or in-DEE-kum -- of or from India ... Dave's Botanary

commonly known as: broken bones plant, Indian calosanthes, Indian trumpet flower, midnight horror, oroxylum, tree of Damocles • Bengali: সোনা sona • Hindi: भूत वृक्ष bhut-vriksha, दीर्घवृन्त dirghavrinta, कुटन्नट kutannat, मण्डूक manduk (the flower), पत्रोर्ण patrorna, पूतिवृक्ष putivriksha, शल्लक shallaka, शूरण shuran, सोन or शोण son, वटुक vatuk • Kannada: ತಟ್ಟುನ tattuna • Konkani: davamadak • Nepalese: टटेलों tatelo • Malayalam: പലകപയ്യാനി palaqapayyani, വാശ്പ്പാതിരി vashrppathiri, വെള്ളപ്പാതിരി vellappathiri • Marathi: टायिटू tayitu, टेटु tetu • Sanskrit: अरलु aralu, श्योनक shyonaka • Tamil: சொரிகொன்றை cori-konnai, பாலையுடைச்சி palai-y-utaicci, பூதபுஷ்பம் puta-puspam • Telugu: మండూకపర్ణము manduka-parnamu, పంపెన pampena, శూకనాసము suka-nasamu, తుందిలము tundilamu

Native to: s China, Indian subcontinent, Indo-China, Malesia

Tree up to 10 m tall, with gray-rown bark; Leaves large, opposite, up to 1.8 m long, 2-4-pinnately compound, leaflets elliptic-ovate, up to 15 cm long, entire, subacuminate, base oblique; flowers purple-red, opening at night, in terminal up to 1.5 m long racemes; pedicel 4-7 cm long; calyx purple, campanulate, up to 4.5 cm long, hardened in fruit; corolla tube feshy, up to 9 cm long, limb 6-8 cm wide, upper lip 2-lobed, lower 3-lobed; capsule woody, up to 1 m long, flattened. brown. 
 
Oroxylum is pollinated by small bats hence the flowers bear foul smell of over-ripe jackfruit, the bee seen near the style (left after the corolla is fallen by bats) seems just a visitor. The colour variation from white, yellow, pink to purple can be seen on night blooming Oroxylum flowers. 
 
It is a Red Listed Species (the species is facing risk owing to over-harvesting and habitat loss)
Though distributed across India, it is sporadic in nature and only solitary or few trees seen here and there. but only recently we, from FRLHT, found a large population (in thousands :) in the central Indian region.

We all know it is one of the ten ingredients (roots) in the 'dasamoola arishtam', an ayurvedic formulation.
young pods are cooked and eaten as vegetable in Manipur (may be in other NE Indian states, too), and are sold in vegetable markets here...;
  
Buddhists use them in various religious ceremonies in Sikkim; 


 
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Oroxylum indicum: Oroxylum indicum
Observed in Mulshi
31 Jul 2011. A large Bignoniaceae member.

Oroxylum flowers supposed to have 5 stamens which are nicely seen here.
Somehow when I checked my earlier collection I have a photograph of the flower taken from a tree in Pune city which is showing 8 stamens. Any idea what can the reason be?

I need information regarding the colour variation of the  flower in this sp.
During 2009, I have photographed these two flowers just 15-20 m away from each other. The differences in flower colour is very prominent. Is it due to any nutrient deficiency? 

Local variation may be?  or environmental toxin induced changes?? In one tribe of these trees in northern Calcutta I found five stamens...
I am posting them separately under a different thread.... today there is another stand of these trees in a sanctuary  on southern fringes..
... will have to wait till next spring to get the flowers.. and do dissection 

Love the third... pollinator at work... 

My trees were also flowering last Sunday. Sending a few photographs [the fallen flowers are from a previous year]. Have seen colour variations in the fallen flowers but never actually noticed [or looked for] more than 5 stamens.
 Please also check this link for some of my past photographs :  
https://groups.google.com/group/indiantreepix/browse_thread/thread/43...  
and also the archives of this group for my posts related to this tree [Seed dispersal & 'Pseudo-vivipary']. 

In Oroxylum the perfect stamens are 4 and the fifth stamen is shorter.
Pls look at the inflorescence of Oroxylum, the buds are very crowded. The fallen corolla that shows 8 stamens also shows 8 corolla lobes which are usually 5. In "Pune" flower 2 corollas seem to be fused to give 8 lobes/stamens and the 2 lobes/reduced stamens seem to be absent. This abnormality can be seen in some other flowers as well.  
Oroxylum is pollinated by small bats hence the flowers bear foul smell of over-ripe jackfruit, the bee seen near the style (left after the corolla is fallen by bats) seems just a visitor. The colour variation from white, yellow, pink to purple can be seen on night blooming Oroxylum flowers. 

  
 
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03082011 Oroxylum Flowers:  Oroxylum flowers bloom in rainy season at 9 pm. It is difficult to get flowers on the raceme since bats start visiting as soon as they open with a foul smell. I could not attach picture on the running thread hence a new post.
Is this by any chance Tetu
 
 
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I was given to understand that  best  Oroxylum indicum, or  Shonyak of Ayurvedic medicine comes from those growing at the Himalayan foothills,  and I did not expect them in gangetic plains.
So I was very surprised when in peripheral vision out of running cab window I spotted some sword- like pods, and on second look saw leaves similar those on a 2 foot tall sapling I had seen in a herbal garden in Jamnagar about a decade ago...  here was a stand of Oroxylum indicum on the hot humid and  almost at or even a foot or two below sea level Gangetic plains....  on the northern fringes of Calcutta...
I stopped and took some pictures, and picked up a fallen flower....  from the PUBLIC sidewalk... could not see or take pictures of the trunk or the bark etc....because of a huge  wall and could not pick up more of the fallen flowers because no sooner had I picked up a flower and spread it open that a cycle riding plains clothes person came and very authoritatively shooed me away..  saying it was a restricted area....   I could not understand how can a public footpath with two bus-stops within 50 feet of where I was standing be a restricted area...
Anyway, when I got home I had some dark and one acceptable picture of the leaves...Pods had previously opened and most likely dispersed its seeds away..the day before it had rained very heavily..... I did not see any on the footpath below in that quick 2 minute sojourn...
Details: Oroxylum indicum
Family:       Bignoniaceae
Genus:                 Oroxylum
Species:   Oroxylum  indicum
Sanskrit :  अरलु aralu,  श्योनक shyonaka
Gujarati and Marathi : टा यिटू tayitu, टेटु tetu
Hindi:   शल्लक shallaka
Santhal tribals call it: Rengebanam
The open flower shows 5 stamens …. See recent other threads about Shyonak/oroxylum indicum  this week …
***   Root bark and seeds are medicinal…
Root bark is an important constituent of Dashmool…. Very important in normalizing the gut related immune functions and improving the health of GI mucosa… normalizing it…  many many more…  recent research points to possible anticancer properties  of the kwath of dashmool and of the seeds…  much remains to study by astute modern clinicians….

Seeds are clearly seen [in 2 pods on the left and one pod on the right] in the last photograph. 
Photographed this July. Please also check this link :  
https://groups.google.com/group/indiantreepix/browse_thread/thread/16... 
Once i got a chance to get its one Pod and that is kept in Museum of my College. today after seeing pics of yours i could remember that we have seen this plant in Morni Hills from where we collected its one pod. 
where is this hill, what state? how high above sea level? 
In Haryana near Chandigarh Panchkula District about 800-1000


 
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Oroxylum indicum [Tetu] pods emerging:  Thought this might be interesting. Photographed at my farm last Sunday....after successful pollination by bats....Tetu pods emerging. 
Very interesting! Looks like the bats have done their job even before the flowers open fully..! Or is it b'cos some other visitor found a short-cut route to rob the nectar?!!
Its nice to see the rising of new fruits. But few pedicels have lost their flowers...any idea why??
The few pedicels which appear to have lost their flowers, had actually flowered, been pollinated, dropped off in the morning and were lying on the ground, but inadvertently forgot to photograph them. 
Just thought of sharing some facts...for those who may be interested...
It is a monotypic genus (meaning...the genus Oroxylum is represented by only a single species in the world and it is O. indicum)
It is a Red Listed Species (the species is facing risk owing to over-harvesting and habitat loss)
Though distributed across India, it is sporadic in nature and only solitary or few trees seen here and there. but only recently we, from FRLHT, found a large population (in thousands :) in the central Indian region.

We all know it is one of the ten ingredients (roots) in the 'dasamoola arishtam', an ayurvedic formulation.
young pods are cooked and eaten as vegetable in Manipur (may be in other NE Indian states, too), and are sold in vegetable markets here...


 
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Oroxylum indicum [Tetu] flowering 2:  Photographed at my farm at Shahapur last weekend. 


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Oroxylum indicum [Tetu] flowering 1: Photographed at my farm at Shahapur last weekend. 

Wow and 10 more wows.... one of the fallen flower is still white.... 
Its very intriguing that genes play such a role that facilitates the opening of flower at night on an upright condition. And then there are bats which will come to this plant due to its smell. Flowers are oriented as sch that bats can sit on it but after pollination these petals fall off!! Then the fruits emerge and grow downwards so that they dont hamper the visit of flying bats which visit other flowers on the stalk!! http://journals.cambridge.org/download.php?file=%2FTRO%2FTRO25_01%2FS... No one can ever replicate how these plants and animals adapt in nature. ITS AMAZING...


 
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OROXYLUM INDICUMIn 1967 while coming back from Sikkim to Darjeeling, we stopped at the bridge on river Teesta. While walking on the road I picked up a trasparent papery substance and  asked a local person about the identity of the substance. He told me that it is known as CHAMPA . In 1983 Mr Kharto ( Tibetan instructor ) wanted to know about the tree known as CHAMPA to the BHUDDHISTS. I could not enlighten him as to me CHAMPA was Michelia champaca. It was in Udhampur(1998), I opened a dry pod of Oroxylum indicum and saw the papery seeds inside I understood what CHAMPA means to a BUDDHIST. My friend ... told me that Bhuddhist use the pods and the seeds in worship of Buddha. This tree is very common at this place. It is known as Ullu in Hindi and Sona in Bangla. 
This is what S venkatesh tells about the tree, " The tree is conspicuous in the forest when it bears its scabbard-like fruits which breaks open to release its flat, papery and winged seeds." 
Some of you may not like to receive the images I post. Please feel free to let me know so that I may not burden you with these.

That's what  I thought, that it was common only in the himalayn foot hills... but I have found it in Bihar, Chhatisgarh , Bengal ....country sides...driving around... and here at eflorathere are examples that it also grows well in the western ghats...


I think there is a similar tree inside Chintamani Kar Bird Sanctuary, Narendrapur, southern Kolkata.
Yes, I know,   and NOT only ONE there are three Oroxylum indicum trees there
... and now likely  many small seedlings...
Oroxylum indicum is known as TOTOLA in Nepalese language. It is highly religious for Buddhists. Making most religious KHADA, page marking of Buddhists literature, religious decoration etc all are done by its white
papery seeds. Its flowers are quite tasty when fried. Flowers are also liked by rhinos. However, the plant is also having some medicinal properties!!!!


OROXYLUM INDICUM:


Thank you so much for this interesting piece  of information. During a field trip I have too noticed about the use of winged seed and pods by GURUNG (Nepali) community in their ritual. So attached few pics from my file.
Regarding Dr A P Das Sir, my feeling is that he is one of the finest taxonomist of eastern Himalayan region. He is the founder member of EAST HIMALAYAN SOCIETY FOR SPERMATOPHYTE TAXONOMY (EHSST) and chief editor of the journal PLEIONE. 
 
 
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Flora of Haryana: Oroxylum indicum from TDL Herbal Park and near Paonta Sahib:  Oroxylum indicum from TDL Herbal Park and near Paonta Sahib 


 
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DKV Request for species id 120413-1:  Location: Arunachal Pradesh.
Request for species id.
A friend has uploaded this on facebook. This is what she says: "This picture is taken in the forests of Arunachal where my mother went bird watching recently. It is the pod of some tree called elephant plant (not sure). Would welcome more information."
This is Tetu / Ullu [Oroxylum indicum]. Please check the archives of this group for my photographs of this.
I go with ..., Oroxylum indicum has such long, flat and woody pods..
Yes, looks like the sword like fruit pod of Shonyak... my submission was in august 2011
but of course pics I had were with the pods on the trees..
PS medicinal plant of great importance...
Could it be Oroxylum indicum, locally called 'Totala' in Nepali?
It has papery seeds well stacked in the pod.
Buddhists use them in various religious ceremonies in Sikkim.
 
 
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Bat on Oroxylum flowers: A double photographic feat by ..., my son-in-law. Night blooming flowers of rare Oroxylum with an agile pollinator. Note the perfect architecture of the flower to suit smearing of pollen with stamens placed just near the bat's forehead. The flowers have a smell of over ripe jack fruit to invite the bats.
We read that Oroxylum is bat polinated. Seeing now in photos.
 
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Trees of Lalbagh - Bangalore - RA - Oroxylum indicum, (L.) Vent. <=> Broken Bones Tree:  Broken Bones Tree is a native tree often grown as an ornamental for its strange appearance. The long, podded fruits hang down from bear branches, looking like dangling sickles or swords in the night. The tree is also a night-bloomer and is pollinated naturally by bats. Additionally, after the large leaf stalks wither, they fall off the tree and collect near the base of the trunk, appearing to look like a pile of broken limb bones.  
It is a medium sized deciduous tree, growing 8-12 m tall. The bark is grayish brown with corky lenticels. The leaves are huge, 0.5-1.5 m long, 2-3 pinnate, leaflets 12 cm long and 8 cm broad. The flowers are reddish- purple outside and pale, spinkish-yellow within, numerous, in large erect racemes. The fruits are flat capsules, 0.33-1 meter long and 5-10 cm broad, sword-shaped. The seeds numerous, flat and winged all around, except at the base. Flowering: June-July.


 
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Fabaceae tree ID from Hooghly 22/9/12 SK3:  Found this tree in a rural private land growing alongside other fruit trees like jackfruit, mangoes etc. But this tree seems to be a wild species.
Species : UNKNOWN
Habit & Habitat : tree of about 30 feet height with dense foliage, pod is about 1 foot
Date : 19/9/12, 4.21 p.m.
Place : Garalgacha (Hooghly)
This is Oroxylum indicum. Please check the archives for my photographs of this.
Thank you very much ..., the pod misled me to fabaceae and searched a lot !
Found your post at - efi thread
Found two more posts, efi thread 1 and efi thread 2, wonderful series.
There should be more. Here is one : efi thread
Yes, Sir, and here is another one - https://groups.google.com/d/topic/wildflowerindia/IJ3a7bhN908/discussion


 
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Bignoniaceae Week :: Natives :SMP: Oroxylum indicum : Pune: Bignoniaceae Week :: Natives
Oroxylum indicum टेटू Pune
really psychedelic looking flower innards... your pics are nice
when I was beginning to come back to medicinal botany this was the first tree... and I was really impressed with its leaf-size... overall its soooo long and big... one leaf with all those leaflets) it has remained in the memory... notwithstanding the bonelike twigs and sword like fruits pods...


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Bignoniaceae Week :: Oroxylum indicum : Broken Bones Tree : Bangalore & Mumbai : AK: Pictures taken in Lalbagh, Bangalore and Maharashtra Nature Park, Mumbai.
The fallen twigs resemble bones, hence the name.
Also known as Indian Trumpet Flower or Tetu.
Such an astonishing resemblance! Thank you for the delightful pictures
Nice to see the bones in a heap!!!


 
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Bignoniaceae Week :: : Oroxylum indicum at CBD Belapur Hills:: PKA15: Pods of Oroxylum indicum at CBD Belapur Hills, Navi Mumbai.

or-oh-ZY-lum -- from the Greek oros (mountain) and xylon (wood) ... Dave's Botanary
IN-dih-kum or in-DEE-kum -- of or from India ... Dave's Botanary
commonly known as: broken bones plant, Indian calosanthes, Indian trumpet flower, midnight horror, oroxylum, tree of Damocles • Bengali: সোনা sona • Hindi: भूत वृक्ष bhut-vriksha, दीर्घवृन्त dirghavrinta, कुटन्नट kutannat, मण्डूक manduk (the flower), पत्रोर्ण patrorna, पूतिवृक्ष putivriksha, शल्लक shallaka, शूरण shuran, सोन or शोण son, वटुक vatuk • Kannada: ತಟ್ಟುನ tattuna • Konkani: davamadak • Nepalese: टटेलों tatelo • Malayalam: പലകപയ്യാനി palaqapayyani, വാശ്പ്പാതിരി vashrppathiri, വെള്ളപ്പാതിരി vellappathiri • Marathi: टायिटू tayitu, टेटु tetu • Sanskrit: अरलु aralu, श्योनक shyonaka • Tamil: சொரிகொன்றை cori-konnai, பாலையுடைச்சி palai-y-utaicci, பூதபுஷ்பம் puta-puspam • Telugu: మండూకపర్ణము manduka-parnamu, పంపెన pampena, శూకనాసము suka-nasamu, తుందిలము tundilamu
Native to: s China, Indian subcontinent, Indo-China, Malesia
References: Flowers of IndiaNPGS / GRINeFlora Top TropicalsFlowers of Sahyadri by Shrikant Ingalhalikar
at Yeoor Hills (part of Sanjay Gandhi National Park), Mumbai on 19 JUN 12
at Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Maharashtra on 16 AUG 08
along NH3 near Padgha, Maharashtra on 22 DEC 07

Extremely good photographs 

Broken Bones Tree is a native tree often grown as an ornamental for its strange appearance.  
The long, podded fruits hang down from bear branches, looking like dangling sickles or swords in the night. The tree is also a night-bloomer and is pollinated naturally by bats.
Additionally, after the large leaf stalks wither, they fall off the tree and collect near the base of the trunk, appearing to look like a pile of broken limb bones.  
It is a medium sized deciduous tree, growing 8-12 m tall. The bark is grayish brown with corky lenticels.
The leaves are huge, 0.5-1.5 m long, 2-3 pinnate, leaflets 12 cm long and 8 cm broad.
The flowers are reddish- purple outside and pale, spinkish-yellow within, numerous, in large erect racemes.
The fruits are flat capsules, 0.33-1 meter long and 5-10 cm broad, sword-shaped. The seeds numerous, flat and winged all around, except at the base.
Flowering: June-July.

Thanks ... for another very good upload with good set of photographs and full details.
 
 
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Bignoniaceae Week :: DV :: DEC 07 - JUN 12 :: Oroxylum indicum from Kamrup District, Assam:
Attached images are Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz.
Date : 01/07/2010
Location: Dist- Kamrup, Assam
Family : Bignoniaceae
Genus & species : Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz
Habitat: Grows on road side
Habit :Trees
Vern. name : Bhat-ghila (Assamese)
Flower : Not seen
Fruits : Large
 
 
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Bignoniaceae Week: Oroxylum indicum from Delhi.:  Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent., gen. nov. 8. 1808.
Syn: Bignonia indca L.
Common name: Scythe tree
Tree up to 10 m tall, with gray-rown bark; Leaves large, opposite, up to 1.8 m long, 2-4-pinnately compound, leaflets elliptic-ovate, up to 15 cm long, entire, subacuminate, base oblique; flowers purple-red, opening at night, in terminal up to 1.5 m long racemes; pedicel 4-7 cm long; calyx purple, campanulate, up to 4.5 cm long, hardened in fruit; corolla tube feshy, up to 9 cm long, limb 6-8 cm wide, upper lip 2-lobed, lower 3-lobed; capsule woody, up to 1 m long, flattened. brown.
Photographed from Delhi.
Very nice. 3 pinnate leaves. Strong big apical inflorescence and the big pods.
 
 
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Bignoniaceae Week: Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent. (Hooghly):  ... identified this tree, Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent. in my earlier post (with more pictures) - efi thread.
Nice capture. It would be good if some one captures open flower at night, perhaps with flash light.
This tree is near my school, haven't found one near my home yet. I would also love to capture its flower.
 
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Bignoniaceae Week:: Oroxylum indicum from Paonta Sahib:  Oroxylum indicum from Paonta Sahib
 
may i know the exact photographs of oroxylum indicum
Pl. see efi page: Oroxylum indicum
 
 
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Enclosing pics of: 2. Oroxylun indicum, a well known medicinal plant called "Shyonak" in Ayurveda.
Alarmingly, natural populations are reducing in Uttarakhand.

 
 
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Hooghly Today : Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz :  Attachments (6).  3 posts by 2 authors.
This one earlier identified by ..., and i thought a fabaceae member!!!
About naming -
Bengali name : SONA / SONAPATI / NASONA = সোনা / সোনাপাতি / নাসোনা
 
 
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Oroxylum indicum : Attachments (2). 3 posts by 3 authors.
Oroxylum indicum
Mar.name: Tetu
Today at Sagargad, Alibag 


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Oroxylum Flowers : 12 posts by 8 authors. Attachments (1)
Uploading another image.
Yes this is fine
Beautiful shot, ... I couldn't understand the structure of the inflorescence. Is the tip deformed? And the large number of flowers is quite unusual isn't it?!. But for the first time i am seeing the open flowers remain attached to the inflorescence! Hope you shot it during night. 

Thanks a lot for sharing sir, Yes ..., the inflorescence seems
to be deformed.
Those protrusions are buds, so many of them on one stalk that too is not elongated as it is in normal case. 
Thank you ... The photo credit goes to ..., my son in law. Let me share the experience of taking this photo. I knew of a roadside Oroxylum tree in a residential area in Pune and invited ... to shoot the flowers with bats. We climbed on the roof of my Scorpio car to approach the flowers. We were not swift enough for the bats to catch them in the camera, hence had to hang on for a long time on the roof of the car at midnight. The residents of a flat behind the tree woke up due to flash and rushed out at us thinking that we were 'pappirazis' taking
pictures of their bedroom. We just managed to sneak a few pics without the bats. This tree is known as 'Midnight Horror' and we had the jist
of it. Yes, I saw the fused panicle but had no courage to recheck the same. 
hahahaha.... that's funny.... I guess the flat owners must have cut the tree by now..... Sometimes we do have to take risk. I remember few
days back I got to meet ... and his boss. His boss (Korean origin) was trying to take a picture of an elderly lady who was working in cropfield. Lady was very much apprehensive, but ... boss was not able to understand Gharwali or Kumauni. What she was saying was, "DONT TAKE MY PIC OR I WILL CALL HUBBY AND SON!!!". Somehow we managed to get away without taking the pic.

Nice shot ! I have seen these flowers first time travelling from Guhagar to chiplun but unfortunately closed. I just asked ...
regarding the fertilisation. He told me the concept. That was an eager to see the opened flowers. You, by uploading the photo, completed my
thirst.. Thank You very much Sir. 
I am just wondering, if one can ask the flat-owner for their permission in advance.
I have a telescope to watch the sky at night, I sometimes use it to watch a distant bird by day. I have told in my neighbourhood, that I don't want to watch them or what they might be doing in the house. They have given me permission to look thru my telescope in their direction, whenever I like.
I am of indian origin. Having lived in germany for quite some years, I observe, that my behavior and my way of thinking is a bit different than that of my  siblings. Many times it causes misunderstandings even between us.
So my question is a serious one. Shrikant ji, I hope, I am not hurting you and anyone else. Please excuse me. Not understanding a language, oh, I can write a book about my various experiences.  
lovely pic indeed. This species is new to me...the floral arrangement is peculiar.
Well...your experience of taking pics of this flower is really funny, and it reminds me of an incident when I was trying to take pictures of
Barn Owl perched on the neighbour's terrace during my visit to a friend's house.
The bright flash caught the attention of an old lady, and she started shouting at us from the window.....we somehow convinced her that we
were taking snaps of the Barn owl. But she thought we had gone crazy, and closed the windows fast, and finally we took few nice snaps.
It was indeed a nice experience of wildlife photography.


 
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Oroxylum indicum : 5 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (5)
Midnight horror
Oroxylum indicum : Family Bignoniaceae
Four of these trees are flowering just now (Aug 2008) Opposite the main entrance of Tathwade Udyan Karve Nagar Pune Maharashtra.
As the flowers bloom in night it was difficult to photograph. I had to collect the fallen flowers early morning. The smell was really obnoxious.
The leaves are 3-pinnate as you can observe in the picture.
The tree is often grown as an ornamental for its strange appearance. The long, pods hang down from bear branches, looking like dangling sickles or swords in the night. The tree is also a night-bloomer and is pollinated by bats. After the large leaf stalks wither, they fall off the tree and collect near the base of the trunk, appearing to look like a pile of broken limb bones.
Native to India and Southern China.
In one of my residences there was a biggish cactus tree which had lovely white double flowers which bloomed only during the night. there was no trace of the flower the next day so far as I remember. I had takken a photograph then (about 17 years ago) but it was a print and I have now lost it. My successor in the house coolly removed the thorny bush(!). Today after seeing your mail I checked Bose's book, but I could not match my vague memory with any.
if i am not mistaken this is called as Tetoo??
the arrangement of the seeds in that sword is also worth watching. the seeds are winged. wings are white in colour, seeds light brown. the seeds overlap one above the other in very perfect manner.
It"s local marathi name is Tetu
Yes, Oroxylum indicum is 'Tetu' in Marathi.
There is interesting spiritual side of this plant.
I had seen that in Buddhist culture the paper like seeds are used in prayers and idol / chortem decorations.  This is more common in Sikkim, Bhutan and China.

I could not find out the reason behind use of these seeds for prayer/ idol decoration.


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'Pseudo-vivipary' in Oroxylum indicum : 26 posts by 11 authors. Attachments (7) 
Was at my farm at Shahapur over the weekend. Observed Oroxylum indicum [Tetu, Ullu] seeds germinating in their pods and also fallen seeds germinating on the vegetation below. Sending a few photographs.
Fascinating !! Never seen something like this in my life ever!!
Million thanks to you
This is interesting ..., but unfortunately this is not an ideal
condition. Can you suggest, why a seed would like to be blown away ?  Just out of curiosity....
Its a fantastic shot. But, I guess from the pictures that the fruits belong to previous season, fallen from the infructescence and got stuck in the lower branch. There are two reasons for the guess: 1. the inflorescence is always single and terminal in this species, but the fruit hangs from a lower branch, and 2. new flowers of the current season are found at the top and no fruiting started yet. 
Since the fruits are detached from the tree (due to some external force like heavy wind) before dehiscing completely, the seeds were not dispersed fully. So after the shower they started germinating within the (detached fruit). If this hypothesis is true, then it can not be called as vivipary (wherein germination of seeds occur when the fruits still remain attached to the mother plant, a genetic feature). 
Please correct me if i am wrong.
oops...didn't recognize the word 'pseudo-vivipary' in the subject line...sorry. pl ignore my previous mail.

excellent pics. i had never seen this before. i have seen many saplings of Tetu growing near the main tree but never saw the seeds germinating in the pods.
u r so lucky to have such a wonderful farm near Mumbai.
Thanx again for sharing the rare sight.
You are right - the the pods are of the previous season. Managed to find these photographs taken in May this year. Attachments (2)
Thank you very much ... for sharing such pictures. Being fortunate to see such pictures, and i being a botanist i feel like having come face to face with a celebrity idol....

Great pics, ... Is this typical for your locale, or is this a particularly wet season?

The monsoon season in and around Bombay extends from June to September.
Nice shots !
I have not seen the situation like this before.I think The Baby plants also knowing the condition of the 'Earth', they are also trying to conserve the nature and trying to come out early from the comb.
Apart from this, in Ayurveda Tentu or O.indicum is one of the contents of 'Dashamoola' group & used in many Vata disorders. Roots are used, thats why large exploitation is there. Need to cultivate in large scale (In situ as well as Ex situ.)
Thanx for the nice pictures.
Agreed with ... In my state fruit is considered as snake repellent. This faith is becoming curse for this species. I have written Hindi article on this aspect. Here is link साँपो के डर के कारण विलुप्त होती गरुड जडी और इसे बचाने की मुहिम http://pratikriyaa.blogspot.com/2009/07/blog-post_15.html

I believe this is what we call the survival of the fittest. Most
probably the seedlings germinating on the other leaves or within the fruit coat wont survive for long. The plant is usually adapted for wind dispersal but it may happen due to abrupt rain.
Why would a seed like to be dispersed like that, i.e., away from the mother plant:
The possible answer which I could think is JUST TO REDUCE COMPETITION WITH THE MOTHER PLANT.
But indeed this is a nice observation. If possible please keep an eye to check if the seedings can survive for long or if you wish to
conserve the species, then you can just collect the seedlings and
plant them at some distance from the mother plant. I dont know much about you ..., but just in case you are a researcher then you may try to atleast publish this as a short note or wait for sometime to check if they survive and then publish it. It will just need some field observation from your side.

Though O. indicum is distributed across India, it is sporadic by nature. You can't have a sizable population in one place. But we (FRLHT) have observed a large population only in Chhattisgarh, and proposed the site for in situ conservation.
That's nice ... Infact we still dont know many things abt our
diversity and hence we should certainly try to save whatever we are left with. Hope your conservation program worked!!
There are plenty of plants in Western Ghats. We had collected seeds and tried to germinate. We germinated the seeds of O. indicum and Stereospermum suaveolens i.e Patala. in my small nursary and planted that plants where ever I got place. We distributed to some Nature lover peoples also.
This is a need to conserve the rare species by cultivating them.
Thanks ... I have observed rich population in Orissa also. Old trees in dense forest are still safe as only Traditional Healers  are aware of its presence. They discuss less about it because of fear of "Wood mafia" as well as Greedy traders.

As per the recent national level study "Demand and Supply of medicinal plants in India" conducted by FRLHT, Bangalore the annual trade/demand of roots of Oroxylum indicum reported to be 1000-2000 MT. Due to this unprecedented demand and over-exploitation, the wild populations (already they are slow growing and sporadic by nature) are facing serious threat of extinction. As the roots are used (it is an ingredient in Dasamula arishtam) the entire plants are uprooted and thus killed. This not only wipes the existing population, but stops the regeneration too.  
This species has been assigned with various threat categories (following IUCN guidelines) ranging from Vulnerable to Endangered, for nine different states, through CAMP workshops conducted by FRLHT with collaboration of various stake holders such as the state forest depts., scientists, traders, local knowledgeable community etc.  
The good news is large scale cultivation has been initiated by forest dept. of Gujarat and perhaps few other states to meet the ever increasing demand for the species. And various state forest depts. (incl Orissa) have taken up conservation measures, following FRLHT's recommendations, to conserve the species in situ.

Thanks a lot ... Thats really hell of a demand. In jharkhand
some tribes call it asti-panjar.....can be translated into RIB BONES on the basis of the structure of the fruits and it is of high demand too. But never knew that it was so badly exploited. Infact this is a very easy growing plant pollinated by Bats at night.
Thanks ... again. I was part of this workshop in IIFM, Bhopal.
Unfortunately very few ground level workers attended this workshop. Most of them were dependent on old reference materials for deciding the present status of plants. We were rememberibg the school days when one person was preparing the note and others were copying the same even word to word. Later your organisation published it as book and it came in recommendation.
I felt that in such workshops participation of Traditional Healers and forest guards with scientists can make it really useful. One herb trader from Bhopal has attended this workshop. He was having immense knowledge about rare herbs but the format was in English.  He attended first day and then after seeing the heap of books he never visited again. No doubt FRLHT took good step but practical difficultiues were there. The format shoukld be in regional languages. The researchers from Raigarh were not aware of "Pantropical" like words and they kept the sheets half filled but in publsihed book full sheets were there.
Not aware how much money it took to organise this megaevent but today I feel that such information can be gathered in one tenth cost with reliable information and honorarium to participants with the help of EFLORAIndia like groups.
In that workshop ... from Sagar walked out from the venue on the issue of extracting valuable information from researchers without paying them an honorarium. When he returned back his supporters started filling wrong information which later gone in recommendations.
But I felt fortunate to meet FRLHT experts like ... and ...
hehehhee...I think u r talking abt ... I never knew he can be so upset at anytime. Happened to meet him twice and he is a very good taxonomist and so is his son ... I will request ... to be a part of this group if possible.
Another ...!!!
Yes, you are right. I met him many times and fond of his work.
Just to add. I discussed about this event with the FRLHT head ... when I was with him as Research Advisory Committee Member of National Innovation Foundation, Ahmedabad.
He was shocked and not aware of all these mishaps.
Thanks for the response, ... 
I am too small to comment about this. But since i have attented ten CAMP workshops conducted in various states across India, i can tell you that the response of participants in each state is different. In most of the states like Kerala, KA, TN, HP, North-eastern states, etc. the participation was quite serious with the focus to prioritize taxa for conservation in respective states. Not everybody understand the IUCN criteria and categories (best available and followed at global level today) quickly. It needs interest in the subject, dedication, cooperation, willingness to share the information for a nobel cause etc. etc.  
So far only one book published by FRLHT in this line, titled "Field guide to 100 Red Listed Medicinal Plants of conservation concern in southern India", in the year 2000. No other books published after that, on conservation aspect. So it is incorrect to say that Bhopal materials are published. They are just in report form. It is also not true what you mentioned about the data sheets. You very well know the procedure, the participants divided into groups and each group has experienced facilitator, active recorder and the informative participants. All the information were recorded by the members and if one is not knowing the botanical name or language, there will be always those experts who will translate and record properly. If someone don't know what is 'Pantropical' then he/she can not be a qualified botanist. For laymen, its not a problem at all, there are experts in the group and from FRLHT to explain and clarify and technical issues this regard.  
FRLHT staff never involved in maneuvering the information but only to facilitate the workshop and to provide technical support. If the information on Taxon Data Sheet is very good, it means that the team was highly knowledgeable on the plants under discussion with vast field experience, and serious about what they were doing. It also shows the participants were open enough to share the information to bring out an appropriate outcome. 
There will be always criticisms for good works. I am not surprised. But the sad thing is that sometimes even very knowledgeable experts do not understand the importance of the exercise and its rigourousness. It is not like a single author assigning threat status to plants by sitting in the computer within four walls. It is a serious science. The negative mindset about this has to be changed first, then only we can understand the process. When the process initiated by FRLHT in 1995, many had wrong opinion and opposition, but they all have now realized and changed their bad mindset after seeing the science of the process. 
Whatever expressed above are my personal views and opinion only and do not reflect the views of FRLHT. If anyone wants to know more detail about this process, please write to the Director, FRLHT. (www.frlht.org)
Thanks for your comments ... Good defense.
I have said everything to ... and closed the chapter but your mail reminded me about the same workshop again.
I am aware that FRLHT welcomes criticism. That's why I dare to say ... "FRLHT collects information from public's money (Funding) and then why it hides the information from common Indians. Why one has to pay for the information collected by your organisation?" Unexpectedly he welcomed this criticism.
Please invite him from my behalf to join this group. Also request Ravi Kumar ji to join.
I have written a lot on different aspects of Bhopal workshop in my online articles, so not repeating it here.


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Oroxylum indicum : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
Sharing some pictures of  of Oroxylum indicum shot at Chautara Nepal on 9 may 2016 at 1600 m.
Flowering season had not yet begun.


 
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MS/July/2018/ 3 - ID of a tree requested. : 6 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (2)
Kindly identify the tree. The photographs have been sent by one of the readers of  Star of Mysore. The tree has been photographed in Biligiri Rangana Hills Forest

It must be Oroxylum indicum of Bignoniaceae.

Yes. Looks like Oroxylum indicum to me too.

yes. Oroxylum indicum. there is a tell tale SWORD like long fruit hanging in the first picture


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Fwd: OROXYLUM INDICUM ( AS I KNEW IT ) : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
Oroxylum indicum has many names mentioned in literature (ULLU/ SONA/ SONPATTI/ BHAT GHILA).
Some time in 1966 during my college days in Darjeeling, I along with one of my friend went to Sikkim,
While returning we had to wait at Teesta bridge for vehicle. While walking on the bank of Teesta I saw a  papery winged seed and picked it up. I have not seen a seed like this earlier. I asked some local to find out the name of the plant to this it belong. He told me that it was CHAMPA. After many years in 1980 when I was in Pachmarhi, one day I was taking about CHAMPA (Michelia champaca) to ..., Tibetan instructor in the center.
But he told me that for Tibetan people CHAMPA is different and he showed me a seed which I saw on the bank of Teesta in 1966. But I was not sure about the identity of the seed yet. By that time I started observing trees in different areas. I saw Oroxylum indicum at diffrent places. Conspicuous with its scabbard like fruits. Once I collected a fruit and kept it in our house. In due course of time the fruit split opened and many papery winged seeds came out. Immediately I came to know what the Buddhists know as CHAMPA is Oroxylum indicum.
Buddhists make garlands with the seeds and decorate images of Buddha with these garlands.
But locals at different places name a tree in different way. Once a lady told me that the tree under reference is KANAI-DINGA (Boat of Lord Krishana). The scabbard like fruit has a curve and it looks like a boat so the name.
But I was surprised when a girl at Udhampur told me the name of this tree is KISTI (Boat).
When I visited Tawang monastery I gave the priest some fruits of Oroxylum indicum which I carried from Tezpur.
He was very happy to receive those.
Attaching two collages of the plant.
Thanks, ..., It is always a pleasure to go through your detailed experince, wonderfully presented. 
What a delightful story, ... in Ayurveda its an important medicinal plant called Shonak shonyak' etc root bark, tree bark and seeds are used for gut related needs, part od the famous Dashmul group. i also know it as tentu, kharasingha. never knew the champa name used regionally in Buddhist monastery. will add to my books notes.
i look forward to more of these stories.


 
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Wild vegetables: (mixed thread): 1 correct image.
I think I have missed the VEGETABLE Week. Anyway, I have attached some wild vegetables used by the ethnic communities in Assam.  
Among these young succulent bamboo (Bambusa balcooa, Melancomea bambusoides etc) shoots are used as food by almost all the people of North East India. Sprouting of Bamboo starts during the month of April and becoming fit for collection by May-June. The newly formed Bamboo sprouts are collected from both wild and cultivated varieties during spring, early summer or just onset of monsoon.  
Some other wild vegetable are Oxalis corniculata (tender leafy shoots are eaten), Monochoria hastata flowers),Pygmaeopremna herbacea (Tender leaves, good for jaundice), Oroxylum indicum (Flower). I have recorded 30 such non conventional wild vegetables from the western Assam. 


Images by Neil Soares, J.M.Garg, Arvind Kadus, Neil Soares, Satish Phadke, Raju Das, Ushadi, Neil Soares, friend of Dev Kumar Vasudevan (Id by Neil Soares), Raman Arunachalam, Kishore Gumaste, Aarti S Khale & Karuna Kanta Das (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links) 



  
 
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Opposite the main entrance of Tathwade Udyan Karve Nagar Pune Maharashtra- 26/8/08; Delhi- Nov'09?; On 31/10/09 at Herbal Garden, on the outskirts of Hyderabad, A.P.; at Shahapur- 22.8.10; lD Request - indiantreepix | Google Groups

 
 
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Oroxylum indicum : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5)- 600 kb or more. 
Found in Yelagiri hills of Eastern ghats, December.





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