Synotis



Keys in Flora of Bhutan:
33. Leaves araneous to lanate beneath or rays 1—5 ... ..87. Synotis
+ Leaves (sub)glabrous beneath; rays c 8-13 . . . . . .. 89. Senecio
34. All leaves simple; Petiole dentate- or panduriform-winged; ray flowers 1-4; disc corollas 6.5-8mm .. 87. Synotis (S. acuminata)
+ Cauline leaves 1-2-pinnatifid or rays 6 to c 20 or disc corollas 3.5mm 89. Senecio


Keys in Flora of Bhutan (for Synotis):
1. Lower part of stem not or weakly developed. with most or all leaves clustered near base . . . .. 2
+ Leaves +/- equally distributed along stems . . . . .. 3
2. Leaves subrosulate or more scattered; petioles usually winged; female corollas filiform. 1-5mm or radiate with tube 2.5-3.5mm and ligulate 2.5-4mm  .. 1. S. alata (In woods and coniferous forests or on gravel. 1850- 3950m. September-January)
+ Leaves always subrosulate; petioles unwinged; female corollas tubular -infundibular, 7-8mm or very rarely radiate with 6mm tube and 2mm ligule . .. 2. S. wallichii (ln forests, on rocks. l830- 3200m. August November)
3. Capitula 3-12-flowered**  . . . . . . .. 4
+ Capitula more than 12-flowered**  . . . . . 7
4. Capitula usually 4-flowered** . . . . . . . .. 5
+ Capitula usually 9- 12-flowered**  . . . . .. 6
5. Leaves cuneate at base, petiole not more than 2cm . . . . .. 3. S. acuminata (Damp grassy swamps. 2550-4250m. June—October)
+ Leaves rounded at base. petiole up to 8cm  . . . . ..4. S. tetrantha (Along moist banks and under trees. 2150—3960m. September—January)                
6. Leaves cuneate at base, +/- sessile. coarsely toothed; inflorescence pubescent .... 5. S. triligulata (Shady woods. 1850-2000m. October -December)
+ Leaves rounded at base. petiole up to 1 cm. finely toothed: inflorescence glabrous .. . . . .. 6. S. vagans
7. Leaves sparsely araneous to nearly glabrous beneath; stems strongly ribbed and angled . . . . .. 7. S. bhot (Margin of forest and in open. 1220-1350m. October)
+ Leaves densely white tomentose beneath; stems angular or not . . . . .. 8
8. Leaves up to 18 >< 8cm. often auriculate at base; stems ribbed; achenes glabrous .. . . . .. 8. S. cappa (Under shrubs. 900- 1670m. October-March)
+ Leaves up to 7 >< 2.5c111. never auriculate at base: stems +/- smooth; achenes pubescent  . . . .. 9. S. kunthiana
 **(including ray and disc florets)


Keys in Flora of Bhutan (for Senecio):
1. Leaves simple. mostly serrate. rarely with few-lobed cauline leaves smaller than unlobed persistent basal leaves; perennials . . . . .. 2
+ Leaves divided or lobed; annuals or perennials . . . . .. 4
2. Capitula discoid . . . . .. 1. S. kumaonensis (syn. of Synotis penninervis (H.Koyama) T.J.Tong, M.Tang, C.Ren & Q.E.Yang)
+ Capitula radiate . . . .. 3
3. Stems leafy. usually scrambling. to 5m . . . .. 2. S. scandens
+ Stems subscapose_ to 60cm . . .. 3. S. nudicaulis (syn. of Jacobaea nudicaulis (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) B.Nord.)
4. Stems stout. mostly over 50cm: perennials . . . . . .. 5
+ Stems slender. herbaceous. to 45(-60) cm: annuals or scree-perennials with long slender rhizomes . . . . . .. 9
5. lnvolucre 3.5- 10mm diameter: ligules 5-12mm . . . . . . .. 6
+ lnvolucre 2-3mm diameter: ligules to 3mm  . . . . . . .. 7
6. lnvolucre 5-10mm diameter; phyllaries 5-7.5mm: ligules 7-12 >< 2-4.5mm; pappus reddish. absent from ray flowers or reduced and caducous …. 4. S. raphanifolius (syn. of Jacobaea raphanifolia (Wall. ex DC.) B.Nord.)
+ lnvolucre 3.5- 5mm diameter: phyllaries 3.5-5mm: ligules 4—7 >< l.5—2.5mm: pappus whitish or reddish. usually present and unreduced on ray flowers . . . . .. 5. S. laetus (syn. of Jacobaea analoga (DC.) Veldkamp )
7. Leaves deeply lyrately divided. terminal segments much larger than laterals. triangular  . . . . . .. 6. S. biligulatus
+ Leaves pinnatisect. terminal segments not or scarcely larger than laterals . . . . . .. 8
8. Ligules not longer than involucre . . . . . . .. 7. S. graciliflorus (syn. of Jacobaea graciliflora (DC.) Sennikov)
+ Ligules c 3mm longer than involucre  . . . . .. 8. S. royleanus
9. Scree-perennial with long slender rhizomes; ligules 5—10mm ……. 9. S. albopurpureus
+ Annuals: ligules less than 2mm  . . . . . .. 10
10. Ligules scarcely longer than involucre: phyllaries with 2 distinct brown veins  . . . .. I0. S. ramosus
+ Ligules I 2mm: phyllaries indistinctly veined . . . .. 11. S. tetrandrus 
 

Synotis alata (Wall. ex Wall.) C.Jeffrey & Y.L.Chen (Images by J.M.Garg (Id by Krishan Lal), Nidhan Singh (Id by Umeshkumar Tiwari), Balkar Singh (Id by J.M.Garg) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more photos & complete details, click on the links))

https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/f1f8802d4c964fd0/Herb42%20I%20IMG_4622.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrHmNPTNe7lx5dBBJMJFiymtMbiUm-YsQyZDkcazM3dpivbzro1Y8QLFO8LQMA0TI4npE4Cvp9JCuQ-Ef2gafB1N60NBT0cElocU7IGcdks4VIItRtQ

 


  

Synotis kunthiana (Wall. ex DC.) C.Jeffrey & Y.L.Chen (Images by Nidhan Singh (Validated by D S Rawat), D S Rawat & Balkar Singh (Id by Umeshkumar Tiwari) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more photos & complete details, click on the links))

https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/6752f58ce79cdd6e/S.kunthiana_DSR.JPG?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFArUvSxUxtqmX9VDwTaTl8bmTJ_uU2nHpT26ptPqlgJYuzixpN74KmFQxiH9pUZjZEj56zfmxBa4c_NuQyAVA8rZejnSO8Kg9D5fIzMCt4Gf-bugg



Synotis rufinervis (DC.) C.Jeffrey & Y.L.Chen (Images by Gurcharan Singh, Nidhan Singh (Id by Gurcharan Singh) & Balkar Singh (Id/ validation by Gurcharan Singh) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links)) 

https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/cfa89b254aa42208/Senecio%203%20unid%20(2).JPG?part=0.2&view=1&vt=ANaJVrEo_dZS-aoydDLbf67iIYx0Kh7hqbPak2K1Sa04C1ZAVbSIAxTt7HTzGyci01J5uhb0CIWad12N3ioHqW7v3ND9McOzK0IuFd_tR7wAAGgnur0h_l4



An important document for names, authority and distribution of Asteraceae (=Compositae) species in India is FLOWERING PLANTS OF INDIA, DICOTYLEDONS, Vol-I (Acanthaceae-Avicenniaceae) authored by S.Karthikeyan, M.Sanjappa and S.Moorthy. It is published by Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata in 2009.
As per this document (Karthikeyan et al., 2009) following species of Synotis occur in India:
1- Synotis acuminata,
2- S.ainsliaeifolia,
3- S.alata,
4- S.auriculata,
5-S.bhot,
6-S.borii,
7-S.brevipappa,
8-S.brunneovillosa,
9-S.cappa,
10-S.jowaiensis,
11-S.kunthiana,
12-S.lushaiensis,
13-S.nagensium,
14-S.panduriformis,
15-S.rhabdos (“Rare” as per Red Data Book of Indian Plants),
16-S.rufinervis,
17-S.saluenensis,
18-S.simonsii,
19-S.solidaginea,
20-S.tetrantha,
21-S.triligulata,
22-S.vagans,
23-S.wallichii

Jeffrey and Chen (1984) separated Senecio subgenus Synotis of C.B.Clarke and raised its rank to genus. All the species belonging to this section are placed now in Synotis (C.B.Clarke) Jeffrey & Chen. However, the older floras describe these species still under the broader genus Senecio. 



Senecio cappa DON = Synotis cappa (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) C. Jeffrey ex Y. L. Chen
Senecio densiflorus WALL. = Synotis cappa (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) C. Jeffrey ex Y. L. Chen

 
Botanical nameSynonymsFamilyCommon name
Synotis rufinervis Senecio rufinervis Asteraceae Red-Nerved Senecio




Senecio alatus = Synotis alata (Wall. ex DC.) C. Jeffrey ex Y. L. Chen
Senecio cappa var. cappa = Synotis cappa (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) C. Jeffrey ex Y. L. Chen
..... Synotis lushaensis Mizoram
Synotis simonsii Assam
Synotis borii N.E. India
Synotis jowaienensis Meghalaya ...

Synotis triligulata (Buch. - Ham. ex D.Don) C. Jaffery & Y. L. Chen

Flora of India: Asteraceae (Inuleae-Vernonieae) by B. D. Sharma Botanical Survey of India, 1995:
Synotis alata (Wallich ex DC.) C. Jeffrey & Y.L. Chen 288 90.
Synotis jowaiensis (Balakr.) R. Mathur 293 91.
Synotis kunthiana (Wallich ex DC.) C. Jeffrey & Y.L. Chen 294 92.
Synotis nagensium (C.B. Clarke) C. Jeffrey & Y.L. Chen 296 93.

Synotis triligulata (Buch. ...



I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Senecio, Cissampelopsis, Curio, Jacobaea, Kleinia, Ligularia & Synotis     

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

Any comments/ corrections are welcome



Pl. go through Synotis page (Asteraceae (Compositae)) with images of species in efloraofindia (done by me).

If you find any mis-identification, pl. let us know.

If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), it will be really nice. Also, if anybody is interested to take up the activity of inserting images on efloraofindia pages from efloraofindia posts, pl. let us know.