Xanthium strumarium

Xanthium strumarium L., Sp. Pl. 987 1753. (Syn: (=) Xanthium americanum Walter; (=) Xanthium canadense Mill.; (=) Xanthium cavanillesii Schouw; (=) Xanthium chinense Mill.; (=) Xanthium commune Britton; (=) Xanthium cylindraceum Millsp. & Sherff; (=) Xanthium echinatum Murray; (=) Xanthium echinellum Greene & Rydb.; (=) Xanthium indicum J. Koenig ex Roxb.; (=) Xanthium inflexum Mack. & Bush; (=) Xanthium italicum Moretti; (=) Xanthium macrocarpum var. glabratum DC.; (=) Xanthium occidentale Bertol.; (=) Xanthium orientale L.; (=) Xanthium pensylvanicum Wallr.; (=) Xanthium pungens Wallr.; (=) Xanthium saccharatum Wallr.; (=) Xanthium sibiricum Patrin ex Widder; (=) Xanthium speciosum Kearney; (=) Xanthium strumarium var. canadense (Mill.) Torr. & A. Gray; (=) Xanthium strumarium var. glabratum (DC.) Cronquist; (=) Xanthium strumarium subsp. italicum (Moretti) D. Löve; (=) Xanthium vulgare Hill); 
ZAN-thee-um -- yellow ... Dave's Botanary
stroo-MAR-ee-um -- swelling (tumor in reference to the seedpods) ... Dave's Botanary

commonly known as: broad bur, burdock datura, clotbur, rough cockleburr • Gujarati: godrian • Hindi: छोटा धतूरा chota dhatura, छोटा गोखुरू chota gokhuru, घाघरा ghaghra, संखाहुली sankhahuli • Kannada: ಮರುಳೂಮ್ಮತ್ತಿ maruluummatti • Marathi: घागरा ghagara, शंकेश्र्वर shankeshrvar • Sanskrit: अरिष्ट arishta, मेध्य medhya, सर्पक्षी sarpakshi • Tamil: மருளூமத்தை marul-umattai • Telugu: మరులుతీగె marulutige

Distribution: widely distributed; exact native range obscure 

Large herb Annual about 1m in height.
Stem branches rough hairy.
Leaves serrate alternate 5-8 cm ovate acute triangular or lobed' appressed hairy.
Flower heads 0.4-0.8mm across. Green when young in terminal and axillary spikes.Barren heads crowded at apex. Fertile heads fewer.
Fruits 2cm long with 2 erect mucronate beaks covered with hooked prickles.
Achenes 1cm bye 0.4 cm oblong or ovoid. Compressed black.

Xanthium strumarium (Rough Cocklebur, Clotbur, Common Cocklebur, Large Cocklebur, Woolgarie Bur) is a species of annual plants belonging to the Asteraceae family.[1]  
It probably originates in North America and has been extensively naturalized elsewhere.[2][3]  
The species is monoecious, with the flowers borne in separate unisexual heads: staminate (male) heads situated above the pistillate (female) heads in the inflorescence.[4] The pistillate heads consist of two pistillate flowers surrounded by a spiny [involucre]. Upon fruiting, these two flowers ripen into two brown to black achenes and they are completely enveloped by the involucre, which becomes a [bur]. The bur, being buoyant, easily disperses in the water for plants growing along waterways. However, the bur, with its hooked projections, is obviously adapted to dispersal via mammals by becoming entangled in their hair. Once dispersed and deposited on the ground, typically one of the seeds germinates and the plants grows out of the bur. 
(From Wikipedia on 9.6.13)  

Xanthium indicum: Xanthium indicum Syn Xanthium strumarium
Family : Asteraceae
Marathi : Shankeshwar शंकेश्वर A weed common on roadside
Observed flowering in open areas around Pune city last few days
Large herb Annual about 1m in height.
Stem branches rough hairy.
Leaves serrate alternate 5-8 cm ovate acute triangular or lobed' appressed hairy.
Flower heads 0.4-0.8mm across. Green when young in terminal and axillary spikes.Barren heads crowded at apex. Fertile heads fewer.
Fruits 2cm long with 2 erect mucronate beaks covered with hooked prickles.
Achenes 1cm bye 0.4 cm oblong or ovoid. Compressed black.

Yes the identification is correct, but I fail to understand how Xanthium strumarium, a much earlier name be synonym and X. indicum, the accepted name
I may be complete wrong but grin shows Xanthium indicum  to be the syn of X strumarium but I felt is not the accepted name 

Agreed it has to be vice versa. Thanks for pointing out that. Even The plant list has something else to say. I cant go more deeper in that context.
There are many provisions in ICBN to conserve names which may actually be wrong.
Article 14.2.of ICBN says, "Conservation aims at retention of those names which best serve stability of nomenclature".
Stability like, the name of family Orchidaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 64. 4 Aug 1789. is conserved against Orchidaceae Adanson, Fam. des plantes 2: 68 1763.
Just based on the popularity of usage, Xanthium indicum may be considered conserved, but it is not yet conserved, as atleast the plant list or GRIN doesnt consider them as same.
For this particular case, it is yet to be resolved according to The Plant List and both are till now considered distinct species with Xanthium indicum Roxb. is an unresolved name but synonymous with Xanthium inaequilaterum DC..
Xanthium strumarium L. Sp. Pl. 987 1753 is an unresolved name.

But interestingly Xanthium strumarium (without any author) is accepted name according to the Plant List, with X. chinense Mill. as synonym I am tired of pointing out corrections to them.
Xanthium strumarium Elliott Sketch Bot. S. Carolina 2: 479 (1823).
This is the full citation of the same name.
I understood your point. May be once the other strumarium is resolved,  they will be able to resolve this one also :). 
Yes ... I found it out from IPNI and Compositae Checklist. 
Here in Maharashtra we get mostly one species i.e. Xanthium strumarium L.
which is seen as a roadside weed, no doubt its an introduced species.
Xanthium indicum Koeng. ex Roxb. is synonym of X. strumarium i guess, if its  a reliable different species atleast i have not seen it. it will be great if someone upload both species photographs on the site.. 
Yes ...  X. strumarium L. and X. indicum Roxb. are same species as per most databases and publication, but looking at the fact that X. indicum was described from India nearly more than 200 years and X. strumarium described in Clarke Compositae Indicae nearly 150 years ago, it may not be appropriate to call is an introduced weed at this stage.
But there is another species X. spinosus, which has been recently introduced in Kashmir, and was uploaded by me on Flowers of India. 
Sirji i guess people called the same species as X. indicum instead of X. strumarium before Clarke cleared the things. 
Yes that must be true 
Please find the lectotype of Xanthium strumarium attached for  reference. ... can you please check if this is the same which grows in  Maharastra.
We need to check Xanthium indicum too. 
yes this what we find in Maharashtra and adjoining area.. 
Can anyone please get the protologue of Xanthium indicum from Hortus Bengalensis? 
I remember during our school days we used to throw the seed pods on the back of our friends and enjoy the sight. 
In scientific terms you were actually dispersing its seeds, which is  the usual way of doing it, otherwise in nature, it get stuck to other animals or even human beings and get dispersed. 
In technical terms exozoochory 

Though the post has the ID agreed, it remains unconcluded in anticipation of getting the protologue of Xanthium indicum from Hortus Bengalensis.  Hopefully someone may be able to provide. 

Xanthium strumarium L. from Kamrup district (Metro), Assam:  Attached images are Xanthium strumarium L.
Date :16/11/12; 21/11/12
Location: Maligaon, Guwahati-11 [Dist- Kamrup(Metro)]
Family : Asteraceae
Genus & species : Xanthium strumarium L.
Vern Name : Agora (Assamese)
Habitat: Grows wild on roadside
Habit :Shrub
Fruits : Spiny
Yes ... Nice photographs.

ID No. MS 100213 -107 -- ID requested: Attached are the photos of a plant ( size varies from 1 ft to 3 ft height ) taken at Sagarakatte, near Mysore on the dry beds of the back waters of K R Sagar Dam. ID requested . Date 3.2.13. No suggestions from me.
Xanthium indicum (Asteraceae).
These spiny inflructescences get stick to animals as Velcro and get disseminated to long distances.
A noxious, foetid weed.

Yes a very common weed in plains
Now correctly known as Xanthium strumarium.
This is Xanthium strumarium.

Xanthium strumarium (Asteraceae) Hooghly, West Bengal: In our schooldays we teased our friends by throwing the fruits of this wild herb, OKRA in Bengali, towards their woolen cloths (or head)! And we never failed in our target practicing game! Tonight i share images of the same plant.
Yah Historical Plant................ same story here also. We used to keep dry fruits below the taat-patti also (on which we used to sit, as no benches were there)
So, it turns out to be a very popular plant with lots of sweet nostalgic memories.

Asteraceae Fortnight Part 2-Discoid heads:: Xanthium indicum SMP14 : Attachments (4).  5 posts by 4 authors.
Xanthium indicum
Very fine pictures of this common weed. 
Beautiful macro...loved the first one
I think we should go with Xanthium strumarium L. as correct name updated in March 2012 on GRIN website.
Thanks ... Important developments in nomenclature........noted. Thanks again.

Asteraceae Week (Part II - Discoid heads) :: Xanthium strumarium in Thane :: DV34 : 4 images. 2 posts by 2 authors.
Xanthium strumarium L. 
ZAN-thee-um -- yellow ... Dave's Botanary
stroo-MAR-ee-um -- swelling (tumor in reference to the seedpods) ... Dave's Botanary
commonly known as: broad bur, burdock datura, clotbur, rough cockleburr • Gujarati: godrian • Hindi: छोटा धतूरा chota dhatura, छोटा गोखुरू chota gokhuru, घाघरा ghaghra, संखाहुली sankhahuli • Kannada: ಮರುಳೂಮ್ಮತ್ತಿ maruluummatti • Marathi: घागरा ghagara, शंकेश्र्वर shankeshrvar • Sanskrit: अरिष्ट arishta, मेध्य medhya, सर्पक्षी sarpakshi • Tamil: மருளூமத்தை marul-umattai • Telugu: మరులుతీగె marulutige
Distribution: widely distributed; exact native range obscure
References: Flowers of IndiaGRINWikipediaFurther Flowers of Sahyadri by Shrikant Ingalhalikar  
at Vaghbil, Thane between 25 DEC 07 and 05 NOV 11
Yes ... N
ice photographs

These shots were recorded from Chakrata area, though common elsewhere also.. Xanthium strumarium..
Yes, very good pictures.

Xanthium strumarium L.
syn: Xanthium indicum J. Koenig ex Roxb.
Coomon weed in Delhi also photographed from Kashmir.

Common weed photographed at the roadside at Yavteshwar near Satara.
Bot.Name: Xanthium indicum
Family: Asteraceae
Local name: Shankeshwar
X. strumarium should be the correct name.
HP, Oct 2014 :: Requesting ID - Roadside plant :: ARKDEC-28 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2) 
Requesting to please provide ID of this roadside plant member captured near Kullu, HP in October 2014.
Xanthium strumarium
efloraofindia:''For Id'' small wild plant with thorns at Talegaon Dabhade :Dec 2015: MR-043 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)Talegaon Dabhade Pune
Dec 2015
Requesting to Id this wild plant with thorns, no flowers were seen. I have only one pic  
Please check Xanthium strumarium... The thorny structures are fruits....
Thank you for the Id . Yes it matches well with Xanthium strumarium.
Please ID this plant : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)
Place : Vizag
Date: Nov 1 2017
Both pictures belong to same plant, please Identify it.
Nice images. I know this plant very well but unable to recall it's botanical name. We used to play with it in our childhood by sticking these fruits on others clothes. Used to call it as Karkenta
This should be Xanthium strumarium.  

Yes, you are right, ...

Xanthium strumarium (Asteraceae) from Haryana.. : 4 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (6)
Here i have been adding some images of very common plant Xanthium strumarium showing discoid heads clearly.
Xanthium strumarium L. : 9 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)- 2 mb each. 
Location:  Ranimahal, Palpa
Date: 25 September 2019
Elevation:453 m.
Habit : Wild
Nepali Names : भेडे कुर्रो Bhede Kurro/  खन्घरा Ghangharaa/ कास्तोलो Kaastolo/  कुच कुचे Kuch Kuche/करोनी Karonee/ दग्ने कुरो Dagne Kuro/ जुम्ली कुरो  Jumlee Kuro 

Attachments (1)- 2 mb.  

Attachments (1)- 5 mb.  
yes. suffered a great deal with these clinging to socks and long pants during trekking or just wandering near small streamsand thick but its supposed to have many uses in various ethnomedical users

Absolutely and some more stickers as well !
Those sticklers ...thay are the gifts we recieve for appreciating them. 
Of course ... Natures's gft after all !
some other burs were inspiration for Velcro If I remember
Yes ...!

SD280718+2 : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Kindly assist with the ID of this plant

Location: Pali district, Rajathan. Elevation of location 211 metres
Difficult to id in vegetative stage.  

Xanthium strumarium L ??

I think you are right, …